Teaching and Pedagogical Perspectives
Mariyam Shamla Latheef (6694)
Master of Educational Leadership and Management / Batch 13
Lecturer: Dr. Abdulla Rasheed
TOC o “1-3” h z u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc519874419 h 2Overview of the lessons PAGEREF _Toc519874420 h 3Lesson One / Teacher A PAGEREF _Toc519874421 h 3Lesson Two/ Teacher B PAGEREF _Toc519874422 h 4Lesson Three / Teacher C PAGEREF _Toc519874423 h 5Strengths and Weaknesses of the Lessons PAGEREF _Toc519874424 h 6Lesson 1 PAGEREF _Toc519874425 h 6Strengths of the lesson (Teacher A) PAGEREF _Toc519874426 h 6Weaknesses of the lesson (Teacher A) PAGEREF _Toc519874427 h 7Lesson 2 PAGEREF _Toc519874428 h 9Strengths of the lesson (Teacher B) PAGEREF _Toc519874429 h 9Weaknesses of the lesson (Teacher B) PAGEREF _Toc519874430 h 11Lesson 3 PAGEREF _Toc519874431 h 12Strengths of the lesson (Teacher C) PAGEREF _Toc519874432 h 12Weaknesses of the lesson (Teacher C) PAGEREF _Toc519874433 h 14Common strengths and weaknesses of the lessons PAGEREF _Toc519874434 h 15Common Strengths PAGEREF _Toc519874435 h 15Common Weaknesses PAGEREF _Toc519874436 h 17Recommendations for improvement PAGEREF _Toc519874437 h 18Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc519874438 h 20References PAGEREF _Toc519874439 h 20
In recent years interest has grown in ‘pedagogy’ within discussions of education. A common way of approaching pedagogy is as the ‘art and science’ of teaching.
Pedagogy informs teacher actions, judgments, and teaching strategies by taking into consideration theories of learning, understandings of students and their needs, and the backgrounds and interests of individual students. Pedagogy includes how the teacher interacts with students and the social and intellectual environment the teacher seeks to establish.
Effective teachers use a variety of teaching strategies because there is no single approach that suits all situations. Different strategies used with different groups of students ensure effective learning outcomes. Some strategies are better suited to teaching certain skills than are others. Some strategies are better suited to certain student backgrounds, learning styles and abilities..
Effective pedagogical practice is important and a necessity as it not only promotes the wellbeing of students, teachers and the school community, but also improves students’ and teachers’ confidence and contributes to their sense of purpose for being at school.
The purpose of this assignment is to develop and enhance the ability to apply the concepts of teaching and pedagogical perspectives for improving the teaching and learning processes. The observations of three different lessons of three different teachers helped to identify the teaching strategies used by different teachers and the strengths and weaknesses of the lessons. An overview of each lesson observed is written so that the reader will have a better understanding of the lessons observed.
Overview of the lessons
Lesson One / Teacher ASubject: Mathematics
Duration: 35 minutes/1 period
The teacher greeted the students as she went inside the class and asked them to sit down. Some students did not even bother to get up but the teacher did not seem to notice.
The lesson started with the teacher posing a question as to what they understand by the term ‘temperature’. Many students gave the answer as it was something they had already learnt in science in grade 7 and 8 as well. She then got the students to talk about the two units (Celsius and Fahrenheit) and the different real life situations where temperature is used and why different calculations in temperature is important.
The lesson then included the demonstration of how to convert Celsius to Fahrenheit and vice versa. The teacher demonstrated four examples altogether. The examples were written here and there on the board.
The students were asked questions in between (all questions being directed towards the whole class always). Students asked questions and each time a student asked a question the teacher got more and more nervous to the point that she was not able to answer one particular question. The teacher said that she did not know and will find out the answer for the next day. No encouragement was given to the students at any time during the discussion.
The teacher then gave a worksheet for the students to do and the teacher went around the class helping individual students to complete the work. A lot of time was spent near one student, helping him with his work. Many students on the other side of the class were raising their hands but the teacher did not notice until they called (a bit too loudly) for the teacher.
No reinforcement of any kind was given in the lesson
The bell rang when the students were busy completing the worksheet. She got all students to stand up and greeted them before she left to go to the next class
Lesson Two/ Teacher BSubject: Travel and Tourism
Topic: Customer care relations – personal and inter-personal relations
Grade:9Duration:35 minutes/1 period
The teacher got all students to stand up and greeted them once all were standing up. He also expected the students to keep the books neatly on the table with the unnecessary things inside the drawer before they sat down.
The lesson started with the teacher showing them a picture of a butler smiling and talking with some guests (a ppt). The teacher then asked the students what they think is happening. More questions like “Why do think it is necessary for the butler to be smiling?’ came up as the students were describing the picture. Through discussion the teacher got them to come with the phrases and words like good relationship, image of hotel, satisfaction, and customer care.
He then changed the slide which had the day’s topic. He discussed what they will be learning and what he expects of the students at the end so that they can be ready for it as they continued with the lesson. His expectation was for the students to do a role play in groups of four (which he will form) on the scenarios that they will be provided with. The students seemed very excited on the role play idea but they requested that they form their own groups. After some discussion the teacher agreed to it. The teacher displayed good rapport with the students.
He explained the important aspects of the lesson through discussions and questions. He gave a lot of verbal encouragement throughout the discussion. The questions were asked always from the whole class to which some participated while others did not. The teacher moved from one side to the other during the discussions but always at the front.
The students were given time to copy the notes. The teacher walked about the class at this time checking that all students did the required work.
After the students finished writing the notes, he got the students to form the groups and gave them the scenarios and gave them some time to discuss the role play winch they will be doing the next day.
Lots of reinforcement was given throughout the lesson.
Two minutes before the bell he got the students to get back to their original places and asked them if they were clear what they going to do. He also again highlighted the important facts of the day got them to get ready for the next lesson. While they were at this the bell rang. He greeted when all were up and got them to sit down before leaving the class.
Lesson Three / Teacher CSubject: Math
Grade:8Duration: 35 minutes/1 period
The teacher got all students to stand up and greeted them once all were standing up. She got the students to arrange the tables in three groups, keep the math books neatly on the table before they sat down.
The teacher gave each group a picture of a photo frame pasted on a hard rectangular piece of paper. All groups had a photo frame with different designs. The teacher talked about the things they will need to make the frame. The students responded with things like glue, ribbon, lace, pencil colours and so on. She wrote the materials needed on the board.
She asked the students how they will know how much of each type of ribbon they will need. She got the students to come up with the term Perimeter.
The teacher got the students to participate in a discussions through questioning and probing to recall what they have learnt on perimeter in grades 6 and 7.
After the explanations the teacher again went back to the photo frame. She asked each group to make a list of the materials, this time with the correct measurements. She gave instructions that after they make it they will need to present to the rest of the class while the others will check if the measurements are correct.
The students were given five minutes to complete this task and two minute to present to the class. During the presentations the teacher gave them verbal reinforcements and got the students to clap for their classmates.
After the presentations the teacher gave them a worksheet for them to do on their own. Clear instructions as to what was expected of them was given before distributing the worksheet. The students were to complete five out of the three sums in the worksheet and keep the worksheet on the table once they completed it. The teacher went around helping individual students as they were working.
Good rapport with the students was displayed. Students were actively involved in the lesson and the teacher gave encouragement to all those who contributed in the lesson. Very clear instructions were given and the students were clear on what was expected of them
After about five minutes the teacher collected the worksheets of the students who did not complete three sums and kept with the rest of the sheets. She got them to arrange the class as it was before and she summarized the day’s work. She then reminded that one’s she gives back the worksheets after marking, they need to complete it as homework.
The teacher posed a lot of questions throughout the lesson but they were all aimed at the whole class. So any students were answering at the same time.
Strengths and Weaknesses of the LessonsLesson 1Strengths of the lesson (Teacher A)Brainstorming on the days topic
Teacher A started the lesson with writing the term Temperature on the board and getting the students to brainstorm. The students responded well since this was something they already knew from the previous year as well from the subject science. This was a good way to start off the lesson as it opened the floor for students to participate in the class discussions with something familiar to them.
Brainstorming in the classroom motivates students to freely express their ideas and thoughts on a subject. It gives the class a chance to tap into their previous knowledge and form connections between the current topic and what they have already learned. It also encourages them to listen and consider others’ ideas, thereby showing respect for their fellow classmates. Meadow and Parnes (1959) compared groups using brainstorming to an alternative group approach calling for critical evaluation. Significantly more high-quality solutions were produced in the brainstorming condition.
Connecting the topic to real life applications and experiences
Teacher A made connections between temperature and its use in real life. Why and how temperature conversions and calculations is important and how it used in our day to day lives.
In the present social set up, mathematics is very much important for the common man. Experiences with proportion, balance, symmetry and so on are mathematical concepts which are directly linked with our daily life.
Mathematics is always taught uninterestingly and children are inactive listeners. Students invariably ask, “Why do we have to learn this?” as they look for meaning and purpose, in their schoolwork.
According to the distinguished Psychologist Viktor.E.Frankl (1984), “Man’s main concern is not to gain pleasure or to avoid pain but rather to see a meaning in his life”. Science confirms the brain’s need to find meaning. When we are asked to do something new, immediately we try to recall whether we have experienced anything similar. The brain tries to connect the new task with the already existing. Once the brain finds the meaning, its physical structure changes as it makes meaning and connections (Diamond and Hopson, 1998; Greenfield, 1997).
Effective education must give clear emphasis to connecting real life situations with subject-matter. In many of today’s class rooms teaching is a matter of putting students in class rooms marked and then attempting to fill their heads with facts through lectures, text books and the like. Little effort is made to connect what students are learning with the world in which they spend their lives. So it was a pleasant surprise to see a teacher making such connections and the students responding so well to this discussion.
Weaknesses of the lesson (Teacher A)Greeting the Students at the beginning of the lesson.
Teacher A entered the class with an indifferent greeting. Some students greeted back while others did not bother nor did the teacher notice that the students were doing other things and did not care about greeting.
Greeting students will have the most immediate impact on your class. A genuine greeting establishes a positive climate for the classroom. You experience greeting people in daily life. You are greeted when you visit someone’s home, board an airplane, or just see a friend. A greeting is the first step in making a connection.
The simple act of greeting students sets the tone for the class. It sends a message to students that you care about them. Anecdotal evidence suggests it helps to motivate students to work harder. There is even research to suggest that simply greeting children can increase on-task behaviour of students with problem behaviours from 45% to 75% in the classroom. CITATION All07 l 1033 (Allday R., 2007).
Teacher A did not bring about any form of closure. A properly planned closure is as important as the beginning of the lesson as this not only is used to recap on the lesson, challenge thinking and provide opportunities for further discussion, but also provide feedback for the teacher on the understanding of students.
Closure allows students to summarize main ideas and link to both the past and the future. Closure is an opportunity for formative assessment and helps the instructor decide if additional practice is needed, whether you need to re-teach or whether you can move on to the next part of the lesson
It is important for teachers to use a variety of teaching techniques to provide students with a constructive learning environment. One important teaching technique is using positive reinforcement. It is beneficial to integrate a positive atmosphere because then the students feel safe and confident with others.
Teacher A asked a lot of questions during the brainstorming session as well as during the explanations of the concept. The students answered well but there was no reinforcement or encouragement from the teacher.
A teacher that uses positive reinforcement increases positive behavior from the students, which results in a successful learning environment. Educators can incorporate positive reinforcement through verbal cues as well as nonverbal ques.
The appropriate use of positive reinforcement and behavior modification are important for success in the classroom, as infrequent praise often result in students who exhibit challenging behaviors (Morgan, 2006).
Lesson 2Strengths of the lesson (Teacher B)Greeting the students before the lesson began.
Some teachers report difficulties getting their class off to a good start. These teachers often have students talking loudly, misbehaving, and taking too much time to get their materials out and be ready to learn. When the class gets off to a poor start, the rest of the period or day is likely to be more of the same. Therefore getting a good start is very important.
In the second lesson that was observed the teacher got all the students to stand up and pay attention, greeted them all and got them to have the necessary materials neatly on the table before he got them to sit down and stat the lesson. As a result the teachers was able to motivate his students to transition quickly, be prepared and ready to learn and behave well by avoiding behaviors that distract them from learning. The general atmosphere of a classroom can have a huge impact on how well teachers begin their class and students behave throughout the period.
Research and practical experience tells us that students are more engaged and better behaved in classrooms in which there is an upbeat climate and students feel that they have a positive relationship with their teacher. One easy and effective way to address this problem is to greet students in a positive, intentional, and strategic way.
Good Set induction for the lesson
Set induction is about preparation for a formal lesson. When the students are set, they are ready to learn .Set induction is therefore about getting them ready, inducing them into the right mind-set.The lesson of teacher B had a good set induction. The students were interested in the picture shown and were to participate in the discussion that followed.
Perrott (1982) identified four purposes of a good set induction.
Focusing attention on what is to be learned by gaining the interest of students.
Moving from old to new materials and linking of the two.
Providing a structure for the lesson and setting expectations of what will happen.
Giving meaning to a new concept or principle, such as giving examples
It was clear from the way the lesson went that is was indeed a good start. Students were engaged and the teacher was easily able to link new information with the old and the discussion that followed gave students meaning the new information acquired.
Negotiating Between Students
One of the most important skills teachers need for classroom management is negotiation. This can make relationships between teachers and students stronger in that students feel like they are heard and respected as teachers teach and model good communication skills. Snare (1997) recognized the importance of negotiation as continual process and suggested that it was vital part of teaching and learning. Learning the art of negotiation can make your classroom a place of constant learning as struggles become teachable moments.
The teacher here displayed this skill very well when the students negotiated with him on forming the groups for the role play they will be doing for the next lesson. When students are really listened to, when they are valued and included in such decisions, they are far more productive and motivated.
Using positive reinforcement in the classroom is the best way to teach children to make good choices. Give your students the helping hand they need to make the right choices in their lives inside and outside of the classroom. Positive reinforcement can be used very effectively in the classroom to increase a desired behavior. The idea is basically to not focus on the negative aspects of a person’s behavior, but instead to focus on the positive aspects. The use of positive reinforcement can actually increase intrinsic motivation (Cameron, Banko, ; Pierce, 2001).
The teacher demonstrated this a lot throughout the lesson. He never got tired of praising the students. He even ignored some disruptive behaviours and gave these students a positive remark which got them back into track. The teacher used what we call the Social Reinforces: These are reinforces that are socially arbitrated to express agreement and praise for good behavior. Teacher used comments such as “Good job,” “You are working really hard,” and expressions of approval such as nodding and smiling which were actually very effective reinforces
Weaknesses of the lesson (Teacher B)Teacher movement in the class.
Classrooms are social environments where culturally transferred practices become established over time. The teacher’s actions become the means through which the lesson is structured. Therefore where we decide to place ourselves at different stages of the lesson is important
Whether we are standing, seated or in front of or behind learners sends out a message as to what we want them to do. Our choice should depend on the aim of the activity in progress.
The teacher B almost always was standing at the front of the class. Even during the discussion the teacher did not move to the back of class. This sometimes sends the message that he is only interested in those students who are at the front of the class. Often students perceive a negative message when the teacher is in the front and center always. This message conveys an authoritarian feeling and students see the teacher as “immobile and inviolate” (Proshansky and Wolfe, 1974).
Therefore it is important the teacher move to different places of the class, especially during the discussions and the group activity.
Lesson 3Strengths of the lesson (Teacher C)A good set induction
The introduction is an important part of each lesson. This is an opportunity for teachers to review students’ prior learning and connect the content of the current lesson to the students. Studies show that when students perceive content to be relevant and meaningful, they are more engaged, have more positive perceptions of the lesson, and are more likely to use the learning outcomes outside of class.
The introduction is also the time when a teacher can preemptively answer students’ questions before they are asked. By giving a quick overview of the lesson, teachers eliminate the question “What are we doing?” and inform the students of what they will be able to accomplish by the end of the lesson.
Active learning is where students are the doers and not just listeners. Teaching with a practical component that accompanies the theory allows students to experience first-hand the content they’re learning, and everyone benefits from this more lively and fun way to learn.
A number of followers of Dewey and Piaget have been strong advocates of active learning or learning by doing. It is a known fact through experience and research that students who physically experience concepts, understand them more deeply and score better on tests.
It’s not only about the knowledge but what they do with the knowledge. They need the ability to think and to learn. The activity that the ‘Teacher C’ had planned for them was very good in getting them to think. They not only used their prior knowledge of what perimeter is, but also used this knowledge to find out the solution for the problem at hand.
Students learn more when they participate in the process of learning, whether it’s through discussion, practice, review, or application (Grunert, 1997). Presenting their work to thr rest of the class also gave them the opportunity to develop their self-confidence and presentation skills.
The way teachers talk to students, the manner in which they interact is crucial to both successful learning and teaching. Perhaps the most important point that determines how successfully students will learn is the instructions. The way that we give instructions can make or break an activity. Without clear instructions, students may become confused, may lose confidence, and may not get the most out of the experience.
The teacher had many things going on in the lesson, but the class seemed orderly and the students knew exactly what they were supposed to do at all times. The teacher had a well-managed classroom and one main reason for this was the effective instructions that were given throughout the lesson. The research shows that classroom management is one of the critical ingredients of effective teaching (Marzano, Marzano, ; Pikering, 2003).
Research suggests that being clear with your instructions and expectations will reduce the likelihood of ongoing disruption and interruptions. With better ways to direct students, teachers will help not only attentive students but also those seemingly low achievers who can’t do a task because they may have trouble understanding what is asked from them.
A good Closure
The closure is the time when you wrap up a lesson plan and help students organize the information in a meaningful context in their minds. This helps students better understand what they have learned and provides a way in which they can apply it to the world around them. A strong closure can help students better retain information beyond the immediate learning environment.
A helpful activity when closing a lesson is to engage students in a quick discussion about what exactly they learned and what it means to them now. It also allows teachers to find out how many students understood what was said and it gives the students an additional opportunity to re-hear the information.
The teacher concluded the lesson by asking questions from the students and recalling the important concepts covered in the lesson. She also collected the papers so that she can further check the students understanding.
Weaknesses of the lesson (Teacher C)Questioning techniques
Asking questions is an important part of any teacher’s daily interaction with their students. Questions provide teachers with the ability to check on and enhance student learning
All the questions that were asked by the teacher were directed to the whole class. The students were eager to answer and thereby all answered at the same time. Also most of the questions were at the knowledge level of the Blooms Taxonomy. Bloom’s taxonomy serves as the backbone of many teaching philosophies, in particular, those that lean more towards skills rather than content .The skill development that takes place at these higher orders of thinking interacts well with emergence of integrated disciplines
Common strengths and weaknesses of the lessonsAll three lessons had some common strengths and weaknesses and for this observation analysis, a component is considered as ‘common’ only if it is observed in any two of the three lessons observed. The observations included five main areas and the common strengths and weaknesses found in these five areas are as follows:
Common StrengthsLesson preparations.
All three lessons were planned well with clear objectives and activities that liked to these objectives. Teaching and learning materials were clearly noted in the plan. It was also good to see that all here teachers had the plans with them during the lesson.
The set induction was good and as planned for all three lessons. All three teachers had good content knowledge and two teachers demonstrated and explained the concepts well. Two teachers gave very clear instructions during the lesson and also responded well to answers and probed the students to get the best answers. All three teachers had good activities planned but only two of them were able to bring a closure to the lesson in an effective manner.
All three teachers’ authority was established and accepted by the class and they guided pupils to task while maintaining and reinforcing classroom rules that were set at the end of the year. But only two teachers were actually aware of what was happening in the class. Especially during the independent and group work when the teachers were helping the individual students and groups.
Relationship with students
All three teachers had good rapport with the students and gave the weaker students moral support but reinforcement and encouragement to the whole class in general was observed in only two of the lessons.
Voice modulation and audibility was good all three teachers. Two of the teachers displayed fluency and accuracy in their spoken English during the lesson.
Teacher A Teacher B Teacher C
Satisfactory Good Very Good Satisfactory Good Very Good Satisfactory Good Very Good
PREPARATION Lesson Plan prepared ? ? ? Clear and suitable objectives ? ? ? Teaching and learning materials ? ? ? classroom organization ? ? ?
Activities link to objectives ? ? ?
Set induction ? ? ?
Demonstration/ Appropriate Strategies ? ? ?
Accuracy of subject matter knowledge ? ? ?
Clarity of explanations and instructions ? ? ?
Responding to answers and probing ? ? ? Innovations in presenting ? ? ? Closure / evaluation ? ? ?
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT Teachers authority established and accepted ? ? ?
Monitoring classroom events ? ? ?
Guiding pupils to task ? ? ?
Maintaining and reinforcing classroom rules ? ? ?
RELATIONSHIP WITH STUDENTS Rapport / warmth and enthusiasm ? ? ? facilitating individual and group learning ? ? ?
Reinforcement and feedback ? ? ? Moral support for the weaker students ? ? ? LANGUAGE Correct usage of language ? ? ?
Voice modulation ? ? ?
Audibility ? ? ?
Fluency and accuracy ? ? ?
Common WeaknessesLesson Presentation
A very important part of the lesson is the questioning techniques and the types of questions asked. All three teachers needs to improve in this area. Most of the questions asked were just knowledge based recall questions and they were directed to the whole class. Distribution of questions was not seen.
Teacher movement in class
The teacher needs to move around the class whenever the opportunity arises so that all students get the teachers attention as well so that disruptions and mismanagement is controlled. During the lessons the teachers were only moving to help the weaker students only when they were doing independent practice .At all other times the teachers were just at the front t of the class.
Teacher A Teacher B Teacher C
Satisfactory Good Very Good Satisfactory Good Very Good Satisfactory Good Very Good
LESSON PRESENTATION Question levels and sequencing techniques ? ? ? Distribution of questions ? ? ? CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
Teacher movement in class ? ? ?
Recommendations for improvementImproving the Questioning Skills.
The ability to ask and answer questions is central to learning. For more than two thousand years (since Socrates) the question has been an integral part of teaching.We have been focusing primarily on questions regarding the specific information students possessed rather than questions to promote learning. Bloom’s Taxonomy suggests that skills involving analysis, synthesis and evaluation are of a higher order, requiring different instructional practices. Although it is essential that teachers ask questions there is more to good questioning technique than simply asking the proper questions.
One way in which we can improve this skill is by applying some principles of good questioning developed by Richard L. Loughlin (1961) .They provide an excellent set of guidelines for the teacher who wishes to develop good questioning techniques. Some of them are
1. Distributing questions so that all, including non-volunteers, are involved.
2. Balancing factual and thought-provoking questions.
3. Asking both simple and exacting questions, so that the poorer students may participate and the brighter students may be extended.
4. Encouraging lengthy responses and sustained answers..
5. Stimulating critical thinking by incorporating all levels of questions in the Blooms Taxonomy.
Another way in which we can hope to improve the questioning skills of teachers is by having a better pre-service training in the art of posing questions, together with in-service trainings to sharpen teachers. Lim, Cock, Lock et.al. (2009) stated that though there is a practical element of pre-service teacher training, it does not provide enough knowledge and skills for the teachers to handle the challenges they encounter in the classroom.
Teacher movement in the class
The observations showed that the teachers always stayed at the front of the class during the explanations and discussions. How you move around in the classroom can have a greater impact on your students than you might realize.
The teacher’s actions become the means through which the lesson is organized and interaction is structured. Therefore, it is recommended that the teacher move in the class according to the activity in hand.
Giving positive reinforcements.
Creating a positive and engaging classroom atmosphere is one of the most powerful tools teachers can use to encourage children’s learning and prevent problem behaviors from occurring. Students are more likely to behave in predictable ways in order to gain their teachers’ attention (Conroy et al., 2009).
Some suggestions to maintain motivation and interest are as follows
praise and nonverbal communication (e.g., smile, nod, thumbs up)
social attention (e.g., a conversation, special time with the teacher or a peer)
privileges such as playing a game or sitting in a special place in the class
Give these reinforcements frequently and consistently to increase the frequency of the desired behaviour.
Planning a good Closure
Closure is an important part of any lesson. It’s a time for students to share and reflect.. This helps students better understand what they have learned and provides a way in which they can apply it to the world around them. A strong closure can help students better retain information beyond the immediate learning environment.
It’s also time for the teacher to think about what you need to do the following day A study by Collin A. Webster. (2010) illustrates how some expert teachers add a finishing touch to their lessons. Teachers may be reflecting on how the lesson went or what they’re going to take home to grade, but students are not.
A brief summary or overview is often appropriate and needed due to these important reasons
ConclusionPedagogy is the art (and science) of teaching. Effective teachers use a range of teaching strategies because there is no single approach that suits any given situation. This assignment looked into the observations of three different lessons of three different teachers. No two teachers applied the same pedagogical perspectives in their teachings and it was interesting to compare and contrast the differences and similarities in their approaches. Strengths and weakness of the lessons were identified and analyzed and recommendations for improvement is given based on experience and literature are given so as to further improve the lessons.
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