QUESTION 1 What international events influenced the development of Environmental Education and Education for Sustainability? List the key developments and events in a short 1-page point-form account providing the relevant names of events and dates/ years in which they took place 1) The 1972 United Nations Conference on Human Environment – Stockholm It led directly to the establishment of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), which became the first UN agency to have its headquarters located outside of Europe and North America – in Nairobi in Kenya, East Africa. Among the first tasks given to the UNEP was to establish term ‘environmental education’. Together with Unesco, UNEP organised the first International Workshop on Environmental Education in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in 1975 and following on this, the first Inter-governmental Conference on Environmental Education held at Tbilisi in the USSR in 1977. This conference resulted in the declaration of 12 principals – now referred to as the Tbilisi Principals of Environmental Education which provided the framework and guidelines for the practise of environmental education on a global, regional, and national scale. The 1987 International Conference on Environmental Education held in Moscow reaffirmed the Tbilisi Principals as sound guidelines for the development of national environment al education programmes. 2) The Tbilisi Principles of Environmental Education Consider the environment in its totality – natural and built, technological and social (economic, political, cultural-historical, moral, aesthetic) Be a continuous lifelong process, beginning at the preschool level and continuing through all formal and non-formal stages Be interdisciplinary in its approach, drawing on the specific content of each discipline in making possible a holistic and balanced perspective Examine major environmental issues from local, national, regional, and international points of view so that students receive insights into environmental conditions in other geographical areas Focus on current and potential environmental situations while taking into account the historical perspective Promote value of, and necessity for local, national, and international cooperation in the prevention and solution of environmental problems Explicitly consider environmental aspects in plans for the development and growth Enable learners to have a role in planning their learning experiences and provide an opportunity for making decisions and accepting their consequences Enable learners to have a role in planning their learning experiences and provide an opportunity for making decisions and accepting their consequences Relate environmental sensitivity, knowledge. Problem-solving skills and values clarification to every age, but with special emphasis on environmental sensitivity to the learner’s own community in early years Help learners discover the symptoms and real causes of environmental problems Emphasise the complexity of environmental problems and thus the need to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills Utilise diverse learning environments and a broad array of educational approaches to teaching/ learning about and from the environment, with due stress on practical activities and first-hand experience 3) The 1992 Rio Earth Summit The 1992 Earth Summit focused on the role of environmental education as an educational response to the environmental crisis. Chapter 36 of Agenda 21 (UNCED, 1992), was one of the key documents to emerge from the conference , emphasises the need for wide-scale environmental educational programmes in diverse settings, while the “BioDiversity Convention” includes education and capacity building , as do many of the other international conventions aimed at responding to a wide range of environmental issues Agenda 21 describes environmental education processes that involve teachers and learners in “promoting sustainable development and improving the capacity of people to address environment and development issues” illustrating the close link between changes in the field of environmental education and the prominence of the notion of sustainable development at the Rio Earth Summit. A development linked to the 1992 Earth Summit was the development of a Treaty on Environmental Education for Sustainable Societies, which was adopted at a plenary meeting by the International Forum of NGOs and Social Movements