The effective and appropriate integration of project customers is becoming more important because it allows
accommodating higher degrees of complexity in all kinds of projects. Agile project management approaches such as
Scrum, Lean/Kanban, the Dynamic Systems Development Framework, or Adaptive Project Framework are gaining
popularity because they offer a framework for deeper customer involvement in projects.1 This is an important
development because ultimately it is the project customer who defines project success. The Standish Group’s Chaos
Report frequently ranks customer related issues such as user involvement, clear requirements, and realistic
expectations as key success factors in IT-projects (compare Chaos Reports 2010-2015).
At the same time aspects of national culture are becoming more important due to migration, off-shoring, global
supply chains, information technology, multinational corporations and cheap transport, in short: due to globalization.
Working in an international, multicultural team for customers on other continents is in many industries a normal
business setting. Managing culturally diverse project teams is a complex endeavor and well studied. (2 3 4 5 6 7)
Western approaches like Agile or Scrum aim at a more intensive integration of the project customer in project
management in order to maximize customer value and minimize wasted activities during project planning.1 8
Analyzing these approaches it becomes evident, that national culture is not considered as a relevant factor. Studies in
intercultural project management however have shown that the disregard for cultural compatibility of project
management frameworks and standards can be a decisive factor in cross-cultural collaboration.9 10 11