Topic:
Non-formal CNE Program Barriers to Participation: A Comparative Study among Hospital Nurses of two Provinces in Pakistan
Introduction
Rapid scientific and technological discoveries have proved that increased demands of more specialized nursing knowledge, skills and practices is indispensable for efficient and effective quality care standards 1. Literature suggested that degree or license is not the end point of education for employed nurses 2. It is because within five to ten years after graduation, knowledge and skills of practice become obsolete for clinical application 3, 13. This obsolescence can lead to the poor performance of nurses that could help to increase client disability; continued illness and even deaths 4. It is reported in studies that due to improper medical care and attention, medical errors are increased and more than 1,700 patients died along with 9,500 injured annually (Erich Shefler, 2004) 5. According to World Health Organization (WHO, 2005) and Institute of Medicine (IoM, 1999) studies suggested that 75% frequently preventable health care errors occurred in which 44000 to 98000 people died annually in U.S hospitals due to insufficient allocation of human resources, inadequate trainings and improper distribution of resources 6, 7. This causes increasing cost of care which is almost double, increased hospital length stay and decreased client care acuity 5. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) conducted several studies, focused on nurses’ role in patient safety and quality care. Studies propagated that if proper continuing education and further trainings opportunities provided to the nurses which would ultimately be beneficial for safe patient care 8. It was found through studies that despite available opportunities, most of the nurses are unable to participate and do not get advantages of continuing education opportunities 9. They become reluctant to participate with varying reasons and impediments 10. Therefore, the study was designed to investigate and compare barriers that hinder nurses of two provincial hospitals towards participation in non-formal CNE programs. Literature Review Concept of continuing education (CE) is emergent in both academic and daily practice 11. Literature suggested that continuing medical education (CME) and continuing nursing education (CNE) is recognized worldwide by all health professionals 12. Nurses are strongly encouraged to participate in CNE activities as a means of ensuring high quality care 13. According to Aiga Hirotsugu (2005), CNE is a planned educational and experiential learning, acquired after basic nursing studies, either from school, college or university 14. These CNE programs are discussed in three modes including as formal CNE programs based on school, college or university which confer diploma or degree 15. Non-formal CNE programs, consisted of workshops, short courses, conferences, symposiums etc and certificates of attendance or participation is awarded to all attended nurses. Non-formal CNE is the core program for nurses to enhance their current clinical practice information. Informal CNE is the third type of program which allowed nurses to be self-directed learners through research-based activities, browsing articles on net, reading research journals, and using e-sources for publication of research papers 16, 17. It is fact due to rapid technological invasion, people become techno-sophisticated. Their needs and demands do not remain the same with passage of time. This also propagated for medical professionals and nurses are at the forefront. After 5 to 10 years of education, knowledge and practice become outdated. This may change the expectations of medical professionals and nurses particularly 5, 13. Expectations are based on changing world’s demands and trends. As the trends change so as the expectations. Therefore, nurses thought of change in career prospective due to stagnancy in updated practice. They initial want to give boost to career which brings changes into high proficient patients care, high-ranked nursing job, socioeconomic status, professional recognition and social prestige 18. Meeting these expectations, nurses need to revolve around access of all forms CNE opportunities. In this way, many obstacles may change into facilitation in future expectations of employed nurses. Therefore, nursing administration and health care authorities must understand the need and scope of CNE opportunities and barriers that nurses perceived to undertake non-formal CNE courses 16, 18. If this facility is provided them, they may be able to explore new ways of transformation of knowledge and skills to respond positively to safeguard the clients’ lives 2, 4.
Material ; methods:
The study was carried out as partial fulfillment of Master in Nursing Sciences program at the University of Health Sciences Lahore. The data collected from predetermined setting hospitals of two provinces (Sindh and Punjab) in Pakistan after formal approval of ERC (Ethical Review Committee) of the university. Through descriptive cross sectional study, comparison of two provinces hospitals were made where selection was made on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data was collected through convenience sampling technique. A barrier to Participation Questionnaire (BPQ) was used as data tool and this was modified from “Deterrents to Participation Scale (DPS)” by Scanlan ; Darkenwald (1984) 19. BPQ was divided into two sections. Section-A, consisted of demographical variables including participant’s name, age, sex, marital status, number of children, types of general education, type of professional education, working designation, type/ nature of job, type of organization, duty shift, area of practice, year-wise CNE activities attended, and type of CNE course last attended. Section-B based on five barriers and their item statements 18. Pilot testing of the tool was made over thirty nurses to check internal validity and reliability by using Cronbach’s alpha Findings revealed as Cronbach’s ?= 0.861 which was good. Contents and language used in questionnaire were quite clear and easily understandable to the participants. No further changes or remarks left on questionnaire by each participant when it was repeated to other participants but showed the same results 20.
Results:
Data were analyzed in both descriptive and inferential statistical methods by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. A data of total three hundred (n=300) of study subjects, response rate remained 100% because of convenience sampling and every participant was repeatedly contacted. The proportion of males only 7% and female were 93%. In comparison of both provinces, 25% (21) were males and 75% (63) were females in Sindh province and in Punjab province, only 100% (216) were females because induction of male nurses for employment is very low and during data collection, no male nurse was encountered to participate in study. The age of participants ranged from 18-59 years with a mean of 31.36 ± 8.42 years. Regarding marital status of Sindh province, 69% (58) were married, 31% (26) were found unmarried. In Punjab province, 40.7% (88) were married couples, 58.8% (127) were unmarried and only 0.5% (1) divorced. In comparison of socioeconomic status, majority of nurses in Punjab province belonged to middle class (214) as compare to Sindh province (84) and only two nurses belonged to upper class family in Punjab province. Regarding general qualification, majority of nurses belonged to Punjab province, were matriculated as compare to Sindh province (46.3% and 22.6%). As professional qualification, majority of Punjab nurses (75.5%) had Diploma in Nursing alongwith Midwifery or specialized diploma, and many of them (10.2%) had Diploma in Nursing with Midwifery or specialization along with PG diplomas. But in Sindh province, majority (46.4%) had Diploma in Nursing with Midwifery or specialization along with PG diplomas as compare to Punjab nurses. In analysis of working designation, majority of nurses were staff nurses in Punjab province as compare to Sindh province (90.7% and 54.8%). In converse to Punjab, majority of Sindh province nurses (17.9% and 15.5%) were clinical and nursing instructors. Subsequently, types/ nature of job and duty shifts, results showed that majority of Punjab nurses had permanent jobs as compare to Sindh province nurses (49.1%). Regarding non formal CNE activities, results showed that nurses from Punjab had higher level of participation (108 nurses) in workshops as compare to sindh (52 nurses).

Interpretation of barriers statements were based on Likert Scale key which was reversely used in the tool. Tool started as Strongly Agree, ranked No. 1 despite of No. 5, and so on to Strongly Disagree, ranked No. 5 despite of No. 1. Therefore, results will be read as lower the mean score in all barriers, higher or extreme the barriers will be counted and vice versa as higher the mean scores in all barriers, lower or no barriers will be counted. Quantitatively, table 1.1 and 1.2 showed that administrative, work related and financial barriers were generally found higher and most prevalent and predicting barriers with the mean score of 2.19 ± 0.83, 2.53 ± 0.85 and 3.14 ± 0.84 which were generally lower than the personal and family barriers.

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Discussion
In light of study results, three barriers were found in which administrative barrier came up most prevalent barrier, work-related as more predictive and financial barrier as predicting barrier than the personal and family barrier. These results were congruent with other studies 12, 21-23. Studies suggested that administrative favoritism based on personal relations or personal preferences which create big hindrance to nurses’ participation in non-formal CNE activities. It is a subjective matter by means of giving extra or undue favor to an individual of any course, leave, scholarship, official protocol and financial benefits in an organization. This can be the barriers for others to access the opportunities. Work-related barriers and nursing shortage impede nurses’ participation and has become a global issue. Nurses are encountered many problems in accessing non-formal CNE opportunities as results indicated 24. During data collection, nurses shared their gut feelings about administrative favoritism and said, “Yes…administration always send their favorite persons for training and course repeatedly… !”Another opinion was, “Umm…When we apply for training or any course, even our documents and papers knowingly misplaced and at the end, new persons go for training because administration nominate names only favorite persons…!”. Many nurses also complained that no notification and support from administration and subjectively viewed as “Ummm….administration doesn’t circulate proper information of the course or workshop and do not circulate information at mean time or circulate in days where closing date is near to finish… Nick of time, some favorite persons nominated for training” and even said “Hmmm…nursing administration does not support and reluctant about training…and whenever any nurse get enrolled in the course by any means… they resist to sanction leave or even not approving leave without pay for attending the course and….sometime… create hurdles at every level that unable to go for the course or training”. Some of nurses burnt out, “….our senior nurses do not want to send nurses for further trainings or workshops because they have threat that in future they may be promoted on higher posts or may be replace us….and may be old senior nurses have no knowledge about CNE programs so how they can send us”. In light of above nurses’ arguments, nursing and medical administration may be passive and do not wish to capacity building for nurses towards new and transformed CNE opportunities. It is fact in real practice, administration always admire the services of this profession but less intent for progression of this profession 25. These sorts of ambiguities create frustration among nurses who wanted to refresh their obsolete knowledge to prove better patient care and wish to develop future plans for professional development and career progression 24.

Conclusion
Participation in non-formal CNE program is prime important for nurses to keep abreast with advanced knowledge in changing health care environment. Findings revealed that both provinces nurses have impediments in accessing of non-formal CNE opportunities and these barriers were prevalent in primitive studies regarding nurses’ participation in Pakistan. Administrative barriers, work related barriers and financial barriers were found most prevalent, predictive and predicting barriers towards nurses’ participation in non-formal CNE programs which includes workshops, short course, trainings, conferences, seminars and symposiums etc. Data of inter provincial hospitals comparisons Punjab hospitals nurses have greater administrative and work-related barriers than the nurses from Sindh province hospitals. Regarding financial barrier, both provinces nurses have equal level barriers than the family and personal barriers among nurses of two provinces. Due to extended scope of CNE opportunities, barriers exist around the practice but need is to define and deal with this issue at local management level. Regulatory, licensure and advisory body of nursing with line ministry of health have greater role in addressing CNE programs opportunities. Many countries made this program as mandatory for re-licensure of the registration, recertification of short courses rather than make it voluntary programs. In Pakistan, such activities are under carpets with no extended scope in all provinces. Therefore, paper explores the investigated barriers and compared with nurses working in two provincial hospitals. Results also were disseminated to the local bodies of nursing for developing CNE system and use it as a process of re-certification and re-licensure of registration.

References
1.Bahn D (2006) Orientation of nurses towards formal and informal learning: motives and perceptions. Nurse Educ Today 27: 723-730.
2. Luk A, editor. Continuing Nursing Education (CNE) Credit System Monograph on the internet. Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital; 1997 cited 2010 April 02. Available at: http://www.hksne.org.hk/newsletter/200102-04.htm
3. Patricia A. Mc Partland, editor. MANDATORY CONTINUING EDUCATION: DOES IT REALLY PROTECT SOCIETY FROM INCOMPETENT HEALTH PROFESSIONALS? Monograph on the internet. Michigan. Academy for the Study of the Psychoanalytic Arts; 2004 cited Updated 2012 August 17. Available at: http://www.academyprojects.org/mcpartland.htm
4. Pena YF, Castillo MA, editors. Factors Influencing Nursing Staff members’ participation in Continuing Education monograph on the Internet. Rev Latino-am Enfermagen. 2006 cited 2009 Oct 12. Available at: www.scielo.br/pdf/rlae/v14n3/v14n3a02.pdf
5. Linkroll.com Homepage on the Internet. Link Blogging Service. Updated 2004-2010; cited 2010 Feb 8. Available from: http:// www.linkroll.com/Personal-Injury-Legal–337540-HospitalAnd-Nursing-Errors.html6. World Health Organization Homepage on the Internet. Egypt: Regional Technical paper. Regional strategy for enhancing patient safety; WHO EM/RC52/4-2005 updated 2005; cited 2010 Feb 8. Office for the Eastern Mediterranean; Available from: http://gis.emro.who.int/HealthSystemObservatory/PDF/ TechnicalandDiscussionPapers/Regional%20strategy%20 for%20enhancing%20patient%20safety.pdf 7. 7. Poillon F. editor. To Err is Human: Building a safer health system Monograph on the Internet. Institute of Medicine: National Academy of Services; 2000 2010 Feb 8. Available from: www. providersedge.com/…/To_Err_Is_Human-Building_a_Safer_ Health_System-Report-Brief.pdf
8. National Academies Press Homepage on the Internet. Washington DC: Keeping Patients Safe: Transforming the Work Environment of Nurses (2004) Nursing: Inseparably Linked to Patient Safety updated 2012; cited 2012 May 12. Board on Health Care Services (HCS) Institute of Medicine (IOM); Available from: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_ id=10851&page=23
9. Griscti O, Jacono J (2006) Effectiveness of continuing education programmes in nursing: literature review. J. Adv Nurs 4: 449- 456.
10. Malhotra NK, Shapero M (2007) Factor Structure of Deterrents to Adult Participation in Higher Education. J. Coll. T & L 4: 2.

11. Hegney D, Tuckett A, Parker D, Rober E (2009) Access to and support for continuing professional education amongst Queensland nurses: 2004 and 2007. Nurse Educ Today 30:142- 149.
12. Wessels SB (2005) The Deterrents to CPE Effectiveness in the Accounting Profession: A Factor Analytic study. J Buss Econ Res3: 57-66.
13. Muthu DKS, Chan CM. editors. Perception of registered nurses on implementation of mandatory continuing professional education for re-licensure in pediatric institute. 2008: Proceedings of the 8th annual SEAAIR Conference: 2008 Nov 4-6; Indonesia. Surabaya; 2008. p. 12-20
14. Gallagher L (2007) Continuing Education in nursing: A concept analysis. Nurse Educ Today 466: 473-427.
15. Continuing Medical Education Homepage on the Internet. Maryland: The Association; 2002 updated 2010; cited 2010 Feb 8. CME Outfitters; about 2 screens. Available at: http:// www.cmeoutfitters.com/faculty/regulatory/ANA%20CNE%20 Guidelines.pdf
16. Aiga H (2006) Reasons for participation in and needs for continuing professional education among health workers in Ghana. Health Pol 77: 290-303.
17. Fiona T (2008) Cardiac nurses’ views of continuing professional education. European J. of Cardiovascular Nurs 7: 59-66.
18. Lydia RE. Perception of registered nurses with regard to formal continuing education. 2007. Master Thesis. Available from: uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/10500/572/1/dissertation.pdf 19.
19. Scanlan, CS. & Darkenwald GG (1984) Identifying deterrents to participation in continuing education. Adult Educ Quarterly 34:155-166.
20. Gliem A.J., Gliem, R.R. Editors. (2003) Calculating, Interpreting, and reporting Cronbach’s alpha Relaibility Coefficient for Likert-Type Scales. Database on internet. Midwest Research to practice Conference in Adult, Continuing and Community Education. Available from: https://scholarworks.iupui.edu/ bitstream/handle/1805/344/Gliem%20&%20..?sequence=1
21. Manning CK, Vickery CE (2000) Disengagement and work constraints are deterrents to participation in continuing professional education among registered dietitians. J Am Diet Assoc 12: 1540-1542.

22. Muhammed M, Ahmad F (2009) Barriers to continuing education among working Muslim’s women in Government and Semi-government Organizations in Malaysia. J Muslim Minor Aff 29: 3.
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Topic : Sport

The sportman I appreciate the most is the late Muhammed Ali , born Cassuis Clay. He was born on January 1942 in Louisville Kentucky in the USA . He attended the Louisville Central Highschool.

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He experienced racial discrimination at an early age growing up in the south of the USA. At the age of 12 , his discovered his talent for boxing ,St he started his amateur career in 1954.

Ali went on to win the 1956 golden gloves tournament for novices and three years later he also won the national golden gloves championship as well as the amateur athletics union`national title for the light heavyweight division.

Very quickly Ali became an imposing personality in the ring, but he was also known for his lightning speed and fancy footwork.

After his Olympic victory in 1960 he become an American hero, and turned professional.

He was a boxer, an philanthropist, certainly boxing`s most celebrated athlete heavyweight champion.

The legendary boxer´´s beliefs were very important to him, he did not only fight in the ring but also outside the ring.

He converted in the nation of Islam in 1960´s after been draft tenseinto the US military he refused to fight in the Vietnam war in 1967, calling to mind his religious beliefs prevent him from fighting and killing innocent people. The boxer was given the name Muhammed Ali according to him “ Cassuis Clay“ was a slave name which he did not want to carry no more.

He was arrested for committing a crime and immediately stripped of his boxing licence and world title.The US Department of Justice pursued a legal case against him. Hee was found guilty of violating selective service laws.

In June 1967, he was sentenced to five years in prison, but remained free while appealing his conviction.

Ali´s religious and political beliefs were the reason why he was sentenced to five years prison because he refused to fight in the Vietnam war. Unfortunately he missed more than three years of his professional career.In 1970, he finally returned to the ring and the US supreme court.
overturned the conviction in June 1971.

Lot of Ali´s Friends and family members said that charity and happiness for those who surrounded him was one of the most important things in his life.

Universally regarded as one of the greatest athlete of the 20th century, he won the world heavyweight boxing championship in 1964. He had a career record of 56 wins fives losses and 37 knockouts.

After retirement from boxing, he devoted much of his time to philanthropy, in 1996, he lit the olympic cauldron at the summer olympic games in Atlanta which was a very emotional moment in olympic sport history.

In addition to his “make a wish foundation”,` he traveled to lot of countries to help out those in need because of his commitment in developing ‘nations’ , in 1998 he was chosen to be an united nations messenger of peace.

In 2005, Ali received the presidential Medal of Freedom from President George W. Bush , https://www.biography.com/people/muhammad-ali-9181165after president Obama` inauguration he also received another award “ the presidential award from the NAACP “ for his public service efforts

In 2005, he opened the “ Muhammed Ali center “ in his hometown of Louisville Kentucky.On this occasion he said“ I am an ordinary man who worked hard to develop the talent I was given , I wanted a place that would inspire people to be the best that they could be at whatever they choose to do , and encourage them to be respectful of one another“.

Ali’s stature as an legend continues to grow even after his deathPlagiarism. https://www.biography.com/people/muhammad-ali-9181165He is not only celebrated for his amazing athletics skills but also for his commitment to speak his mind and his courage to challenge the status quo.

In 1984, Ali announced that he had parkinson`s disease. Despite his parkinson`s disease, he remained very active in public life, and most importantly he collected funds for the Muhammed Ali parkinson center in Phoenix, Arizona. He passed away on June 3 , 2016 during hospitalization in Phoenix Arizona. He was married several times and had nine children.

The most important criteria which makes a sportman great is to work hardto develop his talent
and to do all possible to be the best at whatever you choose to do.

My personal criteria could be wheneverSt I become a successful and wealthy sportman , I would help those in need and try to encourage and inspire young people to trust themselves and work hard to achieve success.

TOPIC:
Pakistan Geographical Location and Importance
What is Geography?
Geography tells us about the natural background for the study of the history of a country and its people. Man reacts to his environment and tries to take control over the forces of nature. The discussion of the geographical factors affecting human life, such as physical features, climate and natural resources is a fitting introduction of the history of a country. (1)
Introduction of Pakistan:
Pakistan came into existence as an independent country on August 14, 1947. It is the home of the Indus Valley Civilization, which likes those of Nile valley and the valley of Euphrates and Tigris, built the foundation of modern civilization.

Pakistan contains high mountains and plains. It is largely a dry area drained by large streams. It is poor in metallic minerals, but rich in several non-metallic minerals. It is an agricultural country. (2)
Geographical location of Pakistan
On the off chance that we discuss the area of Pakistan on earth then its relative area is situated in the Centre East, a perceived land locale of South-Western Asia, is arranged in both the Northern and Eastern Sides of the equator.
India lies in Pakistan’s Eastern outskirt, China lies in the North-East fringe while Afghanistan is arranged in North-West bearing. In North, just a limited belt of 15 miles in Afghanistan, called “Wakhan” isolates Pakistan from Russia. Toward the West lies Iran and in the South is the Middle Eastern Ocean.

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Geographical Aspects of Pakistan
Country name Pakistan
Continent in which it exists Asia
Latitude 23.30° and 36.45°
Longitude 61° and 75.45°
Area covers 796096 square kilometre
Population 210-220 million
On Eastern border India
On Western border Afghanistan and Iran
On Northern border China
On Southern border Arabian Sea
Provinces Four (Punjab, Sindh, NWFP, Balochistan)

Neighbors of Pakistan:
There are few neighbors of Pakistan, which are discussed below:
Pakistan and India: Pakistan is land locked from three sides. India lies to its east. Pakistan has a long border with India which is approximately, 1610 kilometers. There are two railway routes between both countries, the first one is at Wagah near Lahore (Pakistan) and Atari near Amritsar (India) and another railway route exists between Khokrapur (Sindh, Pakistan) and Munabao (India). (3)
Since independence, relations between both countries are very poor. India deeply resented partition and creation of Pakistan. In turn Pakistan feared India’s intensions. Arguments and Injustices gave rise to constant disagreements. The question of Kashmir has dominated the troubled relationship of Pakistan and India. Between 1947 and 1971, three wars were fought between these countries. The India-Pakistan truce line keeps running from the rough Karakoram Go to a point around 130 kilometers outside of Lahore toward the upper east. The Unified Countries sorted out this line after the Indo-Pakistan War of 1947-48 after the segment sent the two nations reeling. Exiles in India and Pakistan were uprooted and added to the emergency of character the two new countries were confronting. The north/south fringe amongst India and Pakistan is convoluted and exceedingly questioned as specific districts inside the Pakistani and Indian states adjust all the more intimately with those on alternate sides of the outskirt.
The topography of India and Pakistan incorporates the Himalaya Mountains and the Indus Stream as their characterizing highlights; the two regions contain high mountain regions and waterway swamps close to the Indus Stream. India, because of its size and closeness to the sea additionally has swamps in its southern districts and the Thar Forsake in its western half. The two nations share comparative land includes and some social practices however contain a wide assortment of indigenous society.

Topography may back off correspondences and exchange, data and social learning exchange, and parcels are regularly battled about by different countries who think they have a legitimate claim to that bit of property. When it comes straight down to it geology all by itself won’t not be the troublesome factor in causing struggle it is humanities’ philosophy encompassing area, possession, and the boundaries of topography that genuinely keep us in strife with each other. (4)
Pakistan and China: China lies to the North of Pakistan. Mostly snow-capped mountains lie between two countries. The Karakoram Highway links the two countries by Khunjerab Pass. The distance of border between China and Pakistan is 585 kilometers. (5)
At the time of independence for Pakistan, China was involved in a civil war between the Nationalists and the Communists. In October 1949 the Communist People’s Republic of China came into being under the leadership of Mao Zedong. Help for the Chinese government from India discouraged Pakistan, at first, from recognizing the new government. But China was on the border with Kashmir, and was too important a country to ignore. In January 1950 Pakistan gave diplomatic recognition to the Communist Government of China. (6)
Pakistan and Afghanistan: Afghanistan is situated on the north western border of Pakistan. There are two roads that link Pakistan and Afghanistan. One links Peshawar with Kabul through the famous Khyber Pass. Another links Quetta to Kandahar. Afghanistan I land locked therefore a lot of its trade passes through Pakistan. With Afghanistan, Pakistan has the longest boundary, which is 2252 km.(7)
After independence of Pakistan, Pakistan expected friendly support from the neighboring Muslim state. Unfortunately from the start we have faced a lot of difficulties because of Afghanistan. When Pakistan was added to the United Nations in September 1947, Afghanistan cast the only vote against Pakistan. Later, the Russian attack on Afghanistan had made a huge impact on Pakistan. The fate of both countries is closely linked. (8)
Pakistan and Iran: Iran is situated in the south-west of Pakistan. There is a railway link between Pakistan and Iran. The railway starts from Quetta via Dalbandin and Nok Kundi to Iran. Kuh-i-Taftan is the border railway station in Pakistan and Zahedan in Iran. A road runs parallel to the railway. There is another good road link between both countries, which connects Southern Balochistan through Turbat and Mand with Iran. A large trade exists between both countries. (9)
Importance of Pakistan’s Location
Land characteristics of a state bring it both, a few chances to benefit and a few dangers to sidestep. Pakistan profited the open doors from its geology yet could get away from the dangers it postured. At the point when a state figures out how to abuse its topography to the best of its political and vital interests the investigation which comes fit as a fiddle is called geostrategic and geopolitics. Pakistan’s topography where brought the nation incalculable material advantages there its impulsive misuse additionally welcomed the confusion in the locale. Being the entryway to Central Asia and an appropriate course of access of World Powers into arrive bolted Afghanistan, the topography of Pakistan experienced the symptoms of the ‘New Great Game’ and the ‘Worldwide War on Terrorism’. However, things are in change today. The Northern fringe with China where prepares to acquire billion dollars venture the wake of CPEC there the Western outskirt with Afghanistan is looking for TAPI Gas Pipeline. Additionally, the South Western limit with Iran will at some point or another be adaptable for Pak-Iran Gas Pipeline. Pakistan’s recently practical port of Gwadar and the key significance it has concerning its vicinity to the Gulf States are some new parts of Pakistan’s topographical significance. We might assess every one of these angles in this article subsequent to experiencing a short depiction of nation’s topography.

Conventional Geographical Importance of Pakistan
Customarily, Pakistan’s land significance has been characterized in following ways:
Pakistan’s North Western Border can be utilized as an entrance to the Central Asian Republics rich in characteristic assets. It’s a tight portion of Afghan Territory amongst Tajikistan and Pakistan which if utilized as a travel course can profit every one of the nations in exchange.
Pakistan’s South Western Border with Iran is of incredible criticalness in an exchange with this oil-rich nation.
Eastern Border of Pakistan with India has been very less used than the potential it conveys. This can be a facilitated commerce course with India if the significant clashes between both the states are settled.
Northern Border of Pakistan with China gives another essential course to access of Chinese items in Pakistan.

In spite of the fact that the topography of the nation is same, the understandings of interests connected with it have enhanced a bit with the changing territorial and global progression. This can be assessed under the accompanying new heads:
China-Pakistan Economic Corridor
The $46 billion ‘China-Pakistan Economic Corridor’ conspire, which is being shown as a ‘Distinct advantage’ is more than a system of streets to connect Chinese city of Kashgar with the Gulf States by means of Gwadar of Pakistan. CPEC is an entire bundle of vitality ventures and exchange open doors for Pakistan. It is the most valued product of Pakistan’s geological significance the nation at any point had. Be that as it may, some credit additionally goes to the outside approach creators of Pakistan who constantly kept into contemplations the Sino-Pak common interests.

In the wake of CPEC, China will have the most brief course get to ever accessible to the Middle Eastern, African, and European markets. For Pakistan, it may be another pick up however to China, this entrance is a connection to it long haul key intend to assume control US control in the said locales. Gwadar port is the closest warm-water port to vitality rich Central Asian Countries
Purchased from Oman in 1958, Gwadar has been produced into a warm-water seaport which now worked by a Chinese organization named ‘China Overseas Port Holding Company’ under a 43 years concurred rent. The port is the spirit of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. Being the closest remote ocean port to the landlocked Central Asian Republics, Gwadar is another appearance of Pakistan’s geological significance.

The Persian Gulf and Pars Gas Field
Pakistan’s Gwadar Port gives access to the ‘Bay of Oman’ which broadens through ‘Strait of Hormuz’ to frame the ‘Persian Gulf’. This inlet is encompassed by Iran, UAE, Saudi Araba, Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait and Iraq. Access to the Persian Gulf through Gwadar port means access to every one of these nations the majority of which are rich in vitality assets. The Persian Gulf additionally has the world’s biggest petroleum gas repository ‘Standards Gas Field’ shared by Iran and Qatar. Pakistan’s geographic significance increments because of its closeness to such uber fields of regular assets when the nation has been experiencing vitality starvation for drawn out stretches of time.
Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India Pipeline (TAPI)
The Asian Development Bank’s financed task of TAPI is the name of a gas pipeline which plans to supply flammable gas from the Caspian Sea to the four nations said above. Pakistan because of its topographical proximity to this Central Asian Republic is looking for advantage from the venture. It likewise mirrors the reliance of India on Pakistan for approaching the characteristic assets of Central Asian Republics. The development of the venture started in December 2015, and it will be practical by 2019.
Iran-Pakistan Gas Pipeline
Otherwise called the ‘Peace Pipeline’ the undertaking is another product of Pakistan’s geographic significance. The pipeline venture was formally introduced in 2013, yet it’s a long way from being operational because of a few debates. Especially the counter Iran position of the USA impacted Pakistan to surrender the task. Things, notwithstanding, have changed after the US-Iran Nuclear Deal and Iran is not any more under colossal approvals. Pakistan in the meantime never totally surrendered the venture. Hints of something better over the horizon are obvious for the eventual fate of this venture.

Pakistan imparts Marine Border to Oman
Pakistan and Oman settled their sea under an assention in 2000; clinging to the International Law of Sea. This sharing of a sea limit with the selfless nation of Oman can decipher Pakistan’s topographical significance in the feeling of access to Oman’s undersea vitality assets. The ocean course can likewise be utilized to approach the Persian Gulf and its littoral states.

The accompanying talk toss light on the significance ofPakistan’s area:
1. Circumstance: Pakistan is arranged in a district of awesome financial, political and military execution. Among its neighboring nations are China and Russia, which are figured to be among the nations perceived as super powers.
2. Karachi as a Vital Port: The modern advance of the Western nations relies on the oil of the Bay States. This oil is helped through Middle Eastern Ocean and the Indian Sea. Karachi is a critical port of the Middle Eastern Ocean. The Remote strategy of Pakistan can, in this manner, influence the development of oil.
3. As a focal point of the Muslim World: Pakistan is arranged in the focal point of the Muslim World. Toward the west of Pakistan, beginning from Afghanistan and Iran lies a chain of Muslim nations going through Asia and ending at the Eastern shoreline of the Atlantic Sea i.e the Center East, Bay and Africa. Toward the east of Pakistan, beginning from Bangladesh lies another chain of Muslim nations while.

4. The Upper Indus Plain: Underneath the Northern Precipitous Territory is the upper Indus plain. Around there the late spring is extremely hot. The long stretches of May, June and first seven day stretch of July are exceptionally hot. In any case, the atmosphere here winds up plainly wonderful when rain falls in July. The winter period of the Upper Indus Fields is extremely charming yet it doesn’t keep going long.
5.The Seaside Territories and the Lower Indus Valley: The temperature of the beach front regions and the lower Indus valley does not ascend because of ocean arrive breeze. In this area rain does not fall, however because of blowing of ocean breeze moistness is found noticeable all around. Ocean breeze keeps the atmosphere charming. There isn’t much contrast in the temperature of various months in this locale.
6.The Level of Baluchistan and the Thar Abandon: In summer, the temperature of the level of Baluchistan and the Thar Forsake rises. A large portion of the uneven districts of Baluchistan are dry and hot. The winter season is extremely serious in Baluchistan and here and there snow falls in specific areas .

Arabian Sea/ Coastline/ Ports and Shipping:
The coastline of Pakistan is 825kms along the Arabian Sea. It is divided into the distinct Sindh and Makran coasts. The entire coastline lies within the tropics. Vegetation is restricted and tall species of trees are not common, except for some date palms that are spread irregularly along the coastline. The coastline is rich in seaweed resources; there are about 45 species of green and 75 species of red algae. Fish fauna is also of value there are over400 species of marine fish. Sea turtles are also found on the coastline which attracts the tourists towards them. (10). A lot of development is also done on the coastline in the form of ports which written below:
Fish Harbor-cum-Mini Port: The communities living along the coastal area of the country are one of the poorest ones. The government has decided to give economic benefits to these people. Therefore, they have decided to develop a Fish Harbor-cum-Port at Keti Bunder. This mini port will be developed in the budget of Rs. 1 billion; it will also provide jobs to the people living along with coastal areas.

Gwadar Port: The government set up a Committee to discuss the recommendations about the port which is being built in deep sea port on the coastal areas of Balochistan. Government has invested US $700 to 800 million on this project
Karachi Port: Karachi Port is the main port of Pakistan about 98% of Pakistan’s entire trade is consulted through this Port. This Port is modernized at a total cost of Rs. 5 billion including World Bank loan of US $ 91.4 million. Government has ordered for the early completion of the scheme.

Port Qasim: This is the second most important port of Pakistan which handles the trade of the country. It needs a great arrangement of improvement to reduce pressure on Karachi Port. It is specially designed to handle large cargo so far.(11)
Mountains:
Pakistan is a land of many splendors. The scenery changes northward when high mountains with beautiful valleys, snow-covered peaks and eternal glaciers in the north. The Mountainous North is expanded towards the northern part of the Pakistan. Major ranges of mountains are written below:
The Karakoram Mountains: The Karakoram Mountains are extended from Tibet in the east to Hindu Kush Mountains in the west. The Karakoram Mountains lie north of the Indus River and extend northward beyond the borders of Pakistan. They are about 200kms wide. K2, at 8611 meters, is the second highest peak in the world after Mount Everest is lying in Karakoram Mountains. Karakoram Range is the most extensively snow-covered range beyond the polar region. Locally, these mountains are known as Mustagh or ‘ice-mountains’.

There are not many passes, and those that exist are located at northern border, like Karakoram Pass which is the highest. The Khunjerab Pass is the most important pass region, linking Pakistan and China through Karakoram Highway. It is possible to travel by jeep on some of roads in Karakoram Mountains but this often ends unexpectedly against rocky mountain walls. Beyond these, hikers travel by foot and pack animal.

The Hindu Kush Mountains: The Hindu Kush is a continuation of the Karakoram Range. Hunza River and Gilgit River divide both of them. But generally, Ghiza River is taken as their southern limit.

The Hindu Kush Mountains are terrifying. The Hindu Kush Mountain guards the north-western border of Pakistan. Tirich Mir at 7690 meters altitude and Noshaq at 7484 meters altitude are among the highest peak in the world.

The passes in the Hindu Kush are often quite difficult to negotiate. The Baroghil Pass connects Pakistan with Wakhan in Afghanistan. The Dorah and Shera Shing Passes lie between Pakistan and Afghanistan.

A number of glaciers cap the Hindu Kush. Sakiz Jarab and Tirich Mir are among the most important
The Himalayas: The Himalayas extend from Assam in the east to Pakistan in the west. They rise to an average height of 6000 meters. Mount Everest, at 8848 meters, is the highest peak in the world and it lies in the Himalayas. The Himalayas are represented in Pakistan by three sub parallel ranges lying south of the Indus River: the Great or High Himalayas; the Lesser Himalayas and the Sub-Himalayas.

The Great Himalayas lie south of the Indus River.

The Lesser Himalayas are located south of the Great Himalayas.

The Sub-Himalayas or the Siwaliks are the southernmost mountains in the Himalayas Range.(12) (13) (14
Tourism:
From snow-capped mountains in the north to the sunny beaches in the south, Pakistan abounds in tourists’ attraction. The mountains, the Plains and the Beaches all these things attract tourists. Tourism is one of the largest growing industry in the world. During 1993, Pakistan recieved0.379 million foreign tourists, this was an increase of 7.7% compared to the previous years. Pakistan has earned Rs. 126 million US dollars in 1993 from foreign tourists. But afterwards this rate increases by 5.4% as compared to the previous year. In the Eight Five Year Plan, the amount of Rs. 1090 million has been invested for development of Tourism.

Cooperation between the SAARC countries: The SAARC Secretariat has created a Technical Committee on Tourism for mutual promotion of tourism between members of SAARC countries. As Pakistan is also a member so, it actively is attending meetings and discussions etc. to play its role in the promotion for development in tourism industry.

Visa and Formalities: No visa is required for the tourists who came to Pakistan for adventure or sightseeing. Double entry visas are also issued by our embassies to the genuine tourists. Pakistan is earning a lot from there tourists as the Karakoram Range and the Himalaya Range both lies in Pakistan. Hikers often visit Pakistan for their adventure on mountains. However, the facility of free entry is not available to the foreign tourists.(15)
Most interesting tourism spots in Pakistan
Voyaging is ostensibly one of life’s most improving encounters. For some, the spots they visit and the general population they meet en route characterize them. Regardless of whether you go looking for a more profound significance to life or just to make tracks in an opposite direction from the unforgiving substances of regular daily existence, a definitive inquiry you will be stood up to with is — where to go?
The appropriate response depend an awesome arrangement on what sort of explorer you are. Many get a kick out of the chance to movement alone. Some must escape vacationer traps at any cost. Others search for excellence. The foodie designs a schedule in view of cooking, while the globe-trotter scans for anything out of the way. So maybe the genuine inquiry to posture is: who are you? The response to that will manage your decision of vacationer goal.
Envoy welcomed five travel scholars, experience searchers, picture takers and analysts to share what they accept is the most appealing traveler goal in Pakistan.

Hunza Valley
Hunza Valley holds the enchantment of antiquated culture, yet gives agreeable lodgings, curious shopping, and a selection of eateries. The city of Aliabad has twelve inns, extending in quality from two to five stars. There are several Chinese eateries, keep running by Chinese restaurateurs, as the Khunjerab Pass isn’t far.
The shops offer Hunza handmade shawls, mats and garments, all composed by Italian specialists — on account of the Agha Khan. Merchants offer cheddar from yak drain. The Agha Khan has had the Baltit Fort at the best and the Altit town in the valley beneath completely reestablished to world models.

The Khunjrab Pass is a day’s voyage, past the Attabad Lake and Dassu ice sheet. The Nagar Valley is over the stream with its dark ice sheet. Or on the other hand one can simply sit hesitating in a plantation, looking at the inclines of the Rakaposhi until the point when a torrential slide emits with a blast and rushes down to the base.
This marvelous valley is a two-hour agreeable drive from Gilgit, which is just a hour’s flight from Islamabad. So when the climate is fine it is simple, fast and pleasant.

Bahawalpur
For a certain something, it is one of the most secure urban areas to visit, with obliging, accommodating individuals. For another, it brags such a large number of awesome authentic locales in and around the city that you could top off collections with the absolute most astounding photos. Cases incorporate the brilliant world legacy site of Derawar Fort with its 40 bastions, in Cholistan Desert.
There is additionally the regal family necropolis of the Abbasis of Bahawalpur, the lovely engineering of which merits it a visit.
At that point there is the amazingly delightful castle Noor Mahal which had a place with the Nawab of Bahawalpur amid the British Raj and is today in the ownership of the armed force. Some may review seeing it in the TV play Noor Bano.
There are other excellent castles too in Bahawalpur, including Darbar Mahal and a superb mosque, Derawar Mosque.

There is bounty more to devour your eyes on — however in the event that there’s a cutoff to the measure of touring you need to do, don’t lose hope for Bahawalpur is additionally a customer’s heaven. One can get the most stunning deals there, be it weaved texture, gota-work suits or silver gems.
What’s more, What occasion could be viewed as entire without awesome nourishment? The city has the healthy offerings of Punjab taking care of business — and what’s more, at extremely sensible rates. So regardless of whether this may not be the best season for going to Bahawalpur, in the event that you haven’t been there, don’t miss it. You will love it.

Deserts:
Thar (Sindh):
The Thar Desert (Hindi: otherwise called the Great Indian Desert, is an expansive, dry district in the northwestern piece of the Indian subcontinent. With a zone of more than 200,000 sq. km., (140,000 sq. mi.) it is world’s seventeenth biggest forsake. It lies for the most part in the Indian condition of Rajasthan, and reaches out into the southern bit of Haryana and Punjab states and into northern Gujarat state. Pakistan, the leave covers eastern Sind region and the southeastern segment of Pakistan’s Punjab region. The Cholistan Desert abuts the Thar Betray spreading into Pakistani Punjab area.

The Thar Leave is limited on the northwest by the Sutlej Stream, on the east by the Aravalli Range, on the south by the salt swamp known as the Rann of Kutch (parts of which are once in a while incorporated into the Thar), and on the west by the Indus Stream. Its limit to the vast prickly steppe toward the north is badly characterized. Contingent upon what territories are incorporated or avoided, the ostensible size of the Thar can differ altogether.

Cholistan (Punjab):
The word Cholistan is gotten from the Turkish word Chol, which implies Betray. Cholistan in this manner implies Place that is known for the Betray. The general population of Cholistan lead a semi-traveling life, moving from one place to another looking for water and grub for their creatures. The dry bed of the Hakra Waterway.

Thal (Punjab):
The Thal abandon is arranged in Punjab, Pakistan. It is immense region predominantly between the Jhelum and Sindh waterways close to the Pothohar Level. Its aggregate length from north to south is 190 miles, and its greatest expansiveness is 70 miles while least broadness is 20 miles. This locale is isolated into the locale of Bhakkar, Khushab, Mianwali, Jhang, Layyah, and Muzaffargarh. Its part in Jhang is on the left bank of the stream Jehlum. Geologically, it takes after the deserts of Cholistan and Thar.main town of Thal are Mankera, Hayderabad Thal, Dullewala, Piplan, Kundiyan, Koat Aazam, Sarauy Muhajir, Mehmood Shaheed Thal, Rang Pur, Jandan Wala, Mari Shah Sakhira,Noor Pur Thal, and Muzafar Garh. Exceptionally denied territory from all prospectives. Instructive offices are as low as one can anticipate. Towns having populace of 10 thousands individuals are more taking a stab at secondary schools. Circumstance turns out to be all the more awful if there should be an occurrence of female training.

Indus Valley Desert (Punjab):
The Indus Valley Leave is a forsake ecoregion of northern Pakistan. The Indus Valley betray covers a territory of 19,500 square kilometers (7,500 square miles) in northwestern Punjab Region, lying between the Chenab and Indus streams. The Indus Valley Abandon is drier and less accommodating than the Northwestern thistle scour woods that encompass it.

Kharan Desert (Balochistan):
Kharan Abandon) is a forsake situated in Kharan Area, Balochistan, Pakistan. Pakistan’s second atomic test were performed in the Kharan forsake in 1998 May 30 of a scaled down gadget yielding 60 percent of the Ras Koh Slopes tests.

Conclusion:
The geography of Pakistan has its own importance,we have discussed all the important aspects regarding the location of Pakistan.From this, we came to know about the different beautiful places along with their importance that ALLAH Almighty had gifted to this Islamic state.In this, all the information regarding the geography of Pakistan is briefly explained and contains the specifications and importances of the different places of Pakistan.It also includes the relations of Pakistan with other countries located in its geography.Here in this part,we discuss the location with its importance and the cultural, agricultural,religious,political,ethical,defence,relations with countries like india, Afghanistan,iran,specially china which is the most prominent name in the geographical history of Pakistan. Through this geographical information people, specially tourist feel very easy in picking up the place for their tour,this is also very helpful for the students who were very interested to know about the geography of Pakistan,through this they attain alot of knowledge of the relations of Pakistan with neighbouring countries along with other circumstances.It is also very helpful in order to know about the distance,area,population, of Pakistan. It also contains the information regarding the different mountains and deserts situated in the location of Pakistan with their highest peaks and climatical changes.

. References
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