Running head: LIBERAL ARTS

Atai Arpachiev
American University of Central Asia

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The paper explores six publications about the value of the liberal arts education, such as job opportunities after graduating from liberal arts, what skills you can improve. This paper will help people to make the right decision when they are doing their choice, when they don’t know what they want from the life, when they are afraid to regret.
Keywords: liberal arts, skills, job opportunities

Individuals in the liberal arts education are the creative spark that influences business across all around the world, powering everything from giant computer and technology corporations to small design studios and clothing boutiques. The liberal arts degree offers students key skills that can be applied to just about any career or industry, such as problem-solving skills, critical thinking, communication, integration of knowledge. This paper provides details about career pathways in the arts, skills to help graduates find the right career. But where can people work in the future? How can they improve themselves? We will not leave this topic aside.

Literature Review
Job Opportunities
Firstly, graduates of journalism degree programs take their places among the 57,000 reporters, correspondents, and news analysts working in print, digital or broadcast organizations throughout the USA. The wide career field prepares students to take on everything from reporting local news on television to working at the foreign desk for a weekly news magazine. The growth in online journalism has fueled the careers of bloggers, photographers, arts and music critics, and freelance writers who make their own hours. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), most employers prefer job applicants holding at least a bachelor’s degree in journalism or digital communications. However, many journalists can enter the field with a related degree in political science or English along with a portfolio demonstrating their abilities.
Second, communication professions work across a wide range of specializations in corporate communications, advertising and promotions, news media, and journalistic organizations. Graduates or undergraduates are armed with a fundamental understanding of the communications field and relevant skills along with niche training. They get jobs as announcers, print and digital editors, technical writers, photographers, reporters, bloggers, public relations managers or marketing writers. The common entry level requirement in communications is the bachelor’s degree. In some instances, job applicants are required to present a portfolio (print, audio, video, multimedia reel) demonstrating their experience and skills. For those going into management, earning a master’s degree is advisable (BLS, 2018).

Third, the “world is your oyster” when you earn a degree in history, according to the American Historical Association. History graduates are well-suited to traditional careers as historical research scholars or history teachers, however, many pursue professions as legal analysts, foreign-service officers, foundation staffers, consultants, lobbyists, or information managers. History grads also find employment with think tanks, law firms, non-profit organizations, historic sites, secondary and post-secondary schools, and museum. Graduates of bachelor’s degree programs in history can gain entrance to the field with jobs in historical organizations and museums, according to the BLS, however the four-year degree can help them land jobs in legal, educational, and business organizations. To work as research or college historians, applicants are typically required to hold at least a master’s degree or doctorate (BLS, 2018).
Fourth, the undergraduate study of film is a broad professional area that includes training for roles in writing, production, animation, multimedia, mass communications, cinematography, broadcast, and gaming. Film and video editors work in the entertainment, broadcast, news, education and corporate communications fields. Directors work across film and digital media used in entertainment, marketing, advertising and broadcast productions. Writers work in pre-production, creating scripts used for entertainment, broadcasting, marketing, film and stage projects. Producers are the financial managers of the creative and technological support teams in pre- and post-production. Film schools also offer training in lighting, sound, electrical, set production, sound and music specialties. A bachelor’s degree is the common general requirement for entry level into many specialties within the film occupations. Production personnel may have specialties or degrees in finance. Animators and editors have technology-related specializations, while technical support staff (grips, lighting technicians, etc.) may earn certifications or training at career schools (BLS, 2018).

Fifth, there’s a career for every type of musician and music lover. Graduates of undergraduate and graduate music degree programs work as film scorers, advertising jingle and game theme writers, classical or jazz composers, rock and rollers, music recorders and managers, music educators, performers, songwriters, and music therapists. The career outlook for college music teachers deserves special attention: job openings will increase by 19 percent from 2012 to 2022 (BLS), with the largest amount of openings at the two-year college level. Common job titles include copyist, transcriber, private instructor, sound designer, personal manager, vocalist, music publisher, film conductor or session musician. Many performing musicians and composers are self-taught, but those working as classical performers, directors and vocalists are typically required to hold at least a bachelor’s degree with a music-history and performance concentration. Those who pursue teaching careers will need at least an undergraduate degree in music and a teaching credential, while college-level music educators will need to complete a master’s degree or doctorate (BLS, 2018).
Sixth, Fashion designers work in the fields of apparel, shoes and accessories, creating new products for major retailers, fashion boutiques, and direct-to-customer companies. They use a combination of professional skills to design the product and select the necessary fabrics and components for production. The BLS reports that America’s 22,300 designers are self-employed professionals or work for clothing companies, wholesalers, garment manufacturers, fashion design firms, online retailers and catalog companies. Some 300 postsecondary schools and colleges in the USA offer degree programs in fashion design. Most working designers hold bachelor’s degrees in either fashion design or fashion merchandising. Degree programs offer detailed studies in computer-aided design technology, fabrics, templates, materials, design history and trends. Formal postsecondary programs allow students to build a portfolio of work to showcase to prospective employers.

According to Jonathan Becker, liberal arts education does not sentence graduates to a lifetime of unemployment. The opposite is true: many employers, including those in areas of business and finance, seek to hire LAS graduates, and many are LAS graduates themselves.
LAS education prepares graduates for new economic conditions that emphasize flexibility and adaptability instead of single-company or single industry lifetime employment. By focusing on the development of the person and endowing students with the capacity to think critically, problem solve, and communicate effectively, LAS education fosters in students the capacity to respond to changing circumstances. That is an essential part of the LAS wager. LAS graduates might start with as much content knowledge as non-LAS students, but they come with a training in research, skills in knowledge acquisition, and the ability to problem-solve that in the long run are likely to make them greater contributors to their places of employment than their more narrowly trained colleagues.
Success in the workforce requires the ability to think critically, communicate effectively, integrate knowledge, and relate to our global economy. These are the core skills taught through a liberal arts education – and they’re necessary for each and every company to have.
Critical thinking is essential to efficiently solve problems on both a personal and professional level. Analyzing data and predicting outcomes are keys to success in business, marketing, and public relations.
Effective communication in management and client relationships is vital. If employees or clients misunderstand expectations or promises of service, credibility and reliability can quickly plummet.
Integration of knowledge allows focusing on all perspectives of an issue and arriving at a sound solution. Global awareness is critical in our world economy. Relations with the international business community depend on an understanding of differences in cultures, customs, languages, and tradition. It is no longer a possibility to be an isolationist in an interconnected world. (Under30CEO, 2012)
According to studies from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE), employers often rank skills such as critical thinking and communication—hallmarks of liberal arts training—above technical aptitude as essential for career readiness. “Liberal arts study helps students develop strong foundational competencies,” says Paul Timmins, director of career services for the College of Liberal Arts at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis. “It gives them tools to succeed beyond their first job.”
“Regardless of the industry, we need people who can solve problems, write well, speak well, bring multiple perspectives to decision-making; we need people who are good managers, who are cross-culturally competent,” Robert Vega, director of liberal arts career services at the University of Texas at Austin says. “All of that is liberal arts.” (Domingo Angeles and Brian Roberts, 2017).

The findings of this study clearly show that liberal arts matter nowadays, and what job opportunities, skills people can have. It can be journalism, communications, history, film, music, fashion design. What about skills? Human will have critical thinking, excellent communication, and integration of knowledge.
We can contrast liberal arts education and professional. There are many differences between them, and the most notable is the style of study. Professional education educates in one direction, and it is improving the skills to succeed in the field that people choose while liberal arts education educates in various directions and improves critical thinking, problem-solving, oral communication, teamwork, and critical analysis. If we consider our First Year Seminar and math, the former we think, solve problems, communicate, whereas the latter we just use formulas to do the exercises. Hence, liberal arts graduates become marketing and sales managers, judges, teachers, clergy and so on. Unlike liberal arts, professional graduates become engineers, doctors, chemists, scientists, accountants. It doesn’t mean that people who study professionally don’t need critical thinking, problem-solving skills. They need them, but it is not important because they need skills in the direction that they have. For example, we have an engineer, he/she studies special formulas, things to become professional, but sales managers need oral skills, knowledge of how to work with customers. (Atai Arpachiev, 2018)
These findings suggest that everyone must be educated, to have a well-paid job, and liberal arts education leads to examined life. We can improve our thoughts, imagination, communication, it helps to appreciate and respect everything that we have. According to Martha C. Nussbaum, a further problem with people who lead the unexamined life is that they often treat one another disrespectfully. When people think that political debate is something like an athletic contest, where the aim is to score points for their own side, they are likely to see the “other side” as the enemy and to wish its defeat, or even humiliation. It would not occur to them to seek compromise or to find common ground, any more than in a hockey match the Chicago Blackhawks would seek “common ground” with their adversaries. Socrates’ attitude toward his interlocutors, by contrast, is exactly the same as his attitude toward himself. Everyone needs examination, and all are equal in the face of the argument. This critical attitude uncovers the structure of each person’s position, in the process uncovering shared assumptions, points of intersection that can help fellow citizens progress to a shared conclusion. (Martha Nussbaum, 2010).

Conclusion and Future Study
In order to gain a complete understanding of the value of liberal arts, such as career, skills, it is necessary to conduct one more study about the salaries, the future of liberal arts education. Finally, we talked about the important skills that we can improve with the help of the liberal arts education. Liberal arts expose the world to new ideas, attitudes, and ways of understanding our surroundings. It is vital to require into consideration however we have a tendency to relate to every different and our surroundings in order that we will still progress and advance in a very positive direction. The world is formed a far better place solely by those willing to place forth the hassle. By striving to better inform ourselves, humanity has already taken a step in the right direction

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2018). Liberal Arts degrees and Arts and Humanities careers. Retrieved from
Under30CEO. (2012). The Value of a Liberal Arts Education in Today’s Job Market. Retrieved from
Domingo Angeles and Brian Roberts. (2017). Putting your liberal arts degree to work. Retrieved from
Jonathan Becker. (2014). What a Liberal Arts and Sciences Education is…and is Not. Retrieved from
Atai Arpachiev. (2018). Which type of educational system do you prefer: liberal arts education or professional? Retrieved from
Martha C. Nussbaum. (2010). Not for Profit: Why Democracy Needs the Humanities, 4, 51.

Legislative Process

Tiffany Corona-Villegas
Ohio University
September 8, 2018

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The Legislative Process and Healthcare Lobbying

This paper will discuss the legislative process. It will include the process and steps of law
making. The political issue of the use of fetal stem cells will be examined and opposing
sides will be explored including ethical issues and methods of collection. The end of the
paper will explain my position and reasoning behind it and nursing responsibilities and
Legislative process
The legislative process begins when a problem or issue is recognized. In attempt
to rectify an issue, a bill is drafted regarding said issue. The bill is a proposal for a law.
In order for a bill to complete the process in becoming a law it must proceed
through several steps. Anywhere along the way the bill can “die”, or fail. The bill then
must get submitted to a committee for review and changes may be made at this time. The
committee will debate and discuss the bill and wether it should or should not become a
law. If the committee is in favor of the bill it will then proceed to the House of
Representatives for voting. Once a bill is passed by Congress it will then be presented to
the president to either sign into law or veto(“Legislative process”,n.d.).
Fetal stem cell research
Medical research and experimentation includes many avenues, ideas and theories.
Some ideas are more controversial than others and can have some ethical and moral
concerns and objections. One issue that is being researched is the use of fetal stem cells.
Stem cells are type cell that is non-specialized and can potentially develop in to many
different types of cells. Fetal stem cells are cells that are harvested from aborted fetal
tissue. However, stem cells may also be harvested from other sources as well, such as

from embryos and adults. Cells can also be induced and engineered to behave in the
manner as a stem cell(CIRM, 2018).
The use of fetal stem cells is something the has been an ongoing political issue in
the state of California and across the country. In 2004 the California tax payers voted in
favor of proposition 71 to fund stem cell research. This funding along with private
investors fund the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine(CIRM,2018) This
research takes millions of dollars to fund and may potentially be on the ballot in the
future for additional funding.
Another recently passed bill in California is section 684 which mandates medical
facilities that provide stem cell therapies to give patients the following notice;
This health care practitioner performs one or more stem cell therapies that have
not yet been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. You
are encouraged to consult with your primary care physician prior to undergoing a
stem cell therapy.”
This notice informs patients or potential patients that if they do receive stem cell
therapies that they do not have Food and Drug Administration(FDA) approval. This law
protects patients by mandating that the efficacy of therapies are not approved. This allows
the patient to make a more informed decision before consenting to treatment.
Stem cell research is being used to potentially treat several conditions. Some of
these conditions include; cancer, autism, arthritis, Lou Gehrig’s disease, diabetes, macular
degeneration, heart failure, multiple sclerosis and many more. According to CIRM 2017
annual report the FDA granted marketing approval for two therapies developed from this

research. The CIRM also had forty-one programs in clinical trials in 2017. (CIRM,
The medical advancements that are gained from stem cell research can benefit
millions of people. These treatments can potentially affect healthcare worldwide and
change treatment options and patient out comes. There are many potential benefits of this
Ethical concerns
In addition to the potential benefits, stem cell research also carries a moral and
ethical burden. Some are against this type of research as they feel that some of the
methods used to harvest stem cells are unethical, in particular fetal stem cells. Fetal stem
cells are harvested from aborted fetuses. According to an article from “California Family
Council”, this is concerning as it could potentially translate to financial gains or
encouraging and supporting abortions. There has been some discussion that certain
organizations who preform abortions are profiting from selling fetuses(Burt,2017).
Stem cells are also harvested from discarded embryos that are otherwise destined
to be destroyed. These embryos typically come from infertility clinics and require
consent from the donor(CIRM, 2018). However, many believe life begins at fertilization
and feel this is unethical.
Personal position
My personal position is that I am against the use of fetal stem cells. I can
appreciate the potential benefits this research may have. However, I am against fetal
stem cell and embryonic stem cell use for research. Stem cells can be harvested in
alternative ways that does not cause death to a potential person. According to the article,

Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Research, stem cells can be also collected from amniotic
fluid, umbilical cord blood, and adipose tissue(King, Perrin,2013). In my opinion, I feel
there is a conflict of interest for facilities to profit from aborted fetuses. I feel this in
particular, can possibly cause facilities to encourage, fail to completely educate, make
light of, and persuade patients who are undecided and or uneducated.
Nursing considerations and conclusion
In conclusion, fetal stem cell research will likely continue to be a political issue as
stem cell research continues to evolve and develop. New bills will likely be drafted
regarding research methods. There are many potential benefits to stem cell research and
will likely affect nursing through multiple avenues from nurses involved with clinical
trials to nurses in the future administrating therapies developed from this research.
However, this research poses a moral dilemma to some.
Nurses should keep themselves informed on advances in research as they will
likely be providing these treatments to patients in the future. Staying informed about
advancements will ensure knowledgeable advocacy, patient education, and lobbying to
protect patient’s best interests. According to Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice,
nurses are expected to act ethically and take action against anything unethical(ANA,
2010). Nurses are influential and represent honesty, integrity and are a trusted
profession(Burkhardt, Nathaniel 2014).

American Nurses Association,. (2015). Nursing: Scope and standards of practice.
Burkhardt, M. A., Nathaniel, A. K., & Walton, N. A. (2014). Ethics & issues in
contemporary nursing. Toronto: Nelson Education.
Burt, G., (2017). California tax payers are spending millions to fund medical research using the o
organs of aborted fetuses. California Family Council. Retrieved from
California institute of research medicine. (2017). Stem cell key terms. 2017 Annual report.
Retrieved from (n.d.). Overview of the legislative process. Retrieved from
King, N., Perrin, J. (2014) Ethical issues in stem cell research and therapy. Stem cell research
and therapy.
SB-512 Health care practitioners: stem cell therapy.(2017-2018). Retrieved from