“Mr. Gorachev, Tear down this wall”. This is a line from a
famous speech by Ronald Regan in Berlin, Germany on June 12, 1987. He was
referring to Berlin Wall. The build of Berlin Wall that created tensions between
Soviet Union and United States.
After the end of second World War, the pre-War Germany area
was divided into FOUR zones. Each of these zones were controlled by Allied
nations; The United States, Britain, France, and the Soviet Union.
The City of Berlin was completely in zone of Soviet Union
but being as the seat of Allied council, it was divided and controlled by all
these four nations. East part of Berlin was occupied and controlled by Soviet
Union and other allies took the West part of the city.
This divisions of the city caused tensions between the
Allied nations. The United Nations, Britain and France wanted to make policies
and constructions that would make Germany self-sufficient but Soviet Nations
were not on-board with this idea. Soviet Nations felt as they were attacked by
Germans earlier and didn’t wanted to do anything beneficial for Germany.
Reading the history about the Cold War the Berlin Blockade
that occurred in 1948 was the first incident that created crisis between
superpowers and it increased more in 1961 when Berlin Wall was built by Soviet
The Berlin Blockade was the foundation of Berlin wall
crises that created rift between The United Nations and the Soviet Union. After
the second World War much of industrial part was shattered. There was shortage
of food because of extreme winter condition, Transport system was also badly
affected. The United States and Britain wanted to rebuild the economy of
Germany. They started this by introducing some new policies that would build
pre-war Germany area stronger. They
combined their Western industrial zone to one. The United States wanted to
develop wartime destruction area. The United States President Harry S Truman
and his fellow associate George C Marshall implemented The Marshall Plan to
fund Western Germany and Europe from falling economy. This aid was for Soviet
Union and other European countries but Soviet Union refused to accept it as
they felt this plan was United States to gain control over East Germany. Also,
they refused idea of The United States on introduction of new German currency.
Following this disagreements Soviet communist political leader Joseph Stalin
blocked West Germany allies’ transportation system (road, railway, and canal).
This blocked the necessary supplies like food and fuel. The United States and
its Western German allies started supplying essential items to West Germany via
Air Cargo, which was known as Air Lift. They thought it would be a short crisis
but it lasted for a long time. Soviet Union thought that West Berlin people
will reject their West allies and merge to East Germany. This assumption failed.
The Blockade had given Soviet Union a very bad reputation in front of world. To
avoid more bad fame, they withdrew the Blockade.
I found this in history references that The Berlin Blockade
had created a lot of tensions among The United States and The Soviet Union.
People of world begin to talk about rift between TWO super powers. This was
also one of the reasons for creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO), an alliance which is still active.
The United States involvement – Its worthy effects on the German
people and adverse effects on Soviet Union
As mentioned above post World War 2 The United States was
playing a very crucial role in reforming economy in Germany and Europe. Few
measures like aid through Marshall Plan to reestablish downsizing industries,
formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to suppress the
threats of Soviet Union like Berlin Blockade. This steps had boosted confidence
of German people. The human life in West German including West Berlin was
better than East German. This made East German people travel East Berlin and
migrate to West Berlin. Most of people who migrate to West Berlin stayed there
or moved to Western Germany. People in East Germany were not happy because of
communism from Soviet Union. There were few border lines in Eastern Germany and
Western occupied area which could be easily crossed. The Soviet Union realized
these loop holes and started taking some measures to prevent it.
Line was drawn and that created tensions between TWO super
Realizing people fleeing from East to West Germany via East
Berlin, Soviet Union closed the border which separated East and West German.
They created barbered wire fence on the border. However, they kept East and
West Berlin border open as it was controlled by all Four allies, The United
States, Britain, France and Soviet Union. This was the loophole and people from
East Germany used to escape to West via Berlin. Also there was a problem
because two separate currencies in and East and West Berlin. West Germany
currency was stronger than the East. People used to buy goods from East Berlin
in cheap. Soviet Union tried few ways to prevent but all went in vain.
Build and Fall of the Berlin Wall
Soviet Union was losing many skilled workers from East to
West Germany, also seeing momentum getting lost to The United States, The
Soviet Union closed the Berlin Border and built a concrete wall in 1961 that
divided Berlin. The wall was of 87 miles and it was patrolled by dog runs and military
guards. The World saw this wall as Iron Curtain between East and West Germany.
The wall was physical but it created barrier between United States and Soviet
Union. The tensions between these two countries increased. There as an incident
related to President John F Kennedy. The American Intelligence was aware about
the intentions of Soviet Union to close the East Berlin border but they didn’t
inform President John F Kennedy on time. When President later learnt about this
he became angry. Later, he condemned the build of Berlin Wall. President
Kennedy deployed US troops in West Berlin. These had rose a lot of tensions
between US and Soviet Union. The Newspapers and broadcasts begin to talk the
difference between these TWO nations that caused Cold War and Berlin Wall was
created. If we look back and ready history about Berlin Wall closely, the major
incidents related to Cold War happened around build of Berlin War. To recap the
Marshall Plan and NATO where formed by United States because of incidents that
happened in Germany relating to Berlin (Berlin blockade, Berlin Airlift and
Berlin wall). This tensions were so severe it might have stated World War III.
US Presidents speeches in West Berlin
June 1963 – President John F. Kennedy spoke to crowd from
West Berlin “As a free man, I take a pride in the words, “Ich bin ein Berliner”
(I am a Berliner). This speech was a very strong Cold War speech by US
June 1987 – On the 750th anniversary of Berlin,
President Ronald Regan spoke “General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace,
if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek
liberalization: Come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr.
Gorbachev, tear down this wall!”
The Berlin Wall came down on November 9, 1989, finally East
and West German people got united. Tensions between United States and Soviet
Union decreased. It opened the doors of trade between East Germany and United
States. This was an end of Cold War between TWO nations.
Compromise and Conflict
Partition of Germany and Berlin post World War II was a
compromise. The 4 Allied nations, The United States, Britain, France and Soviet
Union separated East and West Germany between them and started to think how to
rebuild economy of Germany. The Cold War between The communism thinking from
Soviet Union created conflicts. The Berlin Wall was one of them.