Name: Bongcales, Ailen A. Criteria:
Subject Course: Hist. 2. Life and Works of Rizal Content
Reflection # 1 Organization of ideas Citation & Bibliography


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Every individuals, groups, and nation has a what we called as a “hero”. Some says their mother or father is their hero because they are the reason of their existence in this wonderful world. They are the one who protect, love, care, understand, sacrifice and most of all give you a better living. Like a parents, a hero is the one who knows the best for everyone, one who is willing to sacrifice for the benefits of others or all. Like Dr. Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado Y Alonzo Realonda, our National Hero who had a big impact or help in our country.
The life of Rizal talks about how he inspired a good Filipino hero. He was a man who is legendary known as one of the greatest Filipino heroes in the Philippines. As I read and reflect his story by Gregorio and Sonia Zaide, 1992.It was stated the violence created by the Spaniards against the Filipino people, how they maltreat people. I observed the similarities of some scene in relevance to the youth especially most of the students today where they faced the harsh reality of life such as the fairly bad treatment to their families as well as for the women. That is, if not physically were verbally abused by those in power such as politicians. Because of that situation, instead of paying back the violence or paying like an eye for an eye, Jose Rizal wrote a novels entitled “Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo to show the cruelties inflicted by the Spaniards to the Filipinos (Jenifer Orias Catcha). In my point of view, his writing gave a sign of hope for enlightening nationalist minds. It also reminds me and inspired to love our own nation Philippines because this is our place, this is our identity as who we are, and where we belong.
Rizal also was considered by many to be the national hero of the Philippines. He was a doctor, a writer, and an intellectual who traveled abroad and to the provinces declaring that the Filipino people were capable of self-government and did not need to be ruled by Spaniards or any other foreign power .Rizal was an influential individual on Filipino independence, and education, as well as a bolster to Filipino self- image and mindset (Joseph Curry, 2018). Truly Rizal has a great help or impact in our country, Because as what we experienced today, We Filipinos had a freedom that we are enjoying nowadays, and the women today has the equal rights among men. Like for example, women has no right to be elected as a president, women in the past were only doing household chores but now women can be a president and able to do what men can do.
According to Ronica Valdeavilla, 2018, Dr. Jose P. Rizal is the national hero of the Philippines, is not only admired for possessing intellectual brilliance but also for taking a stand resisting the Spanish colonial government, while his death sparked a revolution to overthrow the tyranny, Rizal will always remembered for his compassion towards the Filipino people and the country. There a sayings of Rizal Says that “The Youth is the Hope of Our Nation”. This saying was truly believed in every student and every individual. Because as what I have observed nowadays, Youth has a creative mind. They are willing to change the nation into a better one. Through studying well and putting into practice what we’ve learned and through the lesson learned by the teachers, we can help our nation for development.
The Americans through the American Governor William Howard Taft, recommended the Philippine Commission, which was sponsored by the United States, to declare that Jose Rizal was a hero of the Philippines. Despite of the execution of Rizal against Spaniards, he was recommended because he used his skills in writing or he used pen as a substitute of arm or violence or harassment. As what the historian Rafael Palma said” It is always said in many cultures that the pen is mightier than sword, the blood of academics scholars are better than that blood of warriors, wars are not won in the battlefield, it’s pure politics.
Jose Rizal was truly to be called as a National Hero, for he had a big help in our country. He was one of the reasons of the freedom we are enjoying today. He taught us to be a good student or a good Filipino citizen. He taught us to pursue whatever our dreams in life. He also taught us to respect our parents and all the people around us of whatever races they belong. And of course Jose Rizal’s life served as a beacon to each and every Filipinos to do the best of their efforts for the country’s development as well as for educating the people where his legacy lives on.

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My reading strategies to master academic text: developing thoughtful students: using learning styles in a higher education.

university life is good but at the same time it can be stressful. In order to succeed academically in university, you will need to have strong vocabulary in order to succeed.

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Even if you are not good at reading academic text, you can still improve your reading skills and be an effective reader. One of the reasons that lead to dropouts in university. Learners they feel pressure because they don’t know how to cope.

In this section we will look at different reading strategies you can use in university, in order to master academic text. Such as skimming, scanning, specific reading, lastly, in-depth reading.

Skim reading
This is the process whereby you quickly read a text, article or a passage without reading word by word, but rather you are reading to get the general idea of what the passage is about. When you skim read, you are looking for specific information, in other words you ignore all what is written and focus on what you are looking for. You have to read the whole text first, before you skim read, in that way you will comprehend what is written. Skim reading not only help readers find specific information but it also saves time.

Skim reading is the most common type of reading strategy used in universities to encourage students to be effective readers. In the tertiary institution you will notice that students are required to read long and difficult academic text with, some take 20 pages. But with skim reading you can easily read and understand what the whole text is about without having to read each and every word.

You will need to familiarise yourself with different academic texts, because you will be reading much of them. But if you can master this reading style, without any doubt you will feel like university is easy. I prefer to use skim reading when I am looking for specific information or when I want to get the general idea of the text without having to read all the information. You might use skimming to; look into a book and choose what you want to read.

when you scan, you are only looking for a specific information. Unlike skimming you want to know the general idea of the text you are reading. Most of the time scanning can be done when you know how the things you are looking for are arranged, such as cell phone number on your cell. You know very well where you will find that alphabet you are looking. Scanning can be done if you are in a hurry. many students use scanning when looking for something specific. you might use scanning to; to find a certain word in a dictionary, to find an address on your cell phone, etc.
specific reading
specific reading, it is when you are looking for something specific, it can be in a textbook or newspaper. Specific reading it is almost the same as skimming and scanning, the only difference is that you have to understand the question before looking. specific reading is the easiest reading style. When you are looking for something specific, you also save time, because you know for sure what you are looking for. But even though you are looking for something specific, you must learn the whole text first, and get the general idea of the text, there after go back to the questions.
Sometimes specific reading is not easy as it looks. The text can have difficult words that can make you misunderstand the text. You must have a dictionary by your side so that when you come across difficult words, you can note them down, and make some notes.

In-depth reading
This is the process where you have to read a text thoroughly in order to get the general idea of the meaning. A well written introduction and conclusion can make a reader understand the text without reading further. In order for me to understand an academic text well, I will firstly read it using in-depth reading, in this way I can easily understand it. When using in-depth reading as a reading strategy, your reading pace will be slower compared to skimming and scanning. You have to highlight the main point when reading so that later you can be able to summarise.

Planning reading
Whenever I am about to read, I firstly plan. Planning is very important in everything you do. When you want to read, you have to dedicate yourself, that is the only way you can focus. I often drink lots of water while reading to avoid dehydration. I will have my pens in place, highlighters, eraser, ruler, and etc. I use these materials while I read.

While reading, I focus mostly on the arguments of the author to get the general idea. Is the writer’s argument valid, that is the kind of questions I ask myself while reading, I also try to find supposition, according to what is written in the text.
When analysing a text, I try to look into it in details. I do not only focus on what is written but I also make assumptions to what might happen or should have happen. You cannot analyse if you do not understand the story, that is why you must understand it first before you can analyse.

I now try to write what is written by the author in my own word to show that I understand. Whenever I disagree with the writer I must support my statement with facts.

Reading to perform specific task
In order to master reading academic articles, you have to know various strategies. Sometimes it is not only about knowing, but applying. For examples reading for an assignment is not the same as reading a test. For an assignment you have to go in deeper details. But most of the time in test, they want straight answer. It is important to know different reading strategies as a university student. This will make you succeed on your studies.

Whenever I read something, I must find a purpose to do so. I cannot read just for the sake of reading. I will check if is it appropriate? Will I benefit on it? If yes, then I will carry on with my reading and try to get the general idea of the text.

I firstly ask myself, is there anything I will learn from reading this, if yes then I will read.
Reading an academic article is sometimes difficult, not because you don’t want to read, but because of vocabulary you find in it. You must always read in a way you will understand. If the article is long, try to read it piece by piece.

I will read the whole text on my own, then pick main ideas by highlighting them. This also help me when answering questions that are based on the text.

Personal interest and motivations
What motivates me to plan my reading is that, with planning you can guarantee success in everything you intend to do. The way I plan my reading, it makes me to focus while I read. I know what is the purpose behind mind reading.
While I read, I try to read the whole text, so that it will be easy for me to find the general idea in the text I am reading.

Whenever I make assumptions about a story, I try to look and the facts and arguments made by the author.
Quasar method
this is the method that will encourage critical thinking on the reader. These are the questions I will ask myself:
I relate ideas I come across while reading yes/no
I read straight from start to finish yes/no
Am I a fast reader yes/no
I write down facts based on the text yes/no
I summarise what the story is about yes/no
I try to relate what I am reading to real life, this makes it easier for me to understand.

By only scanning introduction, heading, sub-heading, and conclusion. I can easily understand the whole article I am reading.

Visual learning style
(spatial) These are the people who prefer to learn visually, meaning they want to see what they are learning such as pictures, images, and etc.

Aural learning style
These are the people who learn the most by hearing sounds. It can be a teacher speaking, this makes them to remember the information more easily.

Verbal learning style
(linguistic) These are the people who learn the most by using words, both in speech and writing.

(kinesthetic) These are the people who learn the most by using their body, hands and sense of touch. They remember more by touching.

Logical (mathematical) These are the people who prefer using their logic, reasoning and systems.

Social (interpersonal) These are the people who prefer to learn in groups and with other people. They don’t learn on their own
Solitary (intrapersonal) These are the people who prefer to work alone and in private. They don’t usually rely on people to gain.

The article is about different learning styles that can be used by different kinds of learners in the tertiary institution.

Visual learning style
When we are talking about visual learning style. These learners they prefer to learn what they see. It can be a picture, images, graphs, and etc. but they tend to remember more when they see, instead of just reading the whole textbook.

Every school must have a variety of learning materials which can cater different learners from different background. There must be posters, charts, pictures on the wall, so that every learner can be able to learn. As a teacher, it is your duty to assist every learner the best way one can so that learners can progress from grade to grade. This cannot happen without enough learner-teacher support materials. In order for South Africa to be a developed country, government must invest more money on education.

Auditory learning style
This is the oldest learning style as its relevant to the “talk and chalk” teaching method used by teachers to convey the content. An auditory learner, learns through listening. These learners depend mostly on what they can hear being taught or told. Listening is their way of learning for them to be able to apply what they have learnt.

These learners tend to understand when they hear from the teacher. If not, they cannot apply what the teacher wants from them, as a result, they fail. Every teacher must try to apply different styles of teaching, so that every learner can be able to gain information.
The teacher must also be active while in class, it has been proven, that if a teacher is not active, it can reflect negative energy from learners. It is important for a teacher to know the content they teach. The way you convey it to class plays a significant role in the success of the learner.

Verbal learning style
Learners who use verbal learning style to learn, they usually prefer to learn using words both verbally and in writing. These learners are different compared to those who learn with auditory learning style or visual learning. Verbal learning style allows learners to learn through writing and speaking, unlike learners who learn the most through hearing what the teacher is saying. Verbal learners can hear what is being taught in class and they are able to communicate or convey it. In order for them to recall the information they have learnt or the content, they have to recite, or speak it out either explaining what they understood or share among their peers. In addition, learners who are more verbal than visual or auditory, can be assessed easily through oral assessments or presentations such as prepared speech, or through questions.
Physical ( kinesthetic ) learning style
Kinesthetic learners learn best through being physically actively involved. They are usually more practical than theoretical meaning for them to understand and learn the content they must be hands-on and minds-on. Through their way of learning they are able to construct and comprehend the content of knowledge. Instead of making a lesson theoretical rather let it be theoretical and practical, giving them practical activities like investigations, projects etc.
Logical (mathematical)
Logical learners are learners who prefer using their logical reasoning, and systems. These learners learn best through constructing their own understanding, using their logic to reason what they are being taught. These learners are usually critical thinkers, thinking things through in order to make sense out of them. They usually ask questions that will help them understand and reason what they are being taught.
Social (interpersonal)
Intrapersonal learners are learners who prefer to learn in groups or among other people. They barely learn on their own. These learners learn best from or among their peers. In social groups they are more productive, they understand the content better, they are participative and free to engage in activities and ask questions.
Solitary (intrapersonal)
Unlike interpersonal learners, intrapersonal learners prefer to learn or work alone. They are more private and work effectively on their own.
Understanding Comprehension
The main argument argues that the use of different learning styles can be developed beyond by teachers using different teaching styles, and they can be used in a way that is different from what they used to be. It has further been discussed that the matching hypothesis can be used to match the learning styles of the students with the teachers learning styles. Teachers must not be fixed on one style of teaching, but they must be able to use different styles of teaching, this would not only make learners interested while in class, but it can stimulate their minds, so that they can focus on what they are reading.

Teachers must know their content, in which they are teaching, but that is not the case, the main point rely on the fact, “how you present” the content onto the class. This is the most important part in education. Every teacher has a qualification which makes them to be teachers, but not all of them are good teachers. Some of them are boring teachers, but not like they have boring appearance, but it is how they present their lesson in class makes them boring teachers.

Reading proficiency
“Literacy” is described as the skills and knowledge that is necessary to learn to read including beginning reading, listening, speaking and writing. Reading can be described as a set of skill that are needed to learn from reading and be able to understand the meaning of different texts. It is important for you as a child to master these techniques, because you cannot be an effective reader if you did not master these techniques.

Reading is the most important tool you can use to gain information. Reading does not only make you prosperous on your studies, but it also makes us to be aware of what is going on around the world daily. With reading, we can be updated on the daily news happening around the world.
Interaction with the text
Learners who have skills in reading are not passive readers. They are highly active while reading: thinking, imagining, wondering, and evaluating as they read. But when it comes to those learners who do not have skills in reading they just read word by word, with no idea without realising that you need to understand what you are reading and general ideas. All students benefit from explicit instruction and practice in interactive reading. These skills can also make those learners with low skills, to also understand different texts. And it also allows those learners who know how to read, to even read more and have different strategies when reading. I still think that I need to improve on how I interact with texts. So that I can be considered highly skilled reader.

reading different texts also makes them to focus, and to participate, so that they can understand the comprehension. You can also notice student when they are confused by thinking actively. Learners learn in different ways. These learners make interaction with the text while reading, this also makes them to focus and to be interested while reading. Interacting with a text makes you to understand what you are reading. it can also make you to become an effective reader.

Content area adaption
learners read for the sake of reading, students should practice interacting with text when they are reading a text. This will also make to have interest when reading novel, a poem, a science or a primary source document. Many skill students rely only on deliberate interaction strategies when they are reading texts that they find boring. But there are different strategies that can help learners to read.

Need to improve critical reading skills
There are two steps to prepare to read critically
Self-reflect: what experiences, assumptions, knowledge, and perspective you bring to the text? What biases might you have? Are you able to keep an open mind and consider other points of view?
Read to understand:
Examine the text and context: who is the author? Who is the publisher? Where and when was it written? What kind of text is it?
Skim the text: what is the topic? What are the main ideas?
Resolve confusion: look up unfamiliar words or terms in dictionaries or glossaries. Go over difficult passages to clarify them.

What is the process for reading critically?
in order to read critically you must think critically. This involve analysis,
interpretation, and evaluation.