The Use and
Application of Open Source Integrated Library System

Thakare Nanabhau Bapu                            Kondagurle
Gopal Laxman

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The Open Source
Software (OSS), term was coined by Eric Raymond; it is software for which the
source code is freely and publicly available, though the specific licensing agreement
varies as to what one is allowed to do with that code. OSS become very famous
worldwide from the last few years open source software has triggered a vast
volume of research and has entered the mainstream software market and available
in various computer languages. Library professional are not lagging behind with
the hour, simultaneously they develop their own in different skills from daily.
Open source software requires a greater
degree of computing responsibility than commercial software. Library
professionals do not think seriously about the advantages of open source
software for automation and hence are reluctant to use it. They do not have the
expertise to support open source software. Paper highlights major open source
library software.


Open Source Software, Integrated Library
System, Academic Library ,OSS history.    

1. Introduction-

However the Free software FS, term was given by
Richard Stallman in 1984, it is the software which can be obtained at zero cost
i.e. software which gives the user certain freedoms. FS provides only
executable file to the end user, through public domain and end user is free to
use that executable software in any way, but the user is not free to modify
that software.Similarly the alternative term Free/ Libre and Open Source
Software (FLOSS) refers to software licenses which give users four essential
„freedoms. These include running the program for any purpose, studying the
workings of the program, and modify the program to suit specific needs. Once
can also redistribute copies of the program at no charge or for a fee, and
finally to improve the program, and release the improved, modified version.

2. History of Open

open source movement started in the 1980s with Richard Stallman who resigned
from MIT founded GNU project. Unix is an operating system, whose functionality
he wanted to copy and build upon, but it required community effort. Wanting it
to be a free software, he created a different kind of copyright license, which
he termed “copy-left”.

in the history of open source software are:

1983 – Richard Stallman
formed GNU project

1985 – Creation of Free
Software Foundation

1991 – Development of
Linux kernel by Linus Torvalds

1998 – Open Source
Initiative (OSI) formed by Eric Raymond.

4. Common OSS licenses

Some of the most common
licenses used for Open Source are:

4.1. GNU General Public
License (GPL) –

 GNU is the most common of OSS licenses, the
GPL implements a concept known as “copy left” that attempts to negate copyright
for the purposes of collaborative software development. Under the GPL license,
the code for a GPL-licensed application can be used anywhere in any situation;
it can be distributed to anyone as long as the code is included and the GPL
license is retained; and anyone can create a derivative work from the code and
redistribute it, as long as the resulting code is made available and also
licensed under the GPL. The Affero General Public License is almost identical
to the GPL but includes additional provisions for network access.



4.2. Creative Commons –

Commons licensing is similar to that of the GPL, but is not designed around
software. The Creative Commons license was originally designed for other
creative works such as music and film, though it is increasingly utilized
within software projects.

4.3. GNU Lesser General
Public License (LGPL)/ Artistic License-

is normally used to designate source code that can be used by applications for
which a charge is levied, so that this code c an be used incommercial products,
hence “lesser”. The Artistic License is similar and also attempts to mitigate
the fear of using code for commercial purposes.

4.4. Berkley System
Distribution License (BSD)/ Apache Software License/ MIT License/ NCSA License

 The BSD license is basis for many other
licenses, including Apache Software License/ MIT License/ NCSA License. It is
mainly concerned that the copyright of the code be recognized as belonging with
the creators and that this copyright be promulgated to applications built with
the source code. The BSD license, like almost all OSS licenses, also specifies
that the copyright holder is not liable for the consequences of using the
source code.

4.5. OCLC Research
Public License –

OCLC license ensures that modifications are reported back to OCLC if the intent
is to redistribute the changes externally.

5. Open Source Software

source software is where the source code of programs is made freely available
for anyone to change and distribute providing they abide by the accompanying
licence. This differs from closed source or propriety software which may only
be obtained by some form of payment, either by purchase or by “leasing”. The
difference between open and closed source can be characterized by the word
freedom: users of open source software have the freedom to alter the source
code while users of closed source software do not.

5.1. Advantages of Open
Source Software

benefits with Open Source Software are as follows:

software costs: Open source solutions generally
require no licensing fees. Expenditures can be for media, documentation, and
support, if required.

license management: Obtain the software
once and install it as many times and in as many locations as you need. There’s
no need to count, track, or monitor for license compliance. It provides
Collaborative, parallel development involving source code sharing and reuse.

hardware costs: In general, Linux and open source
solutions are elegantly compact and portable, and as a result require less
hardware power to accomplish the same tasks as on conventional servers
(Windows, Solaris) or workstations. So they are less expensive.

potential: Open source applications and services
can often scale considerably as they have multiple options for load balancing,

Open source support is freely available and accessible through the online
community via the Internet. Many tech companies also support open source with
free online and multiple levels of paid support.

vendor lock-in: Frustration with vendor lock-in is
a reality and with ongoing license fees, there is lack of portability and the
inability to customize software to meet specific needs. Open source exists as a
declaration of freedom of choice.

management: Specific open source technologies
such as CIM Common Information Model) and WBEM (Web Based Enterprise
Management) provide the capability to integrate or consolidate server, service,
application, and workstation management for powerful administration.

software: The peer review process and community
standards make the open source softwares, quality software. It gives shared
approach to problem solving through constant feedback and peer review. The fact
that source code is out there for the world to see, tend to drive excellence in
design and efficiency in coding of these softwares.


5.2. Disadvantages of
Open Source Software

Possibility of slower
results due to the rapid development environment leading to the absence of
formal management structures.

Open source software
can tend to evolve more in line with developers?
wishes than the needs of the end user.

 Strong user involvement and participation
throughout a project become problematic as users tend to create bureaucracies
which hamper development.

Rapid releases and
typically more iterations than commercial software creates more management
problem. Version control systems are required to track multiple revisions.

The user interfaces of
open source products are not very intuitive. Can be less “user-friendly” and
easy to use because less attention is paid to developing the user interface.

No single source of
information so users have no „definitive?
answers to problems.

 System deployment and training is often more
expensive with OSS as it is less intuitive and does not have the usability
advantages of proprietary software.

6. Open Source
Integrated Library Systems:

6.1. Koha –
software was originally build up and developed in New Zealand by the company
called as Katipo Communications Limited. The Integrated Library Software
Solution was first deployed in the year January, 2000 for Horowhenua Library Trust.Koha is a full featured open source
library management system and it was initially developed by Harowhenua Library
Trust, New Zealand in 2000. Now the project has grown as one of the popular
Open Source Library management system by large group of volunteers from various
parts of the world. Software consists of several modules supporting all the
activities of a library: on-line catalog (OPAC), cataloging, authorities’
management, circulation, user management, acquisitions, periodicals, reporting,
and administration. It is translated in over 100 languages, and is implemented
in more than 900 institutions around the world.

6.2. Evergreen-

is an open source Integrated Library System (ILS) which includes circulation
and cataloguing features, OPAC, SIP2.0 support for interaction with management
software and search/retrieval through Z39.50. It is a robust, enterprise level
ILS solution developed to be capable of supporting the workload of large
libraries in a fault-tolerant system. It too is standards compliant and uses
the OPAC interface, and offers many features including flexible administration,
work-flow customization, and adaptable programming interfaces. It features the
Open Scalable Request Framework (OpenSRF) that allows developers to create
applications for Evergreen with a minimum of knowledge of its structure. It
Operates on Debian or Ubuntu Linux servers. Evergreen ILS is deployed worldwide in approximately 1,800
libraries, and is used to power a number of statewide consortial catalogs.

6.3. OpenBiblio –

OpenBiblio is an open source Integrated Library System. The software is popular with small and rural
librariesworldwide due to its simplicity,extensive language support, and good
documentation . OpenBiblio is an easy to use, open
source, automated library system written in PHP containing OPAC, circulation,
cataloging, and staff administration functionality for the particular interest
to small libraries with limited technical expertise and resources of less than
50,000 volumes.

6.4. New GenLib (NGL) – NewGenLib version 1.0 was released in March 2005. On 9
January 2008, NewGenLib was declared free and open-source under GNUGPL.1 The latest version of NewGenLib is 3.1.1 released on 16 April
2015 New GenLib is an outcome of
collaboration between Verus and Kesavan Institute of Information and Knowledge
management in Hyderabad, India. NGL is developed and maintained by Verus
Solutions and Kesavan Institute has provided the domain expertise. It provides
many basic ILS functions as well as having several social media functions built
in. NGL comprises many open source components, chief among which are Apache
Tomcat, Postgre SQL Database and the well-known search engine SOLR. New GenLib
is licensed under the GNU version 3. It supports MARC21, OAIPMH and z39.50.

6.5. SOPAC (Social
Online Public Access Catalog) –

is a module for the Drupal CMS that provides true integration of library
catalog system with the power of the Drupal content management system while
allowing users to tag, rate, and review your holdings. User input is then
incorporated into the discovery index so that SOPAC becomes a truly
community-driven catalog system

7. Digital/Electronic
Library Softwares:

7.1. Dinest

is a system for configuring a set of individual services running on distributed
servers to cooperate in providing the services of a digital library. It has
been written in PERL. It works more comfortably on Unix/Linux run webservers.

7.2. Dspace –

is a digital library system to capture, store, index, preserve, and
redistribute the intellectual output of a university’s
research faculty in digital formats. Dspace has been developed jointly by MIT
Libraries and Hewlett-Packard (HP). It is now freely available to research
institutions worldwide as an open source system.

7.3. Eprints –

is generic archive software under development by the University of Southampton.
It is intended to create a highly configurable webbased archive. EPrints
primary goal is to be set up as an open archive for research papers, but it
could be easily used for other things such as images, research data, audio
archives – anything that can be stored digitally by making changes in configuration.
It works on Linux O/s and it needs MySQL, Perl modules and Apache webserver.

Fedora –

is an Open-Source digital repository management system based on the Flexible
Extensible Digital Object and Repository Architecture (Fedora). The Fedora
repository system is open source software licensed under the Mozilla Public
License. It requires Sun Java Software Development Kit, v1.4. Optionally one
can use MySql or Oracle 9i to create relational database. It works both on
Windows and UNIX versions of software.

7.5. Greenstone –

is a suite of software for building and distributing digital library
collections. It provides a new way of organizing information and publishing. It
is available for both Windows and Linux O/S. It requires Perl software to build

7.6. Invenio –

software developed by, maintained by, and used at, the CERN Document Server. It
allows to run electronic preprint or digital library server, online library
catalogue or a document system on the web. It complies with the Open Archives Initiative
metadata harvesting protocol (OAI-PMH) and uses MARC 21 as its underlying
bibliographic standard. It is a free software issued under GNU-GPL license.

8 Some important
popular Library Management Applications

8.1. ATutor –

is a Open Source technology and cost effective tool for both small and large
organizations presenting their instructional materials on the Web, or
delivering fully independent online courses. It is a Open Source Web-based
Learning Content Management System (LCMS) designed with accessibility and
adaptability in mind.

8.2. CORAL –

is an open source Electronic Resources Management System developed at the
University of Notre Dame licensed under a GPLv3 license. It is web-based and
runs in an Apache, MySQL, PHP environment. It delivers modules to manage
resources, licensing, organizations (publishers, vendors, societies, etc.), and
statistics. These modules link resources to licenses and providers, but they
can be implemented independently. It also allows integration with different
link resolvers (currently only SFX).

8.3. CUFTS –

is open source software developed at the Simon Fraser University Library. It
was designed for use in a consortial environment, but can also be used by
individual libraries. CUFTS is an Online Serials Management System, which
includes a knowledgebase of full-text journal collections, a searchable A-Z
database of databases (the CUFTS Resource Database or CRDB) and A-Z journal
database (the CUFTS Journal Database or CJDB), MARC records for each title,
direct to article OpenURL link resolving (GODOT), and electronic resource
management (ERM) tools.

8.4. Drupal

is a free and open-source content management framework written in PHP and
distributed under the GNU General Public License that allows to easily
organize, manage and publish content, with an endless variety of customization.
It is a content management platform powering millions of websites and
applications. It?s
built, used, and supported by an active and diverse community of people around
the world.

8.5. GODOT

is open source software developed at the Simon Fraser University Library. It is
Full-text Links from CUFTS, Interlibrary Holdings Locator. GODOT provides
direct links to fulltext collections, using the CUFTS knowledge base, and also
reveals holdings in the library catalogue or in other locations. It also embeds
links in library’s citation databases or other resources.

8.6. Joomla –

is a Content Management System (CMS), which enables to build Web sites and
powerful online applications. The core Joomla framework enables developers to
quickly and easily build Inventory control systems; Data reporting tools;
Application bridges; Custom product catalogs; Integrated e-commerce systems;
Complex business directories; Reservation systems and Communication tools.

8.7. Manhattan

was developed by Steven Narmontas, head of the Educational Technology Center at
Western New England College. The first version of the system was used at the
college back in 1997. In October of 2000, the software was released in its
entirety on the Internet for free under the GNU General Public License.
Manhattan Virtual Classroom is a fast, stable and effective Course Management
System that runs on Linux and other Unix-like systems. It’s written entirely in
the C programming language and is database-free software. Today, Manhattan is
in use around the world, and continues to be actively developed.



8.8. Moodle –

is freely Open Source software for learning, under the GNU General Public
License designed to provide educators, administrators and learners with a
single robust, secure and integrated system to create personalized learning
environments. Moodle is built by the Moodle project which is led and
coordinated by Moodle HQ, an Australian company of 30 developers which is
financially supported by a network of 60 Moodle Partner service companies
worldwide. It provides the most flexible tool-set to support both blended
learning and 100% online courses.

9. Conclusion-

Source Softwares are dominating the infrastructure of Internet and Web services
and present Libraries also. OSS has continued to grow and so come the open
source applications in Libraries. These softwares and applications are more
stable, secure, auditable and extensible than the commercial alternatives.
Moreover using OSS guarantees that the standards and protocols used in the
library will be open to examination and helps the library community to build
upon previous success.


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4.      Parminder
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