Within all of these countries, an underlying problem is the rough diamonds that are mined in areas under control by rebels are smuggled into other countries and added to the supply of legitimately mined diamonds, where they entered into the refinement process where they are cut and polished and sold worldwide. And once they get to this point it is virtually impossible to know whether these diamonds were mined through conventional means. This means of making money to support their cause is genius because they get the diamonds through forced labor which is virtually free and once these diamonds are sold, it is nearly untraceable, not to mention these diamonds are sold for large amounts of money. Though there are possible solutions to this global issue. One is a campaign started in 2002 by a broad coalition of 300 NGOs and civil societies called the Publish What You Pay (PWYP). This campaign focuses on multinational corporations and their compliance in operating transparently. This is a crucial idea because if this could be implemented and followed, it would stop the flow of money to rebel groups. There is a similar initiative known as the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), that was launched in 2003 by the UK government. Similar to the PWYP campaign, this initiative focuses on the revenue from oil, gas, and mining. The whole idea is countries and large corporations take accountability in the extraction of natural resources. There are 20 countries that signed this initiative, 14 of them from Africa. The whole idea of transparency is crucial for prevention of rebel groups to make a profit. In 2000 a UN back scheme known as the Kimberley process was launched. This process was specifically designed to stop the distribution of blood diamonds in the world market. The whole idea is that when diamonds are mined they must be certified to ensure that they were collected conventionally and are conflict-free. This process has been particularly impactful because once the whole blood diamond epidemic caught a global spotlight, it hurt the corporations who were linked in purchasing these conflict diamonds. The consumers that were in the market for diamonds also wanted nothing to with these diamonds because it would show that they supporting forced labor and brutal civil wars. There is clear evidence that this process has had an effect on this issue. According to the UN, blood diamond trade fell from 15% in the 1990s to less than 1% in 2010. These solutions have definitely had a huge impact on the blood diamond trade, but it has not been completely stopped. These solutions depend largely on the cooperation of these countries involved, and corruption still allows this filthy trade continue.