PESTS OF PULSES

INTRODUCTION:

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

          In Asia pulses are the major source
of protein and important supplement to predominantly cereal based diet.
According to the environmental condition such as high temperature and high
humidity which favours the insect to affect the plants. In 1973 Nene find out
India faced a huge economical loses by viral disease called yellow mosaic
diseases this disease are transferred by whiteflies (Bemisia
tabaci) it cause 100% yield loss. This affect important major pulse
crops, black gram (Vigina mungo),
mung bean (Vigna radiate L.), French bean (Phaseolus
vulgaris L.), and soya bean (Glycine max).
In 1972 National Research council said plant diseases are more virulent form of
a disease develop.

TWO
MAJOR PULSES PEST:

Ø GRAM AND POD BORER

Ø REDGRAM POD FLY

GRAM
AND POD BORER:

v Biological
name: Helicoverpa
armigera or Heliothis obseleta

v Classification:

·       
Class: Insecta

·       
Order: Lepidoptera

·       
Family: Noctuidae

Pest status:

          The
host plant for the pest is red gram, green gram, black gram, Bengal gram,
soyabean and pea. Caterpillars caused a damaged to the pest. For a short time
the larva feeds on the leaves and then attacks the pods. This pest is also
called as polyphagous pest.

Morphology of the pest:

          The shape of the egg is spherical and
yellowish in colour. The female moth lays their eggs on tender leaves.
Incubation period for the egg is 3 to 4 days. The larval period is about 18-25
days. The pupa period varies 6-12days the pupa present below the soil. After
that the adult moth is hatch out from the pupa it look like a light brown in
colour with v shaped specks on the forewings and a dark border on the hind wings.

                         

                                     GRAM
POD BORER

Control measures:

    As a prevention manner 5% neem will
be extract in 10 liter of water must be spread throw out the crop at the
flowering stage.

    Mechanically the light traps can be
used to attract the moths.

     Chemical control like endosulfan, malathion,
carbaryl, phosalone, and profenophos, are used to kill the moths.

    The bacterial pathogen Bacillus
thuringiensis is also effective against Helicoverpa
armigera.

REDGRAM
POD FLY:

v BIOLOGICAL
NAME: Melanogromyza
obtuse.

v Classification:

·       
Class: Insecta

·       
Order: Diptera

·       
Family: Agromyzidae

Pest status:

          Important pests of red gram, green
gram, black gram and arhar (pigeon pea). It feed inside the tunnels and the
young maggot bores into the soft seeds. For consumption and germination the
damaged seeds are unfit to used. The damaged rate is highly in north and
central India and Karnataka.

Morphology of pest;

            The pest is small and black in
colour it inserts their eggs into tender pods. They have a distinct eye, wings
are clear veined, at the basal region is brownish yellow in colour. Young
maggot look like a creamy white in colour.

Life cycle:

v Female lay up to 79 eggs in its life
time.

v Period of incubation is about 3 days.

v Larval period is up to 9-10 days.

v After larval period fully grown
maggot is hatch out and go inside the larval grooves in pods. Period for pupal
is about 8-12 days.

v Adult flies emerge from the pupae.                                       

Control measures:

    Chemical controls of monocrotophos
1.5ml/l or dimethoate 2ml/l, are effective against larva and the endosulfan,
malathiom , and lindane are effective against pest.

During winter first brood of affected pods
wanted to be remove