One of the reasons people were mistreated and outcast was because they had different appearances than others. Their eyes have epicanthal folds and are more almond shaped and their irises may have Brushfield spots. The bridge of the nose smaller making it appear to be a button nose. The neck may be thicker and have excess flesh, this is one of the traits that can be seen on an ultrasound. All around people with down syndrome tend to have a lower than normal muscle tone. All people with down syndrome have an additional copy of chromosome 21 existent in a great majority of their cells. The characteristics of down syndrome are caused by the excess genetic that modifies the development. Because of the physical differences of people with down syndrome they were often mistreated and they still are to this day. The origin of this extra chromosome is still unclear, the only thing that has been associated to an increased chance of having a baby with down syndrome is the age of the mother whilst pregnant. “Once a woman has given birth to a baby with trisomy 21 or translocation, it is estimated that her chances of having another baby with trisomy 21 is 1 in 100 up until age 40.” Women under the age of 35 gave birth to 80% of children with down syndrome. . The partial or full copy of the 21 chromosome which causes down syndrome can come from either of the parents, relativity 5% of the cases have been tracked to the father. Most cases are random occurrences but, in about ? of occurrences, one of the parents is carrying a translocated chromosome. The oldest case of down syndrome was found in the skeleton of a child who died 1500 years ago in the abbey of Saint-Jean-des-Vignes in northeastern France. According to the archaeologists, the way the child was buried implicated that humans with down syndrome were not necessarily “stigmatized” in the middle ages. ┬áThe small child had been laid on its back in the tomb, in an “east-west” direction with the head at the westward end which was common with all of the dead at the necropolis, this implicates that the child was treated no differently in death from other members of the society. It seems that people in medieval times did not mistreat people with disability. The Eastern State Hospital in Williamsburg, Virginia was known as the first state to form an institution for the mentally ill. Mentally ill people were called terrible names such as lunatics and idiots. “Hundreds of thousands of developmentally disabled children and adults are institutionalized, many for life.”. Institutionalization was not generally forced but parents were often firmly encouraged to institutionalize their kids and told to dismiss from their minds any memory or thought of that particular family member. It wasn’t until the 1950s that “deinstitutionalization” began, along with the closing of insane asylums and a couple mental institutions.