Modern short-range technologies that I will be focusing in this essay are as follows:
7. Cisco Intelligent Proximity
8. Apple iBeacon
10. Cognitive Radio
1. WiGig(Wireless Gigabit Alliance) – WiGig alliance promoted the IEEE 802.11ad. It supports speed 10 times faster than Wifi. It is a new a verion of wifi and an extension of 802.11 WiGig allow devices which operate in the 2.4, 5 and 60GHz, delivery data transfer up to 7Gbit/s.
• Data rate supported upto 7Gbit/s
• It extends 80.11 Media Access Control(MAC-a sublayer of the data link layer in 7 OSI layer. It is responsible for the transmission of data packets to and from the interface card , to and from another remotely shared channel)
• Protocol adaption layer being developed to support PC peripheral and HDTV, monitor and projector
• Physical layer enable low power and high transmission
• Robust communication up to 10 meter
• Advanced security and power management
• Enable multi gigabit wireless technology between two devices such as connection to storage and other high speed peripheral
• Offer a/v application
• Wireless display port ,high digital content protection
2.Bluetooth – A technology standard that is used foe exchange data at short range. Uses short wavelength UHF radio waves 2.4 to 2.485 GHz. It uses frequenc hopping spred spectrum.It divides data into packets of 79 designated blurtooth channel. Each channel has a bandwidth of 1MHz. It usually performs 1600hops per second.
It is a packet based protocal with master slave architecture. One may connect upto 7 slaves in piconet. All devices share the master clock. Packets may be 1,3,5 slots long.
Bluetooth is a low energy and very efficient.
3. RFID (Radio Frequency identification) – It used electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tag attached objects. The tags contain electronically stored information. Passive tags collect energy from a nearby RFID readers interrogating radio waves.
Band Regulations Range Data speed Remarks
120-150KHZ(LF) Unregulated 10cm Low Animal identification, factory data collection
13.56MHz(HF) ISM band 10cm-1m Low to moderate Smart cards
433MHz(UHF) Short range 1-100m Moderate Defence application
(North America UHF)
ISM band 1-12m Moderate to High EAN(Europen Article Number)
(Microwave) ISM 1-2m High 802.11WLAN,Bluetooth
(Microwave) Ultra wide band Upto 200 m High Semi active or active tags
4.LiFi (Light Fidelity) – It used light to transmit data and position. It uses light spectrum, ultraviolet and infrared radiation. Similar to wi-fi. Key difference wi-fi uses radio frequency. Light transmit data at very high bandwidth, working in areas susceptible to electromagnetic interference and also offers high transmission speed.
Bg-Fi is a LiFi system used for IOT devices.
It uses 802.11 protocols but it is UV,IR and visible light communication.
• Security-limiting to rooms as light does not pass through walls and hence make it a secure network
• Underwater application- can penetrate through water up to 200 m no light pass through 1000m.
• Hospital – many treatments involve multiple individual so this tech could be used to communicate
• Vehicles – can communicate with one another via front and back light to increase road safety. Street lights and traffic signal and also provide information about current road situation.
• Industrial Automation – capable of slip rings ,sliding contacts and short cable such as industrial ethernet.
5. ZigBee – It IS IEEE 802.15.4 based for suite of high level communication protocol used to create personal area networks with small , lower power digital radio such as home automation ,medical device and data collection. It is a low power low data rate and close proximity. It consume low power and also limit transmit distance 10-100 m line of sight depending on power output and environment characteristic. It transmit data over long distance by passing data through a mesh network of intermediate devices to reach more distant ones. They are secured at 128bit symmetric encryption keys.
• Home entertainment and control
• Wireless sensor network
• Industrial control
• Embedded sensing
• Medical data collection
• Smoke and intruder warning
• Building automation
• Remote wireless microphone config
6. NFC (Near Field communication) – Enable two electronic devices which usually portable devices such as smartphone to establish communication by bringing them within 4cm of each other. It establish a general supported standard when one of the connected devices has internet connectivity the other can exchange data with online services.
It employs electromagnetic induction between two antenna when NFC enabled devices. case of a smartphone and a printer. Operate in range available unlicensed radio frequency ISM band of 13.56MHz.
NFC work in 3 modes:
1. NFC card emulation
Enable NFC device to behave like smart card and allow to make transaction such as payment
2. NFC reader/writer
Enable devices to read information stored on inexpensive tags embedded in smart posters
3. NFC peer-peer
Two devices communicate with each other with adhoc fashion.
• Commercial- Electronic ticket, smartcard, allow mobile payment
• Social networking- share contact, photos, video
• Identity and access token-Identity documents
7. Cisco Intelligent Proximity – It is content sharing that allow to connect automatically mobile devices with cisco room-based video collaboration system. A solution that enable a rage of feature which will improve the meeting experience.
Working: When the proximity is enabled a video endpoint, an inaudible ultrasonic sound token will be played through the video system loud speakers. The cisco proximity client application will record this token in the application in the client mobile devices. The token contains how to connect the video system over the network.
Network types: VLAN, celluar networks, guest network, IPv6
8.Apple iBeacon- A class of Bluetooth low energy devices that broadcast their identifier to nearby portable electronic devices. These devices transmit their own identification number to local area. It can operate in an advertisement mode to notify devices of heir presence. The device advertisement in a strict format that being an apple iBeacon prefix followed by a variable UUID and a minor pair.
An example of iBeacon adv.: fb0b57a2-8228-44 cd-913a-94a122ba1206 Major 1 Minor 2
9. DASH 7- It is an open source wireless sensor and actuator network protocol which operate in the 433MHz, 868 MHz and 915 MHz unlicensed ISM band. It provides multi year battery life range up to 2Km,low latency for connecting with moving things, a very small open source protocol stack.
BLAST networking technology-:
Burst- data transfer in abrupt and does not include multimedia content
Light- packet size limit to 256 byte
Asynchronous- communication is by command response which does not require periodic network handshaking
Stealth- does not need periodic beaconing
Transitive- does need to be managed extensively by fixed infrastructure
10. Cognitive Radio – It’s a radio that has the capability of being programmed and configured dynamically. It uses wireless channel in its vicinity to avoid user’s interference. It’s a software defined radio platform fully reconfigurable wireless transceiver which automatically adapts its communication parameters to network and user demands. It has an approach of filling RF bands adaptively using OFMDA (orthogonal frequency division multiple access).
Power control – Spectrum sharing
Spectrum Sensing – Detecting unused spectrum and sharing it without harmful interference of the other users.
Wideband spectrum sensing – spectrum sharing
11. EnOcean – A wireless tech that is on the path of energy harvesting and primary used in home automation, industry, logistics.
Products perform without batteries and are engineered to perform without maintenance. Radio signal from these devices can be transmitted wirelessly over a distance up to 300m in open and 30m inside building.
These design uses electromagnetic energy source to reduce the operating force of 3.5 newton and increase the services up to 100 operations a day for more than 25 years.
EnOcean sends data packets of 14 byte long and are transmitted for the 1’s of the binary data reducing the amount of power required, Transmission frequency used are 902 MHz,928.35MHz, 868.3MHz and 315MHz