RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

Introduction:
For any new or established businesses, the recruitment and selection procedure are one of the most significant parts of running daily operations. The correct employees can take a business to novel heights whereas the wrong employees can hamper the business by turning customers off, missing sales and creating a poisonous workplace situation. The recruitment and selection process has a lot of steps and usually put together by a team that makes sure the entire process fits with and improves overall business goals, culture, and objectives (Mayhew, 2018).
Recruitment and selection are two of the most significant and critical human resources functions. No organization will able to develop and improve in the market unless it has the best employees. The motivational and drive levels of the employees in a company need to be high to achieve its objectives. Each and every one of the steps of the recruitment and selection processes is just as significant in retaining and attracting the right talent for the organization (Raghavendra, 2017). The steps are described below:
Sourcing Candidates:
The first step in the recruitment and selection process is sourcing candidates which mean utilizing a lot of processes to find appropriate candidates for job openings. This phase can be done online through promotions on career and job sites or qualified networking like Linkedin and partaking in job associations. An additional inventive sourcing method employment specialists make use of is tracking service changes at business competitors to take on applicants well-known with the equivalent type of trade they are operating.
Recruiting Managers must come to a decision on the suitable process assess applicants for a job. Application forms are usually the first recruitment tool as candidates have to answer background general questions and details about their appropriateness for the job. Curriculum Vitaes or CVs are also used usually accompanied by a cover letter. CVs are usually not more than 2 pages and are snapshots to boast a person’s most excellent skills and attributes. CVs have separate sections such as Qualifications, Work Experience and Education. References are in general an existing line manager and another person known to the hiring manager who can act as guarantor for an applicant’s quality. Depending on the job, references are often asked for their opinion when the job position has been actually offered to the winning candidate (Anon., 2014).
Tracking Applicants:
The second step in the recruitment and selection process is tracking applications and applicants and reviewing their resumes. Applicant monitoring systems these days are becoming tremendously accommodating to employers. This tool helps in the organization of job openings and applications for all available position. Employment experts use applicant tracking systems to re-evaluate applicants’ applications and resumes. The employment expert then can make a decision about which applicants to meet through an interview. With a number of ATSs, applicants can also monitor their application status which make the waiting period easier for them.
Preliminary Phone Interview:
Carrying out an initial phone interview is necessary for getting vital information about the applicant’s work history, experience and background. The purpose of this call is to settle on whether or not the chosen applicant has the mandatory qualifications and skills for the job post. Preliminary discussions will disclose the applicants who clearly do not have the bare minimum prerequisites for the job. Usually after the phone interview, applicants are narrowed down and sent for deliberation by the hiring manager. After deliberations, in-person interviews are arranged with the applicants who were selected through phone interview. One person usually does all the phone calls. The benefit of having only one person set up every interview is that each and every applicant will be given the same information.
Tests:
Tests may take a number of forms. IQ Tests assess an applicant’s mental skills counting their literacy, numeracy and problem solving skills. Psychometric Tests are used to gauge the candidate’s behaviour and consist of an assortment of statements to which the candidate would strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree. Results on that applicant’s s personality are drawn from his/her answers to these statements. Medical tests determine whether a candidate is physically suitable for the job or not. Attainment Test is an exhibition of candidate’s learned ability. For example, a candidate applying for a secretary position may be tested on his/her capability to type 100 words in one minute without any error. Aptitude Test calculates a candidate’s innate capabilities related exclusively to a job (Anon., 2014).
Face-to-Face Interview and Selection:
The most important part of the recruitment process is the interview. As a result, it is vital to get ready for the interview beforehand. For every expertise needed for the position, hiring managers plan one or two questions which will indicate if the candidate has this particular skill or not. Interviews can be taken in the form of one-to-one interview where there is one interviewer per candidate or a panel interview with a number of interviewers asking the questions according to their own field of expertise. They compare every candidate by asking the same questions so that comparing them can be done more easily later.
Interviews in general have some rules so as to be successful.
Interview Dos and Don’ts:

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Dos
Dont’s
Reaching early, making a good first impression
Reaching after the assigned time
Showing optimism
Showing negative attitude
Knowledge about the company
Vague idea about the company
Dressing professionally
Wear jeans
When introducing, give a determined handshake
Giving lose grip handshake
Sitting forward and looking interested
Slouching
Make constant eye contact
Avoid eye contact

After all interviews have been taken, managers then narrow the number of candidates by getting rid of the resumes of the applicants who do not have the required qualifications. Sometimes they take an extra interview of the finalists, or send these final candidates over to colleagues for discussion for a second judgment.
Extending an Employment Offer:
Once hiring managers have decided which applicant is most appropriate for the job position, they prepare the job offer. They notify the applicant of pre-employment issues, such as background checks, licensing information, drug tests or any other medical tests or information that is required. After negotiating the conditions of employment, benefits and compensation, and other issues, a rough copy of employment offer is exchanged back and forth from the company’s HR to the applicant until both parties are in contract. An employment offer is usually always in writing format so that the prospective employee has document of the terms of agreement (Mayhew, 2018).
Recruitment is the procedure of recognizing that the company needs to hire someone when application forms for the advertised job post arrive at the organisation. Then the selection process includes methods involved in picking from candidates a suitable one to fill the specific post. Recruiting people to fill specific positions within an organization can also be done internally by recruiting within the firm.
There are many advantages of internally recruiting an employee to fill a vacancy. They are:
i. The company can make considerable savings by avoiding advertisements. Employees with the inside facts of how the business runs will require shorter time in training and getting acquaintance with the whole operation.
ii. The organisation is not likely to be very much ‘disrupted’ by an individual who was already working within the organisation with other employees.
iii. Internal promotion works as an encouragement to every staff to perform better within the organisation.
iv. The strengths and weaknesses of an existing employee will have already been measured by the organization. On the other hand, there is always a probable risk involved in recruiting an outsider who may not get along with other in the organization and only be a winner ‘on paper’.

Importance of recruitment and selection process for the organization:
Any business owner would want a team that can be trusted to get the job done for the company and can work on their own if needed. It can be very hard to find loyal employees who work hard for the company. Thus, companies should take the time to come up with a recruiting and selection process that is continuously looking for candidates with the skills and qualities required by them and have the motivation to work for the organization. A good selection process will not only discover great employees but saves any organization money and time on replacing wrong hires and training new people.
Finding Quality Candidates:
Having employees who are good in quality and loyal to the organization is the number one objective for employers. Thus, constructing a job description and promoting it in different platforms to attract candidates with the appropriate set of skills is the primary step. It is vital to recognize what tasks the business need the new recruit to do and whether or not that employee can be trained to do specific jobs. For instance, a plumber employing a bookkeeper to manage his/her accounts is not going to want to guide a bookkeeper on how to do the job.
Saving Training Time and Money with Proper Selection:
Appropriate selection process means the organization does not need to all the time replace people which will save money and time on the training of new candidates. A downtime can negatively influence business revenues when the company becomes short-staffed. This is why keeping turnover low is imperative. Costs and time are spent putting out job advertisements, interviews and then training new people. So, companies should take the time to pick correctly the first time which will help mitigating this.

Reduce Potential Legal Ramifications:
When a systematic method is in place that an organization follows for all candidates, it reduces the chances of getting in any kind of employment-related legal matters. Keeping interview questions professional is vital to put a stop to any misconceptions. Also, giving the same tests to each candidate will result in no favoured treatment (Leonard, 2018).
From the above discussion it is evident that recruitment and selection process is very important for an organization and its human resource management. A company is an accumulation of its people and if the right people are not hired, then it can never reach its full potential. It is the responsibility of the hiring manager that s/he constructs an appropriate selection process without any biasness that will help the organization in attracting proper candidates. After recruiting, it is also important to train them and make them aware of the jobs that need to be done by them. Building a detailed job analysis, job description and person specification while recruiting will help organizations in making sure what skills and qualifications are required by the candidates and also they will have a clear picture of what is expected from them.

Human resource management is one of the most significant functions of any organization since it is nothing without its people and the work of HR usually starts with recruitment and selection. After which other HR functions like Training and Development, Performance Management and Employee Engagement comes into effect. Thus, it is imperative that the initial work of the HR department is done right so that the following functions can be less complex. Meaning, if the right candidate is not selected then their training needs to be done correctly to make them right for the job and also if they are not performing well then performance appraisals will be negative and they will not be engaged with the core beliefs of the organization. Recruitment and selection process prevents this ripple effect within the organization in the beginning and as a result plays a significant role.