Robustness and Resilience to Enable
Efficiency and Effectiveness in Humanitarian Response1.Background: In
terms of humanitarian supply chain management, organizations are nowadays
facing new challenges in the delivery
of relief items, some of which are linked to the sheer increase in the needs of
the affected populations, others to the changes in the environment in which
they operate, while others to the increased expectations of compliance to
donors and accountability to beneficiaries.Relief
organizations are faced with a unique blend of challenges characterizing the
relief chain design and management, such as unpredictability of demand,
suddenly-occurring big scale demand and short lead times for a wide range of
supplies, lack of resources such as supply, people, technology, transportation
capacity and money. This is further complicated by unpredictable factors such
wild urbanization, big climate change, big political, social and economic
change and communication technology and innovations in information. According to the Center for Research
in Natural Disasters (CRED) ,377 million people with worldwide are affected by
natural disaster with economic damage of $92.38 billion in 2016 and this number
is gradually increasing with the passage of time(CRED).  (T Masood) Resilience   “Resilience has been being closely
related to the concepts of robustness, adaptability, change management
capability and flexibility”. The resilience in disaster supply
network operations deals with two main issues. 1-
Bouncing back to the original functionality of the supply chain in an effective
way. 2-Change
management by the supply network due to anticipated or unanticipated changes in
demand e.g. meeting product and service demands post-earthquake. Resilient Supply
Chain Operation:The
term resilience has been always one of the main concerns of managers, since the
ability of an enterprise to confront unexpected events is the matter of success
or failure. Since the number of events or causes of risk has grown, managers
have become more and more interested in this subject.  The supply chain resilience is now the matter
of being in the best position comparing to your competitors in order to not
only be able to manage the risk, but also to benefit from disruptions. Resilience in Disaster Management OperationsIn
case of contingencies the supply chain operations are effected by the poor coordination
and the unavailability of the holistic supply chain approaches to meet the
demands of victims. Secondly, there is a lot of disconnectedness between the supply
chain operations and the humanitarian actors dealing with disasters.  The
huge number of involved governmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations,
UN faculties, international institutes, manufacturers and 3rd party logistics
providers which are various in the nature, size, abilities, specialties and
performances, asks for coordination, cooperation and well management of the
humanitarian roles in case of natural disasters. In fact, “only a collective
strategy will be able to improve the performance of humanitarian supply chains”.Supply
Chain resilience addresses characteristics of resilience that enhance direction
and understanding. Control, connectedness, and continuity (coherence) are three
psychological principles of resilience that are believed to improve the
response when natural or human-made disasters occur. A
resilient supply chain must be adaptable, as the desired state in many cases is
different from the original one. Defining
Resilience and Its Scope The
study of resilience has its origins in development theory of social psychology
and is an emerging theory in its own right. The concept of resilience is
directly related to important issues such as ecological and social
vulnerability, the politics and psychology of disaster recovery, and risk
management under increasing threats. While there are commonly used de?nitions
in each all of these areas they are discipline-speci?c. In many cases the
domain covered by the resilience construct lacks clarity. Thus, in order to
understand the phenomena of resilience, we need to ?rst consider different
perspectives and approaches from the various streams of literature.Christopher’s
Philosophy of Supply Chain Resilience Christopher
(2005) states that resilient processes are ?exible and agile and are able to
change quickly. The dynamic nature of this adaptive capability allows the
supply chain to recover after being disrupted, returning to its original state
or achieving a more desirable state of supply chain operations. Christopher’s
conceptualization of a resilient supply chain includes elements such a supply
base strategy, collaborative planning, visibility, and factoring risk
considerations into decisions.   Resilience in
Emergency management/Disaster operations and sustainable development
perspectiveEmergency management is an interdisciplinary ?eld that draws
upon bodies of knowledge in the physical and social sciences. The relatively
recent disaster recovery stream of emergency management research presents a
learning perspective of resilience. Lindell et
al. (2007) suggest that a disaster resilient community learns from its
experience, supports sustainable development policies, mobilizes the
government, and demands that effective policies be implemented. They identify
four stages of emergency management, including hazard mitigation, disaster
preparedness (readiness), emergency response, and disaster recovery. These
stages are directly related to the phases of supply chain resilience discussed
later. They also emphasize the learning perspective. For example, the
vulnerability of infrastructure could be decreased during the recovery stage
(e.g. a bridge destroyed by an earthquake could be replaced by a new one with a
better, more robust design).In addition,
one of the most dif?cult parts of recovery is restoring social routines and
economic activities. The process of recovery involves restoring people’s
psychological stability. It also involves learning positive lessons from the
experience.Networked Humanitarian Supply Chains –
Prospective Approaches for Enhancing Robustness of Emergency Facilities NetworkSpatial Decision Support System
(SDSS): Background:
An efficient strategic planning platform for site selection. SDSS is an
analytical platform that allows user to visualize key information along with
the evaluation modules in order to provide better insight into the strategic
problems and challenges and also to be able to support the decision making
process. The platform has been successfully used for developing efficient strategic
freight distribution planning to locate freight logistics facility in Java
Island, Indonesia. A holistic framework of the SDSS platform has systematically
been sketched, followed by the recommendations of interesting modules and
approaches to be equipped on the platform (SMCE, MOFL and discrete
simulation-based approach)Potential Approach:
A “customized” SDSS platform could be developed for the humanitarian
community to support urban logistics facility determination. The Risk Index
Strategy: Background:
An Effective Tool to Preselect Locations with Minimal Risk Exposure. When
selecting locations for pre-positioning strategic stockpiles, only sites with
minimal risk exposure level can be selected as nodes for the emergency response
network. A risk index is a parameter representing all most relevant risk
factors for a certain geographic area, such as natural disasters (droughts,
floods, earthquakes, cyclones and tsunamis), macroeconomic and political
changes, or even the locations of suppliers. To be analytically quantified, it
requires key risk factors to be identified and described in terms of
probability distribution with the support of i)                   
Databases like EM-DAT, ii)                 
Domain experts,iii)               
Businesses databasesiv)               
Available Literature. Potential Approach:
A risk index representing the risk exposure level of different localities can
potentially be defined for the humanitarian community by identifying the most
relevant risk factors to be included in the risk index framework. The risk
profile of each potential location can then be derived and used to compare the
selected sites.Flow of Goods
Across Marine Supply Chain for Resilient Intermodal NetworkBackground:
Around 90% of world trade is carried by the international shipping industry
without which, the current volume of worldwide import and export activities
could not be covered. Seaborne trade continues to expand, bringing benefits for
consumers across the world through competitive freight costs. Literature on
maritime supply chain management highlights the critical role that ports play
as key nodes of businesses’ supply chains through upstream and downstream
linkages, especially referring to those processes and activities that add
significant value to the final client. Ports have been considered as the
integral part of agile supply chain strategy (Paixão & Marlow, 2003).Potential Approach:
Indonesia is the World’s largest archipelago made of 18,000 islands, with a
complex network of ports and related transport systems. Resilient marine supply
chain provides strong foundation for robust inventory management. It also
provides a great support across different countries and long distance
transport, and hence reducing costs across the network. For the humanitarian
community, it becomes critical to recognize the crucial role played by ports
within the supply chains framework and, with the contribution of large terminal
operators, promoting the process of integration of all stakeholders of disaster
relief chains. In the context of this research, it is important to understand
the impact of the marine supply chain and its optimization and on the
humanitarian relief operations. The integrative approach to undertake marine
companies for supply of complex relief goods from intermodal transport to
distribution of network will provide a robust framework.Big Data to
Support Disaster Preparedness and ResponseBackground:
Innovations in technology and greater affordability of digital devices have
created the basis for the explosion in the quantity and diversity of high
frequency digital data (UN Global Pulse, 2012). These data hold the potential
to provide a robust framework to support decision making processes,
constituting a good opportunity to enhance the fight against natural calamities
through the development of powerful new tools. The crowd sourcing power of
social media for disaster management for instance has been harnessed especially
in the area of management of slow-onset disasters (e.g. Kansai Region on August
2012 (Fujitsu Journal, 2015), forest and peat fire management in Indonesia (UN
Global Pulse, 2014)) and the model has provided interesting insights.Potential Approach:
A pilot explorative study addressing the identification of the types of new,
digital data sources to be potentially used for disasters preparedness and
response, including an analysis of the challenges posed by the potential of
using such in disaster management work, and specific applications of “Big data”
in the field of humanitarian logistics could be designed and implemented.What is the Optimal Size of a Network of
Emergency Response Facilities in a Heavily Disasters Impacted Country?To overcome the limitations
of traditional Decision Support System (DSS) tools designed to tackle similar
problems, but targeted mainly at private sector entities, develop an innovative
methodology taking into account both speed of operations and economic
affordability: ·        
Given a set of in-country probable
large scale disasters scenarios, the first objective of the network size
optimization problem encompasses the demand coverage component through the
minimization of the total distribution cost constrained over maximum distance
between the emergency response facilities and their assigned potentially
affected areas- demand point. ·        
In order to merge responsiveness and
economic affordability, efficient distribution strategies that reduce logistics
cost are required to be taken into account. This comprises several factors such
as transportation costs, warehouse operating cost, and more importantly,
warehouse-retailers echelon inventory replenishment cost. Minimizing the total
distribution cost function will support the decision making in terms of optimal
number of warehouses. How to Identify the most Appropriate Locations
for Establishing an Efficient Network of Emergency Response Facilities?To
overcome the limitations of traditional approaches on tackling multi criteria supply
chain decision making, develop an innovative framework for addressing the
location problem for a network of emergency response facilities. Geographic
Information System (GIS) technology is used to integrate key information such
as National Master Plan for the Economic Development, natural disaster hazard
zones, population densities, strategic logistics infrastructure, and industrial
cluster. The combination of this information with inputs of local logistics
experts will enable the identification of candidate locations to further
investigate.