Devesh Dwivedi

no.: 09

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name: Communication Process




is the process of exchange of information, ideas, thoughts, emotions, feelings
and bringing sender and receiver at par with each other. To have any
communication to take place there should be some degree of commonness. Hence idea
of message, it’s interpretation and the environment of usage are critical
factor for its success.

Communication Model


Source- The entity with
information/idea to share is known as source.Source could be a person or an
institution (organisation).


Encoding- Once the
sender/source has some information to be shared it needs to be framed into a
particular form which is easy for the receiver to understand and even give the
real meaning of information. This process of framing by choosing appropriate
words, pictures, symbols etc is called Encoding


Message- It is the end
result of encoding. It is framed and structured way of information using
appropriate elements. Message can be verbal or nonverbal or any other form like
oral or written or mix of both. It should be easy to be used for the desired
channel of communication.


Channel- It is the means
by which message(communication) is transferred or travelled from sender to receiver.
Personal and non-personal are two broad categories of channel.


Receiver- The individual
with whom the information, emotions, and ideas are to be shared is called
receiver. In IMC or Advertising receivers are usually consumers from the target


Decoding- It is the method
of interpreting the message to understand the information, emotions and


Noise- This is the
unwanted information, interference and distortions in the message.


Feedback or Response- It
is how the receiver react to the particular communication.


Analyzing the Receiver


In order to have a desired
response to the communication and communicate effectively to the customer the
information and choice of the target audience is important. What the audience
know and feel about the product/service or the brand is a must that marketers
must know about the audience. They should also know how likely the market is
going to respond to a particular message.


Identifying the Target


The process of
communications begins with identifying the receiver in case of marketing
communication the receiver is the target audience. The identification of target
audience is must for the success of marketing communication to achieve the
desired action and marketing objective. The target audience depends on how the
brand, product or service is positioned. The target audience could be mass market,
market segments, niche markets or individuals/groups. There are different
approaches to communicate to each set of audience.


The Response Process


It is the basic
understanding of how the consumers go about the marketing communication to
perform a specific behaviour and how consumers are influenced by promotional


Traditional Response
Hierarchy Model


AIDA Model- It is the
model which talks about how to take the consumers/costumers from getting their
attention, generating their interest ,having desire to use/being affiliated to
the product/service or brand and thereby getting the desired action from the
consumer usually purchase. This model is prominent among salespersons.



FCB Grid


FCB grid is based on the
fact that left and right side of brain are working differently and perfom
different task ie rational thinking and other part is more towards feelings and
emotions.FCB Grid Model is used for understating what kind of advertising is
suitable for which category. The classification is done on should the
advertising be rational informative or emotional feel. How the target audience
behave (buying behaviour).What are the motivations for buying. What kind of
need is fulfilled by the buying.


FCB grid classifies the
advertising into 4 quadrants. On Y axis is has the factor involvement while
buying (High Involvement or Low Involvement) whereas on X axis it has Thinking
or Feeling as the two extremes.