NAME: SAKAPUTU MARIA B
STUDENT NO: 201610322
MODULE: BIOSAFETY, BIOETHICS AND IPR (CHB 3742)
BIOETHICAL ISSUE: ORGAN DONATION
For the past two decades, organ donation has increased drastically across the globe, but the shortage of organs remains. The Cleveland clinic defines organ donation as a process of removing an organ from one person’s body and surgically placing it in another person’s body. Organs such as lungs, liver, intestines, heart, pancreas, kidney and many more can be donated or transplanted however; the most donated organs are liver, kidney, heart and lungs. These organs can be donated by a deceased donor or living donor. Organ donation statistics said: In 2016, more than 33600 donations were made, in 2017, 42609 organs were donated, more than 116000 men, women and children are on national waiting list for a life-saving organ transplant and 8000 people die every year due organs not donated on time. Religions such as Jehovah’s Witness, Greek Orthodox, and Gypsies are against organ donation, but the government encourages this process worldwide, as countries have put up systems to persuade donors to register.

Arguments for and against
According to Florida Today, it is ethical to donate an organ as a single organ donor can save up to eight lives. Organ donation has no age limit; therefore anyone of any age group can be a donor. Organ donation helps many families of donors during their grieving process, it does not take away their pain but it makes them happy knowing that one of them saved someone’s life. However, organ donation does not fully benefit the donor as it may lead to complications such as diabetes and high blood pressure. Organ transplant can leads to diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, sexual problems, anxiety and depression in the recipient and it might also lead to death if the organ is not the recipient’s match or size. There sale of organs affects the nation’s economy in a way that many people will end up selling their organs for a living. The poor do not afford organ donation, while the rich embrace it as an opportunity to enhance survival.

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Legal resolution
The Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994 states that “before the removal of body organs, a registered medical practitioner should certify that life or brain-stem function have ceased and no hospital or other place is authorized to remove organs of human unless appropriate authority like the state or central government authorizes and register it”. The laws of different countries concerning organ donation allow donors or their families to allow or refuse the donation. In the European Union, organ donation is regulated by the members of the states, while in England donors volunteer themselves (Cohen, 1992). In 2006 the UK Organ Donation Taskforce was established with the task of identifying barriers to donation and making recommendations for increasing donation and procurement within the current legal framework (Organ donation Taskforce report, 2008).

Organ donation is said to be a lifesaving process as it gives many individuals a second chance to life; however it puts the donor’s and recipient’s life at risk , it can also rise ethical concerns. The rejection of an organ can cause diseases or even worst death can occur and the donor has to be informed about all the risks involved in the process. Organ donation from deceased donors seem to be the safer than donation from a living donor, since the person is already dead and taking an organ from their bodies causes no harm to the deceased body. To sum up, organ donors are needed in every corner of the world to safe thousands of lives, but the shortage of organs keeps increasing, therefore countries such as Spain, Belgium and Australia have changed in legislation and introduced presumed consent, whereby organs can be used after death for transplantation unless individuals have objected during their lifetime an opt-out system (Anon, 2005).

References
Anon, (2005). Impact of presumed consent for organ donation on donation rates: a systematic review. Available at: http://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.a3162.

Cleveland Clinic: Organ donation and transplantation. Retrieved from http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/11750-organ-donation-and-transplantationCohen, C (1992). “The Case for Presumed Consent”. Transplantation Proceedings. 24(5): 2168-2172.

Florida Today (2015, Apr 8). Retrieved from https://www.google.com.na/amp/s/amp.floridatoday.com/amp/25461617Organ Donation Statistics 2018. Retrieved from http://organdonation.com/organ-donation-statistics-2018/Organ Donation Taskforce. Organ for transplant: a report from the Organ Donation Taskforce. London: Department of Health, 2008.

Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994.

Name:Mohamed Saad Abdul Cader
Student No:SID 8308
Module Name:Strategic Brand Management
Study Centre:Strategy –Sri Lanka
TABLE OF CONTENT
TASK ONE (Words 1274)
1.1Brand Audit for Coca Cola2
1.2 Brand Association and Brand Awareness of Coca Cola4
1.3 Critical Evaluation of the current status of the brand and the challenges faced by Coca Cola at present4
TASK TWO (Words 1358)
2.1 Brand Planning6
2.2 Strategic Recommendation7
2.3 Designing of Marketing Mix9
References 11
To: Marketing Manager
From: Mohamed Saad Cader – Brand Manager
Subject: Brand Plan for Coca Cola
TASK ONE
1.1 Brand Audit for Coca Cola
Owner of the Brand – Coca Cola Incorporation is the owner of the Coca Cola brand, head quartered in USA
History of the Brand – Coca Cola brand was first introduced in 1886 by a pharmacist named Dr. John S. Pemberton. This original recipe for Coca Cola was initially sold a patent medicines in soda fountain stores claiming that it would be a remedy for ailments which includes nausea, heartburns and headaches. The bookkeeper of Dr. Pemberton designed the logo and named the beverage as “Coca Cola”.

Prior to Pemberton’s death he sold the business to an Atlanta businessman named Candler and by 1889 Candler acquired the rights for both the formula and the Coca Cola name and the brand. He incorporated Coca Cola company in 1892 expanding the distribution of Coca Cola syrup concentrates to soda fountains beyond Atlanta. Moreover, Candler promoted the drink through giving free drink vouchers and also outfitting pharmacies and soda fountains with items carrying Coca Cola branding.

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The marketing promotions carried out resulted in a significant increase in demand. In 1894 a businessman in Mississippi began bottling the beverage in order to make t portable. By 1895 Candler built bottling plants in multiple cities to deal with the increasing demand. CITATION Mah09 l 1033 (Sagar, 2009)With the beverage gaining popularity in the bottle form, many counterfeits were produced. This compelled Coca Cola to invest in advertising to urge the public to demand the genuine. As a result, in 1916 the first contour bottle was manufactured allowing Coca Cola to distinguish its products from the imitations.

In 1919 Coca Cola Company was sold to a group of investors and as a result the company was expanded talking Coca Cola brand and beverage to the rest of the world.

Coca Cola started distributing bottles as “six packs”, encouraging customers to purchase the beverage for their homes as well.

In 1928 Coca cola was introduced as a sponsor for Olympic Games, allowing the company to gain high level international exposure which has continued up to present.

Products offered under the brand – The product portfolio offered by Coca Cola includes over 500 beverage brands, inclusive of 3,500 beverages. These range from regular, low and no calorie sparkling beverages to still beverages such as 100% fruit drinks and fruit juices, sports ; energy drinks, water, teas, coffee and milk and soy-based beverages. CITATION Sau08 l 1033 (Aggarwal, 2008)Position of the brand- Initially the brand was positioned as a patent medicine which can be used as a cure for headache. However, since year 2014 the positioning has changed and has been focused on “live on the coke side of life”, refreshing the world and quenching thirst, cultural values, family, friends, every day life’s joys, open happiness and consistency & high quality. Main highlight of the approach is “think global, act local” approach
Brand Elements – Coca Cola name with the unique letters and the colour, Coca Cola Logo, the contour bottle, the unique taste
Distribution – Within Coca Cola’s distribution strategy bottling partners play a significant role. Company produces the beverage bases, concentrates and syrups and sells to the bottling partners and they manufacture, package and distribute the final product to the vending partners and customer who then again sell the beverage to the consumers. CITATION Ran09 l 1033 (Verma, 2009)Competitors – Direct competitors are Pepsi, Red Bull, Diet Coke/ Diet Pepsi, Fanta, Gatorade, Dr. Pepper, Mountain Dew. Lipton, Nescafe and Tropicana can be identified as the indirect competitors
Approximate value of the brand – The brand value of Coca Cola in 2018 amounts to 79.96 US Dollar Billion.
1.2 Brand Association and Brand Awareness of Coca Cola
Brand association and brand awareness play a significant role in creating strong brand recall in the mind of the customers. Being well aware of this Coca Cola has invested heavily on creating brand awareness and brand association though effective utilization of many modes.

During the initial stage Candler used a coupon system which enabled customers to get free drinks through which created a strong word of mouth popularity for the brand. This contributed effectively in creating the initial brand awareness and association inspiring the customers to try the product. CITATION Kev09 l 1033 (Keller, 2009)Subsequently the brand promotion has been carried out through both conventional and non-conventional advertising which include TV advertising, large display units, magazine advertising, pennants etc. Moreover, Coca Cola has invested heavily in community events, sponsoring the events and also offering free drinks at the events creating an emotional link with the customers. One of the major highlights of the brand promotion activities of the company is sponsoring sports events which are local as well as international which includes massive international events such as the Olympic. Unless and otherwise for the successful brand association and awareness, Coca Cola would never be able to become the global carbonated beverage giant possessing unmatched customer appeal and loyalty.

1.3 Critical Evaluation of the current status of the brand and the challenges faced by Coca Cola at present
Being the world’s largest carbonated beverage manufacturer with extensive presence in more than 200 countries in the world Coca Cola brand and the product holds undisputed customer loyalty and appeal given the consistency in quality and taste in all locations in which it operates and the emotional link that the brand crates with the customer life events.

Coca Cola’s position in the global market remains stable and strong yet the company operates in an extensively competitive business environment where the competition from Pepsi is increasing at a rapid rate. In addition to being profitable and driving business expansion, at present Coca Cola is intensely focused towards building a sustainable community through introduction of initiatives to reduce their environmental foot print, support active and healthy living, create safe and inclusive work environment and also enhance economic development of the communities in which the company operates. CITATION UCM10 l 1033 (Mathur, 2010)Furthermore, it is evident that the sales revenue generated by the brand especially the carbonated beverage portfolio has experienced a sharp drop mainly due to the rapid consumer shift towards healthy consumption patterns.

Amidst the circumstances it should be highlighted that Coca Cola stands strong in the global context withstanding the increasing competition and at the same time investing a considerable amount of money and efforts in new product developments to create business benefits from the emerging trends in consumer preference.

Further to the above, following can be identified as the main challenges faced by Coca Cola brand and the product; CITATION Har061 l 1033 (Verma, 2006)Being well aware of the sugar and calorie levels of Coca Cola and the other carbonated beverages, consumers are increasingly shifting towards healthy beverage types such as fruit drinks and fruit juices. This has resulted in a considerable drop in sales revenue for the company
Another main challenge is company’s inability to find an alternate sweater to be used in its beverage formula in place of sugar which is natural, safe and contains low or no calories.

Scarcity of water and poor quality of the available water- In Coca Cola’s production process water is a main ingredient. At the same time water is a limited resource in many parts of the world. In many instances Coca Cola has been brought to the lime light due to its large volume of water consumption. With the increase in demand for water it is also visible that the quality of the water declines which will increase production cost for the company.

Increasing cost of energy – Coca Cola’s logistics operation involves a large number of trucks and also the production process involves large consumption of electricity, gas and other energy sources. With the increasing cost of energy, it is unavoidable that cost of production would increase shrinking the profit margins. CITATION Kel08 l 1033 (Keller, 2008)TASK TWO
2.1 Brand Planning
Brand planning is seldom an overnight activity, hence requires both time and energy of the brad management team of the company.

The most essential elements in an effective brand planning process involves the following;
Marked Research – Market research is a prima facie element in brand planning mainly to identify where the brand stands in relation to the competitor brands in the market. This can be carried out either through obtaining the services of a professional market researcher or through interviewing the customers.

Target market – Branding requires clear identification of the target market. This is mainly because the modes that the company should use to create brand association and brand awareness widely vary depending on the type of the target customers.

Positioning – This refers to developing a perception amongst the customers on the brand. In order to drive a positive perception, it is a must that a clear marketing message be communicated to the customers. CITATION Kev13 l 1033 (Keller, 2013)Competitive analysis- Identify who the competitors are and how they are competing against the company and its product/ brand. Creating an in-depth knowledge on the competitors through an effective competitor analysis would enable the company to stand out from the competition
Market strategy – Market strategy is the key to driving brand. Company should create a closer look at the entire marketplace and identify specific tactics to create awareness and association with the brand amongst the customers.

Budget – Developing a budget is part and parcel of an effective branding plan. A month by month schedule should be developed to spend on branding, whilst keeping a track on any areas which create over spending.

Metrics- The branding success should be analyzed using either Google Analytics or through simple excel formula to elevate the actual ROI against the budget.

2.2 Strategic Recommendation
center10160Brand Equity Pyramid
00Brand Equity Pyramid

Many of the challenges faced by Coca Cola could be sorted by implementation of actions in line with the brand resonance pyramid identified above.
Brand resonance is driven through the strong connections between the consumer and the brand. Those brands which carry strong brand resonance benefit due to the increased customer loyalty and the decreased vulnerability to competitors’ reactions. The main challenge for the company is to ensure that the customer poses the right experience to generate the right brand knowledge.

In light of the present challenges faced by Coca Cola, The view of that creating and maintaining intense level of customer loyalty would provide solutions to many. For example, though the company has been criticized on many occasions for over use of water which is a scarce resource, with customer loyalty being extensively strong, the adverse impact created on the brand due to pressure group activities could be minimized. Moreover with the increasing cost of energy and the resulting thinning profit margins could also be solved through price increases as with high level of customer loyalty and the strong emotional link maintained between the brand and the customers, it is unlikely that the demand would impactfully drop due to the price increase, as the customers have become extensively price inelastic due to their loyalty towards the brand.

In line with the present trend in healthy consumption amongst customers and the decreasing sales revenue and profitability for carbonated beverage producers due to the high calorie and high sugar content of the products, it is a must for Coca Cola to launch products containing healthy characteristics like low or no calories, low or no sugar etc catering to the needs of the present customer segment as well as maintaining its market share whilst preventing the health and figure conscious customers from switching towards competitors. CITATION Sau08 l 1033 (Aggarwal, 2008)With the customer loyalty high and emotional link between the product and the customers being strong, Coca Cola would be able to position its healthy beverage range, effective, drawing customer appeal across the countries in which it operates creating a tight competition in the market.

25908001019175Brand Value Chain
00Brand Value Chain
Given the strong brand loyalty and reliability it is likely that customers would opt for Coca Cola branded products in place of other brands threatening the existence of smaller/newer brands of healthy beverages whilst creating strong competition against the sales revenue/ profitability and market share of the large players like Pepsi. CITATION Kel08 l 1033 (Keller, 2008)5248275154305Stakeholder Value
00Stakeholder Value
3495675144780Market Performance
00Market Performance
1781175173355Customer Mindset
00Customer Mindset
left201930Marketing Program Investment
00Marketing Program Investment

49053752635253171825255270140017526479529146502470150011620502406654638675259715
ATL/BTL adsCreate awareness Create loyalty Increase share
Healthy beveragesencourage and build premium pricing price, Market
Confidence capitalization
4419600130175Investor sentiment
00Investor sentiment
2647950130175Market place Conditions
00Market place Conditions
885825139700Program Quality
00Program Quality

Emphasis on flavors Wider network distribution, High Brand Awareness
and healthy products, More rangers of product More confident on brand
Clear focus on Coca cola Brand
Brand Value Chain is mainly discussed about the stages of values and how it multiple from the attributes program quality, market place conditions and the investment sentiments. This is important in the context where all board of directors is having only financial background
The main marketing activities are BTL/ATL Promotions, Paper advertisements, Radio advertisements, Sponsorships and brand associations. These events are structured to portray the essence of the brand and the organizations values.

This exposure is targeted at creating a unique pictures and occupying a place in the mind of the consumer. Below are some of the key outcomes of the marketing efforts..These activities create an intense drive in the market place and enable the product to be priced at a premium level in comparison with competitor brands. This further increase the chance of capturing previous untapped market segments and once exposed to the key value factors they become loyal customers.

This results the meeting of financial budgets will increase the stakeholder value while increasing Brand Equity
Therefore, all in all it could be stated that by strengthening brand resonance Coca Cola would be able to continue strong even amidst the present challenges faced.

2.3 Designing of Marketing Mix
Marketing mix is a set of actions or tactics which a company uses to promote its brands or products in the market. The main elements of the marketing mix can be identified as the 4Ps; product, price, place and promotion. It is of prime importance that the marketing mix be carefully selected to ensure that the new product launched is sustained in the market for the long-term creation customer satisfaction whilst becoming an essential in their daily routine.

Product – Product is the healthy beverages that would be developed and launched under Coca Cola brand. The main product characteristics are low calories and low sugar levels, which have become the main concerns of the present-day consumers. CITATION Mah09 l 1033 (Sagar, 2009)Price – Prices would be set slightly above the carbonated beverage range yet at a level which is affordable to all. This ensures that the new product is capable of capturing market share creating tough competition to other products which are of similar nature.
Place- Places of product availability would be maintained similar to the places of availability of Carbonated beverages under Coca Cola brand. Therefore, it would be essential to distribute the product efficiently and effectively, worldwide using the same distribution channels; that is with the use of Coca Cola bottling partners. CITATION Kel08 l 1033 (Keller, 2008)Promotion – Promotion is of high importance for creating market awareness for the new product range which is fundamental in generating demand as well as capturing market share. Therefore, it is suggested that company use both conventional and non-conventional promotion modes for the new product range which include large display boards, frequent advertising in the TV, sponsoring community events etc.
Give the present-day techno savviness of the community it would be more prudent for Coca Cola to use social media marketing (Instagram, Twitter, Snapchat, YouTube, Facebook) which would create a higher market reach as well as higher level of customer engagement at a relatively low cost compared to other promotional means.

In light of the above that the given present context of carbonated beverage industry in the globe, it is a must for Coca Cola to diversify in to healthy beverage segment to sustain amidst the customer switching towards heathy consumption patterns. With high focus placed on building customer loyalty. We are confident that the company would succeed in extending its product life cycle, effectively combatting the threats from the external environmental factors.

REFERENCES
BIBLIOGRAPHY Aggarwal, S., 2008. Brand Management: A Theoretical and Practical Approach. s.l.:Global India Publications,.

Keller, 2008. Strategic Brand Management, 3/E. s.l.:Pearson Education India.

Keller, K. L., 2009. Strategic Brand Management. s.l.:China Remin University Press.

Keller, K. L., 2013. Strategic Brand Management. s.l.:Pearson Education.

Mathur, U., 2010. Product and Brand Management. s.l.:Excel Books India.

Sagar, M., 2009. Brand Management. s.l.:Ane Books India.

Verma, H. V., 2006. Brand Management: Text and Cases. s.l.:Excel Books India.

Verma, R., 2009. Brand Management. s.l.:Laxmi Publications Pvt Limited.

NAME: MAITUMELO MIGHTY FANYANA
STUDENT ID: 201102397
CJS 423 INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH ESSAY
LECTURER: K.T.O MASHAKA
QUESTION 2: WHAT IS THE USEFULNESS OF THE STRUCTURE AGENCY DEBATE IN THE UNDERSTANDING AND POLICING OF THE GLOBAL TERRORIST THREAT . USE CONCRETE EXAMPLES TO DEVELOP YOUR DISCUSSION
SUBMISSION DATE: 9 MAY 2018

INTRODUCTION
The structure agency debate can be understood in the context of socialization against autonomy to determine if an individual acts according to their free will or there is an influence of social structure behind their actions. The structure agency debate is related to the issue at the core of both classical and contemporary sociological theories. It tries to establish what the social world is made of, its causes and effects and establish if social structures determine the behavior of individuals and whether this behavior emanate from an individual agency, that is individuals are behaving in a particular manner because they made a choice to do so. There is a possibility of establishing three main important points in the structure agency debate which are namely that there are some branches of sociology such as functionalism, structuralism and Marxism who points out that social structure determines social life and individuals actions are a result of social structure. There are other branches of sociology who reverse this view and put more emphasis on the idea that individuals are able to reshape and redefine their world. This views are of approaches such as phenomenological sociology and also ethnomethodology and symbolic interactionism. These proponents stresses that there is need to give explanations for social phenomena which provide a reflection of the views of the individuals that are being studied. There are other approaches who emphasis that structure and agency complements each other. According to their views the social structure influences human actions and also human actions are also capable of influencing the social structure.

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THE USEFULNESS OF THE STRUCTURE AGENCY DEBATE IN THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE GLOBAL TERRORIST THREAT
Law enforcement globally are focusing on how global terrorist threat are manifesting itself among communities. If violence spread to new regions, this impacts communities, sparks radicalization and will eventually lead to violence. A number of terrorist attacks have taken place in countries around the world and few examples are mentioned below.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 9 11 ATTACKS
On the 11th September 2001, 19 militants who are associated with the Islamic Extremists group well known as Al Qaeda hijacked four planes and carried out suicide attacks against the United States Of America. “Of the four planes, two of them were flown into the twin towers in New York of the World trade center, another one was flown and hit the pentagon outside Washington, and the last plane crushed in Pennsylvania in a field” CITATION Coa06 l 1033 (Coaffee & Wood, 2006). More than 3000 people were killed and there was an urgent need to develop initiatives to curb terrorism
Afghanistan’s Ghazni Province Terror Attacks
The Taliban are a hardcore movement based in Afghanistan and Pakistan. “They attacked the south eastern part of Afghanistan known as the Ghazni and fourteen people were killed during this attacks and among them is the governor” CITATION Cha03 l 1033 (Chalk ; Rosenau, 2003). The fighters attacked the police and district headquarters. The fighting went on for atleast three hours until new troups were deployed and the Taliban ran away. At least five people were injured during these attacks and the Talibans were using heavy weapons. All casualities were reported to be military forces.

There has been a tremendous growth of the terrorist threat in the whole world. This occurred due to transformation and the convergence of the terrorist groups. The structure agency debate plays a very useful role in understanding the structure and operations of terrorist groups that poses a global terrorist threat. “This growth has made it difficult and more complex to understand the global terrorist threat” CITATION Jen14 l 1033 (Jenkins, Liepman, ; Willis, 2014). Terrorist groups that poses this threat have shown an increased similarity in their operational and organizational characteristics. At times this terrorist groups work with one another. Generally there is an increase in terms of agreements regarding the factors that influence this global terrorist threat. When looking at the terrorist organizations, they are made of a hierarchical structure. “Al Qaeda was formed and led by an Islamic extremist known as Osama Bin Laden” CITATION Wal12 l 1033 (Walker, 2012). Therefore terrorists form a hierarchical structure with a chain of command. In this case individual actions are a result of the social structure which is a terrorist group which they find themselves in. Individuals are not acting according to their own free will and decision are commanded to act in a particular way. During the 911 attacks the suicide bombers were carrying out the mission of the Al Qaeda group which means that not the individual motivations are imposers of the global terrorist threat.
The structure agency debate divert focus to the degree in which the global terrorist threat correlates with the societal structures and individual actions. The structure agency debate helps to focus on establishing the causes, motivations and modus operandi of terrorist groups. Individuals of terrorist groups are socialized into the aggressive nature of terrorist and sent on to carry out missions of the terrorist groups. “Terrorists most often the time are a group of militants who are opposing the government and want to throw it over” CITATION Chr16 l 1033 (Christenden ; Laegrid, 2016). They mostly rebel against the government and calls for a new leadership. They are often found as a group in a particular state but may communicate with other agents in different states. This groups have a centralized system where command are passed from to the subordinates and they often form a similar religious group. “Individuals are socialized to carry out the group mission and vision and also there are other individuals who operate on their own to carry out terrorist attacks” CITATION Dre04 l 1033 (Drew, 2004). Terrorist groups often operate through juniors in their organizations who are deployed to carry out these missions. These individuals are often trained to be able to able to give up their lives for the sake of the organization and are prompted to have the spirit of sovereignty for their groups.

Terrorist groups have a functional bases, centralized command and also have leadership that support terrorist activities abroad. “The structure agency debate plays a major important role as it seeks explainations why people behave in certain ways and how they come to operate in that particular manner because when looking at terrorist groups it is clear that individual do not act according to their own will but there is a form of control in their organizations CITATION Wen16 l 1033 (Wensink & Wittendorp, 2016). An example is that Al Qaeda has been deemed as the most powerful terrorist organization ever in history and its organizational sophistication and its dependence on territorial safe havens because terrorist groups often are fighting for territorial dominance.
These centralized leadership of terrorist groups and the hierarchical structure allows these organizations to carry out sophisticated attacks which will leave a great impact on the targeted state. “Most often the laymen in the terrorist groups carry out the attacks while the main base remains hidden and protected” CITATION Car06 l 1033 (Carter, 2006). The structure agency debate poses an important phenomena of establishing forces behind individual behaviours because individuals of the terrorist groups are socialized to be hard core terrorists and their actions are exactly what they were instructed to do by the central command. The social structure of terrorist groups influence their actions but not their individual agency and also the fact that terrorist attacks require resources such as money to buy equipment for the attacks which individuals on their own cannot be able to raise most of the time because sophisticated machinery, equipment and arms and weapons
THE USEFULNESS OF THE STRUCTURE AGENCY DEBATE IN POLICING GLOBAL TERRORIST GROUP
A global war on terrorism is putting a pressure on the financial support to terror groups. In order to bypass these strategies terror groups are now moving into the deep arena of organized criminal activities. This brings about a major challenge to states which are struggling with this threat that has changed enormously. “As terror groups move into hybrid criminal entities and also partner with other criminal syndicates the threat to nations rise in terms of complexity, and demands a highly flexible and tailored response” CITATION Buc04 l 1033 (Bucholz, 2004). For an effective policing of the global terrorist threat it is important to consider the structure agency debate and its relationship in explaining the global terrorist threat.

The law enforcement first of all needs to consider the structure of terrorist groups. This means that the law enforcement needs to determine how this groups are organized in order to formulate a strategy that can help the law enforcement to break into this terrorist groups. “Terrorist groups are organized in a hierarchical structure therefore the law enforcement needs to target the leadership of these terrorist as they are the strong force that holds the terrorist organization together” CITATION San04 l 1033 (Sanderson, 2004). For example for the United States of America to bring down and police Al Qaeda Terrorist group they had to target its leader Osama Bin Laden and assassinate him and that is when the Al Qaeda group was weakened. Terrorists form a strong form that maybe in one particular country with a common base therefore the structure agency debate plays an important role as it gives the law enforcement a picture how and why certain activities takes place.

The structure agency debate also tries to highlight the modus operandi of individuals. If an individual acts in a certain manner the question is are they acting autonomously or there is a force behind their actions. “Law enforcement agencies needs to establish the modus operandi of terrorist groups in order to develop the necessary strategies that will curb permanently these activities of terrorist groups” CITATION Dea09 l 1033 (Dearing, 2009). The structure agency debate is useful as it gives law enforcement agencies a platform to establish this methods of operating before formulating combating strategies. With the knowledge of how terrorist groups operate it becomes much easy to police them because then their strengths and weaknesses will be identified and their weaknesses will be targeted. An example maybe the Taliban in Afghanistan, the Afghanistan police needs to identify how the Taliban operate and certain areas where they are weak then targets those weaknesses.

It is also important for the law enforcement to establish where the soldiers of terrorist groups come from. This means their background in terms of family, communities and cultural background. With this information the police can be able to know and understand how these militaries were socialized in life. For example if the terrorist individuals come from a society or community that is against the government that is ruling in that country, then there is a high likelihood that as men grow up in that community they may join terrorist groups in order to help fight in overthrowing their government. “The cultural backgrounds are also important because terrorist groups believe that their culture is more superior than other therefore may force other people to join their groups and will always want to convert people to their religious beliefs” CITATION Wax10 l 1033 (Waxman, 2010). The structure agency debates provide many sociological explanations to individual behaviours therefore it is of much importance for law enforcement authorities to take to test these explanations in order to establish the true motivations of individual behaviours.

Policing global terrorist threat requires a steadfast look at the structure agency debate as it provides a pivotal argument in policing global terrorist threat. Terrorist groups can funded by political personnel among the country who may be against the President at the time. This means that the law enforcement needs to address issues such as corruption by top officials who sponsor terrorist groups in a quest to destroy the government. “Law enforcement authorities’ needs to establish the sources of funds for these terrorist groups and then follow the trail to the major source of funds and start policing from them” CITATION Dea09 l 1033 (Dearing, 2009). Most of the times it is difficult to police terrorist groups which are sponsored by top politicians because, the top politicians are the ones who determine what the law enforcement do and what they are not supposed to do. The other thing relates to the fact that law enforcement are funded by politicians who may decide to withdraw funding in order to make it impossible for law enforcement to carry out their activities, there by leaving the world facing a global terrorist threat that may manifest anytime. The law enforcement needs to establish the survival tactics of terrorist groups and try by all means to destroy these paths of survival by terrorist groups.

Terrorist groups may have other agents in other countries whom they communicate with therefore it is a call upon the law enforcement agencies to ensure that they uncover every track of terrorist groups and police effectively the whole group of terrorist groups. “Individuals who acts on their own to carry out terrorist group also needs to be policed” CITATION Car06 l 1033 (Carter, 2006). This is often easier than policing the whole group because once an individual is caught then terrorism cannot be carried out other than where there is a group of terrorists and a need to police the whole group. Individuals needs to be assessed as to the kind of family where they come from and the societies in which they grew in. Individual terrorists pursue their own personal interests and they needs to be totally removed in order to save the whole world. “Most times this individuals comes from dysfunctional families and are harbouring emotions such as anger and aggression” CITATION Buc04 l 1033 (Bucholz, 2004). This are the type of things that the law enforcement needs to take into account when policing the global terrorist threat.

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, the structure agency debate plays a pivotal role in policing the global terrorist threat. It is a sociological term that prompts one to look at the influences of certain behaviours whether they are individual choices or the individual behavior is a result of the society influences. For a better understanding of the global terrorist threat it is important to understand why this terrorist attacks are carried out and the basis of these attacks. Different individual acts based on different motivations. Some individuals are coming from Marxist societies who believe that men are superior than women and if it happens that a woman comes into power, terrorist attacks maybe launched because they see women as being incapable of being in leadership positions. Therefore this are the things that the structure agency debate emphasis in role to provide an understanding of the global terrorist threat. In policing global terrorist threat it is very important for the law enforcement agencies to consider the structure, modus operandi and the influences of terrorist groups. Different terrorist groups have different missions to carry out therefore, the law enforcement needs to establish the true motives and reasons for these terrorist attacks. Terrorist attacks attack all countries in the world even if it is not happening in the same country. An example that could be used is the fact that the 911 attacks in the United States Of America affected Botswana tremendously, this includes the terrorism sector and the aviation industry as most terrorists come from the United States Of America and come by air transport.

Bibliography
BIBLIOGRAPHY Bucholz, K. (2004, August). Sociology Of Terrorism. 272-288.

Carter, A. B. (2006). The Architecture Of Government In The Face Of Terrorism, 26(3), 6-34.

Chalk, P., & Rosenau, W. (2003, October 30). Intelligence, Police and Counterterrorism. Assessing Post Terror Initiatives, 302-317.

Christenden, T., & Laegrid, P. (2016, October). Performing The Norwegian Police Between Structure And Culture. Community Police Or Emerging Police, 78-101.

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NAME: NWOSU, CHIBUEZE SOMTOCHUKWU
REG NO: 2014/192220
DEPARTMENT: COMPUTER SCIENCE
PROJECT TOPIC: FINGER PRINT BASED OFFICE ATTENDANCE SYSTEM

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FINGER PRINT BASED OFFICE ATTENDANCE SYSTEM
ABSTRACT
The Design and Implementation of Staff Attendance system is an academic work which aims in developing a computerized system to maintain the attendance of Staff in an Institution.
Attendance in an organization is important to ensure the continuous operation. Aiming at the disadvantages of local method of attendance which is pen and paper, an Integrated Staff Attendance System (ISAS) is introduced. ISAS is a system used to record the attendance of staffs to work. Fingerprint Technology can be used to carry out the objectives of this system. Rapid Application Development (RAD) is used as it gives much faster development process which will guarantee the punctuality of the system delivery. With this system, the workers can take attendance, able to view their user profile and attendance, while the manager can view worker’s attendance, managing worker’s information and generating attendance report.
It is a cumbersome payment system which is computerized. It also has the possibility of showing the reports of Staff attendance. Overall this project of mine is being developed to help schools to maintain the attendance in the best way possible and also reduce the human efforts and in this eradicating the olden method. The Programming language used in developing this application software is Visual Basic.net 2012. The application runs in Windows 98 to Latest windows 10. It also requires Microsoft access 2010 re-distribution to avoid errors. It requires that Crystal report to be installed to view the report in the database.

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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 INTRODUCTION
This chapter entails the overview about the aim, objectives, background and operation environment of the system.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Managing the attendance of staff in public institutions can be very difficult using the old method of pen and paper. The approach of pen and paper attendance system has been in use for years. There are so many bottlenecks accompanying this convention approach making it difficult to manage attendance of staff and to frequently modify their information.
Attendance can be defined as the action of being present at an event or place.
1. For example present to a party or meeting. Attendance is a crucial factor in many institutions and organization and needs to be followed by people
2. Tracking staff attendance is a common practice in Nigeria in most public institutions. It is highly important for one organization in order to maintain their performance standards
3. In the previous implementation, there are several types of attendance systems that have been developed. For example: attendance systems by using pen and paper, using database, and also biometrics. These implementations still can create lots of problems such as providing incorrect information to the users.
The main purpose of this integrated attendance system is to change the traditional way of attendance to a computerized one. However, it is used to create a combination of several types of attendance where the staff can either choose to use smart card or fingerprint technologies. Thus, the attendance system of the public institution can be strongly protected and also eliminating the inappropriate manner of behaviours. If one of the devices is malfunction, the others acts as backup.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Using the pen and paper to record attendance can be very difficult to manage. A large public institution that make use of this approach find it hard to keep track of it staff’s attendance because using pen and paper, a staff can simply sign for a co-worker even though they didn’t come to work or late at the institution. For small public institutions which have about 12 staffs, it is not actually necessary for them to purchase a fingerprint attendance system. This is because the cost of one fingerprint device is quite expensive and they need an expert which has knowledge to help configure and maintain the system.
With the existing approach, there is only a single input device use to record the staff attendance either using smart card or fingerprint. If one company would like to have 2 different input of attendance system to provide interchangeable function, they will need to purchase both systems which will be costly. In addition, if one day the single input device suddenly breakdown, the attendance cannot be recorded.
Thus, there is a need to develop an integrated attendance system with various type of input to fulfil customer needs and requirements because it is flexible and it can bring convenient to the manager to summarize and manipulate staff information. Lack of effectiveness in their methods of record keeping, further compounds the problem.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this project are:
i. To develop a Finger Print based office attendance and eliminate the use of traditional attendance method
ii. To provide the users with the ability to use both input devices for authentication
iii. To develop an algorithm for the staff working hours processing towards attendance system
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope is to design and implement a finger print based office attendance system as a means of improving attendance management in public institutions. This application will be window based using Microsoft Visual Basic.net as the programming language for building the user interface and MySQL Server for database design. However, it does not cover other aspects of biometric.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Tracking and monitoring worker’s time of attendance using pen and paper could be tedious, time consuming and susceptible to error. However, the introduction of Integrated Staff Attendance System (ISAS) will drastically reduce time needed to verify attendance data. The system provide high level of security whereby making it impossible for worker to sign attendance for their colleagues. The System using fingerprint Biometric will keep historical data making it easy for managers to access their staff’s information.
The Authentication system is not only useful to the managers of the public institutions only, even the staffs benefit a great deal by reducing the stress in queuing up which result in delay and often time in the damage of the attendance sheet. It also prevents mistakes and anomaly that is associated with manual signing in which a staff that comes to work is marked as not present thereby having to face the public institution’s policy on lateness due to multiple attendance sheet.
Successful implementation of this project mean the staff attendance credibility can be queried or put to test anytime, and result are produce fast and accuracy, without stress.

1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1. Unavailability of a durable Fingerprint Scanner.
2. Lack of Time
3. Lack of financial support
4. Inefficiency of finger print scanner
5. Unavailability of running in other Operation System other than Microsoft Windows
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Biometrics is physiological or behavioural characteristics unique to individuals, this Include Fingerprint, hand geometry, handwriting, iris, retinal, vein and voice.
Use Case Diagram: is used to show scenarios used for understanding the requirements of the system and to show the interaction between the user and the system.
Scanner: a device for examining, reading, or monitoring something in particular.
Fingerprint sensor: is an electronic device used to capture a digital image of the fingerprint pattern.
Authentication: is the process of determining whether someone or something is, in fact, who or what it declared to be and the inputs gotten are true.
Rapid Application Development: is a concept that products can be developed faster and of higher quality.
Biometric Verification: is any means by which a person can be uniquely identified by evaluating one or more distinguishing biological traits.
1.8 Thesis Organization
This thesis is made up of four (4) chapters. Chapter 1 is based on the introduction of the system. The main point of this chapter is to briefly explain about the overview system that is developed. This chapter also contains the objectives, problem statements and the scope of the study.
Chapter 2 is literature review. As the name given the purpose of this chapter is to reviews the previous research works which was conducted by other researches. All the relevant journal, thesis, books and other materials taken from those researches will be discussed in detail.
Chapter 3 is research methodology. This chapter shows the techniques, algorithms and related software that will be used for developing the project. Besides that, it will also discuss about the process flow in detail of this research.
Chapter 4 is implementation and testing. This chapter documenting all the process that involved in developing this system and the testing made to the system.
Lastly, chapter 5 is the conclusion which entails the summary of the developed project.