MIDLANDS STATE UNIVERSITY
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Factors affecting the implementation of new Physical Science curriculum for the grade 8 learners at three selected combined schools in Ncuncuni circuit Kavango West region
STUDENT NUMBER MSU161651W
A dissertation is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Education (MED) Curriculum Studies.
Supervisor: Mrs Linnet Masuka
Submitted: May 2018
DECLARATION OF OWN WORK
I Pinehas Hangula declare that the thesis which I hereby submit for the degree of MASTER OF EDUCATION in Curriculum Studies at the Midlands State University, is my own work and has not previously been submitted before at this University or any other institution of higher learning.
I also declare that all references used and made in this dissertation have been cited and acknowledged.
Date: 25 May 2018
This project is dedicated to my son Herman N. Hangula.
The purpose of this study was explored the factors affecting the implementation of new Physical science curriculum for the grade 8 learners in Ncuncuni Circuit Kavango west region and to gain clarity about the process of implementation. The study looked at possible ways to enhance smooth implementation of new curriculum, that help with the formulation of pertinent recommendations for its successful implementation. The presentation of study background began, which highlights the factors the affect the implementation of the new curriculum in the developed, developing counties as well as in Namibia. A critical review of literature revealed various factors affecting implementation of new curriculum, such as limited teaching resources, inadequate teachers training, lack of support by the Directorate and school managements, resistance by teachers and parental involvement among others. The study employed a mixed methods research. The population of the of the study made up of 9 physical Science male teachers and thirty (30) learners 15 boys and 15 girls from three selected combined schools in Ncuncuni Circuit. Purposive sampling technique was then used to select schools. The study employed interviews for teachers and questionnaire as data collection methods for both teachers and learners, comprised of closed-ended and open- ended questions. thereafter data was collected, it was analysed and presented in forms of table and graphs. The finding of the research shows that teachers and learners are facing challenges such as lack of textbooks, lack of support by the Directorate and school managements, lack of school facilities such as library and Physical Science apparatus, teachers also indicated that the outcomes of the curriculum are not clearly stated. The study gave the following recommendations: practical investigation to be cried out at schools, adequate training of teachers by the Directorate, Physical Science teachers to develop teaching resources using locally available materials, Directorate to send teams to schools and evaluate curriculum implementation twice a semester, teachers to always compare their work and their learners’ performance, and school to set clear channels of communication with parents.
I would like to acknowledge the support and guidance from several individuals during the time of the study.
Firstly, and foremost I would like to thank God Almighty for the protections and guidance he rendered during the completion of this study.
My sincere gratitude goes to my supervisor Mrs Linnet Masuka who spared her precious time reading, correcting my work from early chapters to its completion and for her tireless efforts, extensive comments and her best advice shaped this project. Her calm and good characters enabled me to complete this thesis effectively.
I would also like to acknowledge the educational Director of Kavango West for giving me permission to undertake the research in schools under her jurisdiction, Principals, teachers and learners in Ncuncuni Circuit for their cooperation during the study.
I am obliged to the staff of Galaxy printing Rundu branch for their resources that they placed at my disposal, such as internet facilities, this study would not have been a success.
Special thanks goes to my niece Wilhelmine Nangolo for always setting due date for me, I would like to thank my mother Rakkel Paulus and my son Herman Hangula for their moral support.
Table of contents
RELEASE FORM……………………………………………………………………… i
APPROVAL FORM……………………………………………………………………. ii
DECLARATION FORM………………………………………………………………. iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………………vii
LIST OF TABLE………………………………………………………………………. xi
LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………………xii
LIST OF APPENDICES………………………………………………………………xiii
CHAPTER ONE: THE RESEARCH PROBLEM……………………………………1
1.1 Background of the study……………………………………………………………2
1.2 Statement of problem………………………………………………………………6
1.3 Research objectives……………………………………………………………….7
1.3.1 General objectives……………………………………………………………….7
1.3.2 Specific objectives……………………………………………………………….7
1.4 Research questions……………………………………………………………….8
1.5 Significance of study……………………………………………………………….8
1.6 Scope (delimitation) of the study…………………………………………………9
1.7 Limitation of the study …………………………………………………………….9
1.8 Definition of key terms used……………………………………………………10
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………………11
2.1 Literature review……………………………………………………………………11
2.2 Theoretical framework…………………………………………………………….12
2.3 Science curriculum reform and implementation in developed countries………20
2.4 Science curriculum reform and implementation in developing countries………21
2.5 Historical context of educational reform and curriculum implementation in Namibia…………………………………………………………………………………….22
2.6 Factors affecting the implementation of new curriculum………………………….24
2.6.1 Change as a challenge for curriculum……………………………………………24
2.6.2 In-service training for teachers…………………………………………………….24
2.6.3 Curriculum facilities and resources……………………………………………….25
2.6.4 Resistance to change …………………………………………………………….31
2.6.5 Lack of ownership in curriculum………………………………………………….32
2.6.6 lack of benefits………………………………………………………………………32
2.6.7 School leadership support, coordination and motivation………………………33
2.6.8 Parental involvement………………………………………………………………33
CHAPTERTHREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY …………………………………34
3.2 Research design………………………………………………………………………36
3.3 Research paradigm……………………………………………………………………37
3.4 Research approaches ………………………….……………………………….….39
3.5 population of study……………………………………………………………………40
3.6 Sampling procedures…………………………………………………………………40
3.7 Research instruments……………………………………………………………….41
3.8 Data collection procedures………………………………………………………….43
3.9 Data presentation and analysis…………………………………………………….43
3.10 Trustworthiness (validity and reliability) …………………………………….……44
3.11 Ethical consideration…………………………………………………………………44
3.12 Chapter summary…………………………………………………………………….45
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION………………….46
4.1 presentation of result from teachers’ and learners’ questionnaires……….……46
4.1.1 Response rate…………………………………………………………………….47
4.1.2 Response rate and summary of response……………….…………………….47
4.1.3 Learners age group……………………………………………………………….47
4.1.4 Availability of Science textbooks……………………………………………….48
4.1.5 learners’ response on practical investigation………………………………….49
4.1.6 learners’ response on parental support…………………………………………49
4.1.7 Teachers’ age group………………………………………………………………50
4.1.8 Teachers’ experience…………………………………………………………….51
4.1.9 Teachers response on resources……………………………………………….51
4.1.10 Textbook-learners ratio………………………………..……………………..52
4.1.11 Teachers response of support………………………………………………….52
4.1.12 Assessment methods used in Physical Science……………………………..52
4.2. Presentation of teachers’ response to interviews questions……………………53
4.2.1 Teachers response on provision of facilities and resources……………….…53
4.2.2 Views on teachers training ………………………………………………………54
4.2.3 Teachers’ opinions on new standard……………………………………………54
4.2.4 Views on dissemination strategy………………………………………………54
4.2.5 Teachers views about Directorate support and school management…….55
4.2.6 Teachers views about parental involvements……………………………….55
4.2.7 Teachers reactions to new curriculum……………………………………….56
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION……57
5.2 Major finding of study……………………………………………………………59
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1.1 Response rate………………………………………………………….47
Table 4.1.2 Science textbooks……………………………………………………….48
Table 4.1.3 Practical investigation………………………………………………….49
Table 4.1.4 Parental support…………………………………………………………49
Table 4.1.5 Teachers biography…………………………………………………….50
Table 4.1.6 Resources……………………………………………………………….51
Table 4.1.7 Teachers support……………………………………………………….52
Table 4.1.8 Assessment methods…………………………………………………52
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 4.1 Learners age ……………………………………………………………….47
Fig 4.2 Teachers experience………………………………………………………51
Fig 4.3 Textbook-learners ratio…………………………………………………….52
The purpose of the study is to examine factors affecting the implementation of new Physical science curriculum for grade 8 learners in Ncuncini circuit in Kavango West. This chapter provides the background to the study, statement of the problem, research questions and objectives of the study, significance of the study, limitations and delimitations of the study.
1.1 Background of the study
The science curriculum transformation which started in the Western world in the 1960s and 1970s were to some degree embraced in the developing countries (Thomas, 1978). The early curriculum reform in UK and US in the 1960s, considered as development project, the reform focused on science as a subject aimed at preparing students for science career (Thomas, 1978). The second reform on science was due to societal issues, environmental issues and aimed at science literacy for all. Developing countries first embraced curriculum from their former colonial power. In 1990s, the issues of science curriculum revision in developing countries is desired to connect school science more closely to the real life situation of students and to local and traditional practices, known as indigenous science. (Ha ; Chan, 2008).
Curriculum reform in developing countries emphasis mainly changing classroom exercise to an environment that arouse learner-centered teaching pedagogy, which is characterised by peer learning and active participation of learners in the classroom. According to (Arend , 2009) states that reforming and implementation of new educational curriculum is not always an easy activity, the shift from old curriculum to new one possibly will present difficult challenges to those who participate in the realisation of new curriculum; the educators, learners, administrators, and all stake holders involved (Arend , 2009).
According to (Fullan, 1993) posts that In most developing countries in particular Sub-Sahara Africa literature is steady in describing difficulties to successful implementation of new curriculum, such as inadequate mastery of subject and basic teaching skills, language problem for teachers and learners, poorly resourced schools and classroom, misalignment of curriculum goals among others
According to (Akker, 2006) states that the classroom realities of in sub-Sahara Africa is characterised by among others, Chalk and talk teaching methods, stress on factual knowledge, very little or no practical work is carried out, student do not ask questions and acknowledgement of correct answers only. Literatures describe major factor that lead to successful implementation of new curriculum in Sub-Sahara Africa such as in-service training of teachers is at the centre of implementation process (Fullan, 1993). These have to be done in a way that it’s real, locally available, linked to practice and reactive to teacher’s needs. In-service training should provide opportunities for teachers to practice new behaviour build and maintain their commitment and build a sense of ownership in the reform (Arend , 2009).
When South Africa gained its independence in 1994 they reform post-apartheid educational curriculum which was determined by the ideology of racialism and sexism, which mark the birth of curriculum 2005 (C2005) which was mainly an out-come based curriculum (Chisholm, 2000).
The adoption of OBE by South Africa’s Ministry of education to apply to all phases of education system has encounters many challenges (Ursual & Jonathan, 2012). Certainly, there are many challenges facing physical Science educators during implementation extending from lack of teachers training, non- delivery of materials to support new curriculum and complexity of curriculum innovation among others (Chisholm, 2000).
Early 2000 precise complaints about curriculum 2005 were apparent about children’s inability to read, write and count at the appropriate grade levels and teachers did not know what to teach. According to (Hoadley ; Jansen, 2009) states that the minister of education professor K Asmal set up a review committee to scrutinise the condemnation and make recommendations such as simplifying curriculum, curriculum overload to be addressed, terminology and language use to be simplified and plan needed to be developed to address teacher training.
In 2002 Linda Chisholm chaired a committee that revised Curriculum 2005 into National curriculum statement that was fully implemented as from 2004 to address the deficiency observed in curriculum 2005 (Hoadley ; Jansen, 2009).
A study conducted in Kenya, found that since Kenya gained independence in 1963, plentiful of educational reforms have been approved. Education reform efforts in less developed countries like Kenya have aimed at making education an effective vehicle for national development and to ensure that educational opportunities reach all sections of the population especially those that living in economically disadvantaged areas (Abagi ; Odipo,G., 1997).
The study found that the process of implementation was a problematic, as teachers had different problems in trying to implement the reformed curriculum in schools, for example; poor economic growth, politics, lack of facilities, school leadership, ability and inability to evaluate and ignorance among others.
In Namibia when the country gained its political independence in 1990, the country inherited an educational system that was disjointed by ethnic and racial line. The democratic government began to implement the process of reconstructions of the entire education system. Numerous educational curriculum reforms have been recommended (MOE, 2010). The Ministry of education entrusted the National Institute for Educational Development (NIED) with task of overhauling of the curriculum. a key element to be attained by new curriculum was to be home grown and fully owned by Namibian society as a whole.
The national curriculum for basic education which is built on the experience and achievements that merged from the first series of Namibia curricula and syllabuses that were introduced in the 1990s such as Towards Education for All (1993), The Language policy for Schools in Namibia (1996), The Education Act (2001), ICT Policy for Education (2005) among others. effective from 2010 replaced the pilot Curriculum Guide for formal Basic Education (1996).
The National Curriculum for Basic Education is undergoing numerous reforms due to rapid change such as technology advances, globalization, HIV and AIDS pandemic, and environmental degradation (MOE, 2010). During these reforms, several pre- independence difficulties continued to impede the implementation of new curriculum in the early years of independence. Poor school infrastructure and lack of basic teaching materials for physical science remained awkward particularly in junior secondary phase.
The general teaching force remained largely unqualified only few were qualified. Additional problems during implementation of new curriculum are resistance among teachers as they often felt uneasy with the new content and new teaching approach. Support given to teachers toward new implementation of new curriculum did not certainly mean that implementation was instinctive and easy.
The latest reform of the National Curriculum for Basic Education was approved by the Cabinet with eight- year implementation plan. The implementation of revised curriculum for the Junior Secondary Curriculum implemented in 2017 did not yield good results particularly physical science.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Namibia has embarked on a major transformation of education. This transformation includes the reform of the National Curriculum for Basic Education. Contemporary curriculum reform poses a number of problems to the teachers during implementation. One of the most challenging aspects of curriculum transformation is the implementation of the reformed curriculum. According to ( Dorman, 2006) argues that the success in curriculum implementation depend on several factors such as availability of facilities and resources, qualified teaching staffs, parental involvements, support by school management and subject advisors and collaborative design and implementation among others.
Sign of effort for new curriculum implementation for Physical science are visible, but is still clear weather if the Directorate of education, Physical Science teachers, Physical Science specialists, school principals are clear and prepared to go about the curriculum change. It is also not known classroom practice by teachers can really meet desired outcomes, and whether the schools are given necessary support to implement the new curriculum. These are some of the important issues that will enhance successful curriculum implementation, and that have stimulated this study, which pursued to explore factors affecting implementation of new Physical Science curriculum.
The implementation of Physical Science is problematic on its own and this problem is now escalated by the recent reform curriculum. There is a lot of influx of grade 8 learners to schools every academic year (MOE, 2010). Few of the learners are those that got promoted from grade seven to grade eight but more than 70% of these learners in 2014-2016 are those that failed grade eight. Statistic by the Directorate of Education in Kavango West Region revealed that 45% of the total grade 8 learners performed below average in physical science in 2017.
While curriculum implementation has been extensively researched in many countries, little is done to see the factors affecting the implementation of new physical science at Junior Secondary phase in Ncuncuni circuit Kavango West. There is a need for a study to find out factors affecting the implementation of new physical science. If left unaddressed, these matters will have distant reaching consequences not only for our education system, but also for the type of experienced learners that will be produced.
1.3 Research objectives
1.3.1 General objectives
The general objective of this study was to examine factors affecting the implementation of new Physical Science Curriculum for grade 8 learners in Ncuncuni Circuit Kavango West.
1.3.2 Specific objectives
220.127.116.11. To determine School factors that affect implementation of new Physical Science Curriculum for grade 8 learners in Ncuncuni Circuit Kavango West.
18.104.22.168. To analyse strategies used disseminate new physical science curriculum for grade 8 learners to the users in Ncuncuni circuit Kavango West,
22.214.171.124. To explore teacher’s factors that affect the implementation of new Physical Science Curriculum for grade 8 learners in Ncuncuini Circuit Kavango West.
126.96.36.199. To establish ways on how to curb challenges during the implementation of new physical science curriculum for grade 8 learners in Ncuncuni Circuit Kavango West.
1.4 Research questions
188.8.131.52 What are the school factors affecting the implementation of new Physical Science Curriculum for grade 8 learners in Ncuncuni Circuit Kavango West.
184.108.40.206 Which strategies used to disseminate new physical science curriculum for grade 8 learners to teachers in Ncuncuni Circuit Kavango West.
220.127.116.11 What are teachers’ factors affecting implementation of new Physical Science Curriculum for grade 8 learners in Ncuncuni Circuit Kavango West.
18.104.22.168 What can be done to curb difficulties during implementation of new physical science curriculum for grade 8 leaners be curbed in Ncuncuni Circuit Kavango West.
1.5 Significance of Study
The purpose of the study was to highlight wide range of factors affecting the implementation of physical science curriculum for grade 8 learners in Ncuncuni circuit. The study is largely important to the researcher, learners, Teachers administrators and the directorate of education of Ncuncuni Circuit. The research benefitted researcher who is a Physical Science teacher to gain new knowledge on implementation of new physical science curriculum.
The researcher hope that the findings of the study will be used by physical science teachers at other schools in the in Ncucnuni Circuit to strengthen program that enhance smooth implementation of reformed physical science curriculum for grade 8 learners. The finding may also be used by the Directorate of Education Kavango West in particular Advisory Services to plan on how to support teachers during the implement reformed curriculum. The recommendations made at the end in this study may provide basis for those interested to explore on the same topic.
1.6 Scope (Delimitation) of the study
The study will focus on determining factors affecting implementation new National Curriculum for Basic Education focusing on the grade 8 Physical Science curriculum in Ncuncuni Circuit Kavango West. The study was conducted at three combined schools in Ncuncuni circuit. For this reasons the study was confined only to the Physical science teachers and grade 8 learners, the researcher is a teacher in the Ncuncuni circuit.
1.7 Limitation of the study
The objective of this research was to explore factors affecting the implementation of new Physical science curriculum for Physical Science for grade 8 learners in Ncuncuni Circuit Kavango West. Nevertheless, the research had certain limitations, Time constraints – the researcher had faced challenges, balancing between research and assignments of the remaining modules. The researcher is a full time teacher had to commit to teaching and marking learners written activities, the researcher had to also carry out day-to-day school administration. Financial constraints, the researcher had to travel to selected school and hence there were travelling cost be incurred. This restricted the researcher to study only three combined schools.
1.8 Definition of key terms used.
Curriculum – (Schuberth, 1997) defines curriculum as the total structure of ideas and activities; it also refers the total learning experiences of individual not only in school but in society as well. According to
Curriculum reform – is a process of curriculum change in educational institutions which involve interaction of global, national and institutional factors (Arend , 2009)
Curriculum implementation – entails putting into practice the officially prescribed courses of study, syllabuses and subjects (Arend , 2009). According to (Chaudhary, 2015) define it as a process which involves helping the learners to acquire knowledge and experience.
This chapter provided the background of the study, highlighting what motivated the researcher to have interest in the topic. The statement of the problem is outlined in this chapter. Certain specific research questions which researcher sought the research question. The questions are set based on factors that affect implementation of new physical science curriculum for grade 8 learners. The beneficiaries of the study are identified and amongst these were the learners, teachers, administrators, researcher himself and directorate of education Ncuncuni Circuit.
The chapter also outlined the delimitations Conceptual and physical aspects are considered. Under this chapter this limitations of the study are discussed financial, time and new teaching force. Key terms used in the study are defined this covered words such as curriculum, curriculum reform and curriculum implementation.
Chapter two: Literature review
This study is focused on the implementation of the new Physical science curriculum for grade 8 learners. the scope of this study is sketched in the preceding chapter. Namibia did not change the education system at independence. This chapter provides a universal review of literature related this study of the implementation of new National curriculum for Basic education in particular Physical Science curriculum for grade 8 learners. The emphasis of the study is on factors affecting implementation of new physical science curriculum for grade 8 learners whereby Namibian context and South Africa will be considered. Conceptual and theoretical frameworks for the study are provided by literature review.
2.1 Literature review
Literature review is defined as simply an objective and summary of published and what existing scholarship discover about a particular topic. Literature review is always based on secondary sources, it is what other scholar have already written a relevant to topic of interest but not about discovery of new knowledge and information (Jesson, Matheson, ; Lacey, 2011). A literature review is viewed as most significant part of student projects, research studies and their dissertation.
The researcher has to pay attention only to relevant academic literature, non-academic may be included occasionally to illustrate points, but attention must be focused on data collected or theories put together by recognised specialists in the area of interest. It is an obligatory in research studies and dissertations that each student has at one time or another had to write a literature review (Jesson, Matheson, ; Lacey, 2011). Literature enable the researcher to sketch the scope of your study and knowing the frame of related literature, you would be able to see and show how one dissertation fits into the sequence of previous studies.
The researcher will be able to make a case that the current study add value to what is known about the matter of interest. A literature show how new studies and previous studies are rather like building blocks, which are laid upon the ideas constructed by others. Literature help the researcher to appreciate something of the sequence and growth of knowledge (Ridley, 2008). Conducting a literature review develop the knowledge of the researcher in her/his field. Learning about important concepts, research methods and experimental techniques that can be applied in your field is another advantage.
According to (Jesson, Matheson, ; Lacey, 2011) state that literature reviews will lead the researcher to a better understanding of how research findings are presented and discussed in the same area of study. The researcher will be able to identify what is known and how well this knowledge is established. The researcher also identifies gaps in the previous research and then address those gaps through the new research (Hart, 1998). Conducting literature review enable the researcher to identify areas of a certain topics that is not much researched in detail. This allow the researcher to frame their study towards addressing the deficiency identified in the literature reviews, thus contributing to the development of knowledge on that topic.
2.2 Theoretical Framework
The theoretical framework is a set of terms and connection that map out the border within which problem is framed and answered. It joins the researcher to existing knowledge directed by related theory. Pronouncing the theoretical assumption of a research will enable the researcher to answer question of why and how? It enables the researcher not only to describe the phenomenon observed, but also to logically transform from simply describing a phenomenon you have observed to generalise about aspect of that phenomenon. Theories of teaching and learning play major roles in guiding teachers and the educational specialists on how to best plan and implement the curriculum. before discussing curriculum implementation, the researcher logically examines theories of curriculum planning and implementation.
The first theory is Havelock’s model known as research, development and diffusion model (RDD model) defined by its linear characteristics in disseminating innovation, top-down from centre to the periphery (Trubowitz, 2000). The RDD model is framed by numbers of assumptions, such as, its believed must be built in a rational sequence in its evolution and application of the innovation. The sequences are research, development and diffusion. There should be a coherent sequence during the innovation, and acceptance of the innovation (Havelock, 1971).
Firstly, the model is characterised by inquiries and analysis by conducting a research followed by the development and testing to see the effectiveness of the innovation. Thereafter the innovation programme is finalised, it is packed in lastly dissemination, materials such as textbooks, teaching guide, and in-service training of the users. Second assumption is that there should be massive planning of the innovation over a long a long time. This long planning allows systematic budgeting, monitoring the process and evaluation of each stage of its development and ensure attainment of stated objectives. Third assumption is because there is lots of work to be done during the innovation labor and coordination of labor have to be divided among those involved in the innovation.
Fourth assumption is that the curriculum users are just passive users of the curriculum, this mean no much room for the to do further amendments to it, so the dissemination process must be designed effectively, packed and offered to the users in the right place, at the right time and in the right form. Lastly its assumed that the initial costs of curriculum development prior to dissemination are high. The model need more resources in particular budget expenditure. The proponents excepted high cost due to anticipated long-term benefits in the efficacy and quality of the innovation and its suitability for mass audience dissemination.
For effective curriculum implementation. The above assumptions are stepping-stones used to analyse in trying to implement the innovations. In other words, the innovations are designed by specialists arranged for research, development and diffusion done by many people in different divisions and thereafter spread to audiences as curriculum users.
Strategies underpinning the RDD model are such as empirical-rational, normative-re-educative and power-coercive (political-administrative). RDD model commonly uses empirical –rational strategy in its research and developmental stages and switch to power-coercive strategy which emphasise political, legal and economic sanctions in realising the stated objectives of the innovations and by applying level of bureaucracy and authoritarian leadership.
According to (Arend , 2009) states that information that the decision maker use to develop curriculum are exhibited from educational stakeholders, thus it’s important for every member of the school to be part of decision about curriculum development and implementation. After the curriculum design is completed, the dissemination routinely follows (Arend , 2009). The dissemination embraces of the preparation of teachers through distributions of curriculum information. Preparation of those involved fulfil new expectation, Sufficient resources at disposal, Precise outlining of goals and title role expectation of implementers, Support, motivation and enough time given
Regarding Preparation of those involved fulfil new expectation.
According to (Brown, Oke, ; Brown, 1982) state that the process of curriculum implementation will be effective if the teachers have a mastery of subjects that they have to teach. Educators need in-service training about new curriculum; it’s teaching pedagogy, assessment, teaching resources e.g. textbooks, language among others (Rogan & Grayson, 2003). According to (Arend , 2009) states that for successful change, the level of preparedness of the implementer must be ensured.
The new curriculum comes with new things for example learning outcome of the curriculum, language, new physical facilities e.g. textbooks and other physical materials. Hence it is imperative for the teacher to undergo retraining through various professional developments. This increases teacher’s ability to implement new curriculum.
Sufficient facilities and resources;
The availability of curriculum facilities and utilisation of right curriculum resources are viewed as vital ways for curriculum implementation (Arend , 2009). In most developing countries textbooks are the most available curriculum resources for both teachers and learners. In order to ensure efficient curriculum implementation, all learners need to receive a textbook necessary for each learning course to be studied (Arend , 2009) (Monyokolo ; Poteza, 1999) Holds a view that due to lack of resources such as textbooks, teachers need to improvise and to be encouraged to be creative and use available resources to deliver quality lessons.
Precise outlining of goals and role expectations of implementers;
During the implementation of curriculum 2005 most teachers struggled making sense of the curriculum its pedagogy and Outcomes. This resulted in some teachers that did not try to implementing curriculum 2005 (Chisholm, 2000). It was evident that curriculum 2005 did not yield intended results, teachers struggled to interpret terminology used and reaching common understanding of what the curriculum in practice meant. Little evidence of curriculum implementation was observed in order to satisfy inspectorates of the department (Hoadley ; Jansen, 2009).
“The lack of content specification in the curriculum documents meant that there was no clear guidance as to what learning outcomes were to be achieved in each grade. Hence no measure or standard of progression was available” (Hoadley & Jansen, 2009, p. 160). Each teacher need to know what to do in order to achieve whole envisaged curriculum innovation. Curriculum dissemination team must ensure that new curriculum is well introduced to teachers, learners, parents and other stakeholders need to be aware of curriculum goals and ways to achieve stated goals (Ball & Cohen, 1996).
Support, motivation and enough time given;
Major curriculum implementation tends to work out if implementer mainly teachers are supported and motivated. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (1943) individual have the need for esteem which includes aspect recognition, attention, social status and accomplishment. For the teachers to implement new curriculum successfully, teachers need support in term of physical resources, in-service training and how to deal with stress that come with changes. According to (Arend , 2009) state that to ensure smooth curriculum implementation there must be a strong communication, co-operation. The effort by the leadership is needed to create school environment in particular classroom environment conducive for teaching and learning. School leadership, departmental advisory services, curriculum planners and Government support is the key to success behind curriculum implementation (Ball & Cohen, 1996).
Social interaction (S-I) as another theory of curriculum innovation. The assumptions guiding this model is that, the model is based on teacher’s freedom to initiate the dissemination of innovation from periphery to periphery through social interaction (Mkpa & Izuagba, 2004). Despite prior initiative of curriculum innovation coming from the centre, which may draw up guidelines of the new curriculum, and involve in selection and organisation of the curriculum. teachers are the main role players in the translating the new curriculum and localise the ideas of the innovations in classroom context (Anaele, 2008).
The centre assumes that teachers are professionals and are creatives, thus teachers are given freedom to choose best methods of curriculum implementations as well as to localise the innovation enabling to address the need of the society.
According to (Havelock, 1971) there are five generalisation related to Social Interaction model, firstly is that the network of social relations has a large role-play in the diffusion of innovation. This means that individual innovation users belong to a network of social interactions, which influences individual acceptance or rejection of the innovation. Secondly the rate innovation acceptance can be best predicted by social reference in the network, which is: centrality, peripherally and isolation.
Thirdly, Personal contact is a vital part of the influence and adoption process. Fourthly, group memberships are major predictor of individual adoption process. Fifth, the rate of diffusion through a social system follows a predictable S-curve pattern (very slow beginning followed by a period of very rapid diffusion, followed in turn by a long late adopter period. Strategies underpinning the Social Interaction model is normative-re-educative strategy.
The assumption here is that the curriculum users are not passive who are waiting for solutions. This strategy is based on a psychotherapeutic model of change-agent (counsellor) and adopter (client) whereby the agent and client work together so that the client works out his changes for himself (Mkpa & Izuagba, 2004). Which put emphasise on the involvement of curriculum users in the innovation, so that the curriculum specialists learn how to work jointly with the client in order to address the client problem. Normative-re-educative strategy emphasise on the idealistic of understanding of human beings and bring meaningful change initiated by individual.
Problem solving as a theoretical perspective on innovation, this theory rest on the first assumption that innovations are mainly meant for solving problem. According to (Nduanya, 1991) states that problem-solving model is also called Need Reduction Model and perceived as user friendly model. It is viewed as a patterned sequence of activities starting with the identification of needs (Mkpa & Izuagba, 2004). With this theory the needs are client cantered, the need is sensed and articulated by the client which is than transformed into problem statement. Thereafter the client has formulated the problem statement, the client user engaged him/herself in to a meaningful research finding the ideas and information that can be best used to for innovation.
Lastly the user will then seek best way on how to adopt the innovation, piloting it and evaluating its effectiveness based the prior needs identified. The centre of attention is the user, himself, his needs and what he can do about satisfying his needs. The role of other stakeholders Is therefore consultative or collaborative (Mkpa & Izuagba, 2004). The outsider change agents are there to assist the user with providing him with ideas and innovations to diagnosed needs or by providing guidance on the process of problem-solving at some parts of the innovation stage.
Problem-solving theory has at least five points highlighted in this orientation: First, that users’ needs are very important aspect in this orientation, second, that diagnosis of need always has to be an integral part of the total process, third that the outside change agent must be nondirective, fourth, that the internal resources such as that are already existing and easily accessible in the client system should be fully utilised and the fifth, is that self-initiated and self-applied innovation will have the strongest user commitment and the best chances of long-term survival.
Fourth theory of curriculum innovation is the Linkage model (L) another model by Havelock which involve the integration and unify other three models of curriculum innovation, namely: Research, Development and diffusion (RDD), Social Interaction (SI) and Problem-Solving (PS) (Anaele, 2008), he further emphasise the need of linkage of procedures and agencies of other models in harmonious ways. This will enable connecting agencies that can provide curriculum resources to the users. this materials and instructional strategy can either come from central agency, consultancy. According to (Mkpa & Izuagba, 2004) support Anaele ideas of linkage, adding that the Linkage model utilise the strengths of other three models and overcome their weakness. According to (Hoyle, 1993) posits that Linkage model is based on the linkage between the school and various specialised centralised agencies. These agencies work together to provide useful human and materials that can be used to solve problems in school setting. This model provides opportunities between national agencies of curriculum development to avail consultancy services and give in-service training for teachers as the end users.
2.3 Science curriculum reform and implementation in developed countries
In most part of the world, science education has been through process of reform and innovation. Science curriculum reforms started in the 1960s and 1970s in the western world (Walker, 1992). The preliminary science curriculum reform started in the UK and US, in the 1960s. There was number of science courses introduced such as Biological sciences curriculum in United States of America, Nuffield science was introduced in the United Kingdom (Walberg, 1991).
The reform was aimed to balance the field of science, but not to be separated into Biology, Chemistry and Physics. The reform also enhances compulsory science curriculum for all students. Projects that were to be implemented based on science as subject that will develop learners’ scientific skills (Walker, 1992). Second science curriculum reform was aimed at addressing societal issues and environmental issues as well as to ensure science education for all.
Literature is steady showing that the innovation of curriculum in developed countries was not easy as such. Teachers had difficulties in adapting to a new pedagogy characterised by constructivist view from transmission of factual knowledge to learners. In United Kingdom the government reports was evident focusing on inadequacy of education (Walker, 1992). It is again this background that developing countries followed suit by adopting science curriculum form their colonial power (Walberg, 1991).
2.4 Science curriculum reform and implementation in developing countries
After independence most of the developing countries adopted the education system from their colonial power, the innovation has not always been easy especially during the implementation of the innovation. The science curriculum reform that took place in UK and US has fuelled science curriculum reform in the developing countries.
The introduction and the innovation of science curriculum of science curriculum in the developing countries were aimed developing scientific skills needed to address societal and environmental issues. Just like second science curriculum reform in the US and UK that was mainly aimed to enhance science education for all, towards the end of 1960s the educational ministries of developing countries reformed science curriculum on a broader term than just rearrangements of existing science topics and also to make science compulsory subject for all learners, this was an inspiration of British reform project called Nuffeld.
Developing countries reformed their science curriculum at primary and junior secondary education. The reform also increased access to schooling, changing teaching pedagogy that sow shifting from rote learning to a constructivist views. There are predictions made my by (Lewin, 1992) pertaining science curriculum development in the developing countries in the 1990s.
He predicted continuation of scientific literacy, teaching that enhancing scientific skills, cognitive process based on scientific problem solving, shifting from learning by recalling of information to constructivist learning. Broaden science education to nutrition, health education, societal issues and environmental issues among others. Beginning of 1990s predicted trends were indeed evident in primary and secondary education. Despite this notable evidence lack of resources, lack of proper policy to govern implementation and less money invested for staff development.
2.5 Historical context of educational reform and curriculum implementation in Namibia
Prior to independence in 1990 Namibian was subjected to suppressive system and education was characterised by segregation and divide development for different ethnicity. Education was a privilege for a few blacks that were prepared vocational efficacy with Semi skilled and unskilled labour (Tjikuua, 2000). Mathematics and Science curriculum was mostly for the whites, upon South Africa acknowledgement of Namibia’s right to rule itself as an independent state, only few Namibian who received training in science related fields.
When the whites community pulled out at Namibia, skilled labour they occupied were left vacant, hence the country imported skilled labour mainly Science teachers from other countries including Zimbabwe, Nigeria, Egypt and US Peace Corps (Tjikuua, 2000). However, such adjustments made no essential difference to Namibian education representing the new socio-political and economic realities. It was against this background that Namibia embarked on quite a lot and long consultative process to come up with a new curriculum as imperative response to the socio-political. reforms in different sectors of the country economy including education were significant. Education policy such as “towards education for all” was set to be achieved by the new education system, the policy consist of four major goals namely; access, equity, quality and democracy (MBEC, 1995).
According to (Mutorwa, 2004) argues that these goals are aimed at achieving equal resources distribution to all, building and merging democratic culture and motivating the people to become a learning nation. The reform also put emphasis on quality education which embraces the ever changing world, preparing learners to be critical thinkers and develop scientific as well as their technological skills (Iipinge & Likando, 2012).
Education reforms were done in response to dissatisfaction of past inequalities and unjust expressed toward lack of relevancy in both content and curriculum of Bantu education system. According to (Mutorwa, 2004) states that the transition from curriculum of colonial power to localised curriculum was a complex process, but Namibia has accomplished the change promptly and fruitfully.
According to (MBEC, 1995) reports that during the transitional period, the heritage of the old curriculum system continue troubling the implementation of new curriculum. Although there were procedures in place to direct the education system on how to put into practice the new curriculum, however, implementation remains far from a living reality. some of the stakeholders were resistant to change. Unwillingness of stakeholders to make the change from elite education to education for all and to new education philosophy, principles and pedagogy that transition necessitates (MBEC, 1995). Literature shows that there had been a gap between the curriculum specialists and curriculum implementers: which is simply indicating the differences between theory and practice.
Curriculum implementation of Science related field in Namibia has been a challenge since independence. Process of transformation of curriculum is an on-going process that enables the country and seeks its establishment among other countries (Mutorwa, 2004). This is because Science was ignored by the education system of the colonial power that denied many of the black Namibians the teaching and learning of science subjects.
2.6 Factors affecting the implementation of new curriculum
2.6.1 Change as a challenge for curriculum
According to (Lunenburg, 2010) defines Organisational change as shifting of an organisation away from its current state and towards some desired future state that is aimed to increases an organisational effectiveness. The educational system is ever changing to address new needs. (Lunenburg, 2010) Stress that schools in particular must adapt to such changes in order to remain relevant. Change is occurrence that affects all aspects of human life, it brings about amendments in both personal and employment domains.
2.6.2 in-service training for teachers
In-service training is a program of instruction or training provided by an agency or institution for its employees, In-service training is intended to increases the skills and competences of employees in specific area. Most developing countries in Africa, after gaining their independence, have stressed the importance of science education for national economic development (Peacock, 1993).
The realisation of teaching science effectively was hampered by many factors ranging from contradictions between traditional perceptions of leaning and modern aspirations for implementing science curriculum, resources constraints, Geographical constraints , training and hurdles ascending out of centralism, exhibited by the new curriculum (Peacock, 1993). The traditional of science practical work and experimentation had never been established by the education system of the colonial regime.
This means that there were no trained teachers for science curriculum because, there was no training course for Mathematics and science existed I the country by than; hence the newly independent Namibia needed in-service training for teacher to implement the science curriculum effectively (MoEC, 1991). It was against this background that the Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC) in independent Namibia recognised a working group on in-service training aimed at classroom skills improvement and provide basic Mathematics and Science (MoEC, 1991).
Namibia set up long term economic needs for trained workers in science areas such as agriculture, Mining, medical care, telecommunication and computer science; however, the number of qualified teachers in this field is still far below the number needed by the new curriculum. In-service training program for new curriculum put emphasis among other things; an attitude of curiosity and inquiry, investigation skills, ability to use productive skills and usage of knowledge gained during science practical skill and experiments (MoEC, 1990).
Regarding the in-service training of science teachers a lot is needed to be done to ensure successful implementation of national broad curriculum for basic education in science curriculum for junior secondary phase (MoEC, 1991). The ministry of education and culture did not manage to provide all in-service training to ensure effective implementation of localised curriculum, the department of education than involved institution of higher learning in the process (Peacock, 1993). Full time diploma courses at local colleges and in other SADEC countries such as mathematics and Science teachers trained in Zimbabwe and South Africa through grant and loan by Government of Namibia helped to facilitate in-service training of teachers (Mutorwa, 2004).
Basic Education Teacher Diploma programme (BETD) offered at former colleges of education namely; Windhoek, Rundu, Katima Mulilo and Ongwediva prepares teachers including Science teachers. The same colleges stated to offer BETD in-service training for under qualified teachers in 1995 a programme supported by UNESCO. Other teachers came from countries such as Nigeria and Egypt and others through organisation such as US Peace Corps on a volunteering basis to facilitate implementation of science curriculum.
2.6.3 Curriculum facilities and resources
Curriculum design is followed by development of curriculum materials; curriculum materials is viewed as an important aspect for curriculum implementation. Literature is steady showing that in the Africa context, textbooks are the most powerful tools for curriculum implementation available for teachers and learners.
In years before independence, in Namibia education was divided into education for whites and that of blacks. Education for the white is free and obligatory up to the age of 16 years with free textbooks and other learning materials, but for the black Namibian child it is exactly contrary (MOE, 2010). Their parents had to be taxed for the provision of their children’s textbooks and other necessities. Another crime of Bantu education in Namibia is the denial of Science education curriculum to a black child. This explain the current status of the availabilities in most Namibian Schools. The directorate revealed more than 50 % of all schools in Namibia lacked basic physical infrastructure. (MOE, 2010). means that no science physical facilities and resources.
The continuation curriculum revision in Namibia was intended to redress the content overload experience in the prior science curriculum that merged after independence. The revision of science curriculum is contrary to science curriculum before independence, it favoured more activity based topics that address day to day experiences of learners. More activities intended especially at the learners at schools that have little or no science equipment and those that were previously involved in very few practical activities (MEC, 1991).
Provision of curriculum facilities and resources is seen as the strategy behind success of curriculum implementation (Ball & Cohen, 1996). He believed that assessment is highly influenced by availabilities of physical facilities, such as classroom, laboratories, shortage of such facilities lead to overcrowding of classroom, beyond ministerial norms of teacher’s learner’s ratio. In African countries textbooks are the only resources available for both teachers and learners.
Teachers too have access to teacher’s guides which help teachers how to tackle each topic. Textbook have positive impact on learner’s achievement, time efficacy compared to chalk and talking style which requires to take notes from the chalkboard. Textbooks have indicated the outcomes of each topic known as basic competencies/ specific objectives. Textbooks provide teachers with various teaching methods and instructional activities that can be used to determines learner’s competencies.
Despite this notable positive impacts by the textbooks, ministry of basic education and culture has in most cases experience shortage of textbooks supply caused by budgetary constraints and learners enrolment is on the increase over the years. Other evident shortcoming is textbooks quality being produced (MOE, 2010). Many textbooks writers have poorly illustrated the content featured by poor language usage. Textbook produced in line with new curriculum does not reflect prescribed teaching and assessment pedagogy of new curriculum; in some instances teachers continued using old textbooks for the new curriculum (Hoadley & Jansen, 2009).
Ministry of education and culture has put immense effort to ensure equal resources distribution as it is stipulated in the documents “Towards education for all” one of the National development strategy vision 2030; Science curriculum implementation has been a challenge since independence 1990; this is aggregated by negligence by education system of the colonial power. Namibia inherited the education system that was characterised by segregations, unequal distribution of science facilities and resources plus undeveloped human resources (Mutorwa, 2004).
Successful implementation of curriculum is fuelled by concrete materials that have evident information about the subject. Physical science learning is characterised by experimental learning. Experimental learning is one of the powerful to learning science and give meaningful and relevance to learner’s real world life. Despite effort the country has put in to implemented science education for all learners to ensure scientific skills development, many schools especially those in rural and remote area are still operating under tree or poorly constructed shade made out of locally available materials, unfavourable situation to carry out science experiments (MBEC, 1995).
Many schools with deficiency of infrastructures does not experience in successfully implementation of the curriculum, but the condition itself distract. the possibilities of focus and attention on teaching and learning. The main educational challenge in Namibian schools alongside the curriculum implementation is the provision of material resources for teaching and learning. Science curriculum is being implemented in school that does not have laboratory.
According to (Leach, 1998) states that laboratory experience enable learners to do science by proving an opportunity for them to get information using experimental procedures. (Leach, 1998) defines experiment in its purest sense, as call to vigilant observation, though, and interpretation. Leach further contents that good experiment is featured by qualities of questionings and practical investigations confrontation with the unknown and derive the answer from the experiment, compared to old programme which is characterised by predetermined answers.
(Leach, 1998) suggests that there are various laboratory experiences that differ significantly in function, its structure, and expected outcomes, such as exploration whereby learners learn how to observe phenomena, deductive verification, in which learners have to obtain the outcomes by measurement, operational in learners follow procedures to collect data, inquiry in which learners explain novel phenomena depend on the concept being studied and process in which learners will be guided to set up an experiment and evaluate.
Lack of teaching resources and facilities is normally complained by many physical science teachers who don’t see the wealth of natural phenomenon being explained by textbooks and talk and chalkboard teaching style (Tilgner, 2000). To overcome this deficiencies Tilgner suggested Physical science teachers must be able to analyse each situation. Physical science teachers must be must recognise the availability of local materials and methods at the disposal and make best use of it to teach physical science successfully. Physical science programme must be designed in such a way that they are not divorced from learner’s real world situation.
Improvisation is one of the best method that can be used to address resources and facilities difficulties in schools. Many teachers design their own teaching resources (Butler, 1999). Improvisation of teaching resources and facilities is done because there are no resources due to inequitable distribution or lack of resources at schools. Butler goes on by saying that teachers made materials are often more straight relevant to address learners needs than those commercially published ones. Butler highlighted that curriculum resources include any object that teachers can used during their lesson presentations and that benefit teaching and learning.
(MEC, 1991) report states that the new curriculum provides teachers with some opportunities to involve learners in to practical activities, despite the unavailability of physical facilities and necessary teaching resources. The usage of everyday life materials such as cloths, building materials such as brick, ceramics, concrete, grass for thatching and house hold cleaning materials make it effective for teachers to build on the prior experiences of the learners. However, some teachers raised concerned about the innovation as it seemed that most topics are different from the usual physical science topics, and that the locally available materials may not address the outcomes of new physical science curriculum (MEC, 1991).
2.6.4 Resistance to change
In the early years subsequent to independence, Namibia embark of numerous education reform, some reform was meant to root-out disparity in education as a results of Bantu education, promote socio-economic development, promote scientific skills needed to solve societal and environmental issues and other challenges of the 21st century.
The reform earns the education system changing from teachers-centred education to learners-centred education. Curriculum change means to shift from an old pedagogy to a new pedagogy. It’s very important to sustain stability that enhance effective and quality education and is also important to continue improving educational practice to address new needs of changing conditions. In orders to implement the envisage curriculum change it is very important for the school to be flexible and be initiatives and find ways of how to face change (Rosenblatts, 2004); the main purpose of curriculum change in school emanates from external demands.
For the schools to maintain survival and future success of the school teachers must be prepared to adapt to external demand the school is subjected to, school must be prepared to face the demand of dynamic environment and respond promptly. (Yimaz & Kilicoglu, 2013). No matter how careful is the innovation is planned there is always some teachers at school level that behave differently. However different people react to the innovation differently. At school level, teachers resist changing if the innovation is imposed to teachers to implement without any choice, teachers have fear of unknown. According to (Chisholm, 2000) states that the implementation of curriculum 2005 did not materialised due to resistance by the teacher, and many factors contributed to resistance of curriculum 2005 among others is uncertainty, this means that teachers may be worried about the impact of change on the work and their live.
(Harvey & Broyles, 2010) State that it is a culture for people to avoid change, during curriculum implementation there may be resistance to new ideas and innovations by some teachers. (Harvey & Broyles, 2010) Proposed reasons people may resist change which includes Lack of ownership, Lack of benefit, More Work and Lack of support among others.
2.6.5 Lack of Ownership
According to (Arend , 2009) states that allowing teachers to participate in the curriculum planning, design as well as implementation of curriculum motivate the teachers to develop sense of ownership. In recent years, top-down policy style is a contemporary dialogue, emphasising the need of participatory process that involves the practitioners and other stakeholders right in planning and implementation of curriculum. The argument is based on the fact that successful curriculum innovation and implementation require a critical and collaborative approach to reduce the gap between theory and practice. In Namibia NIED is the body responsible for the curriculum planning and designing of curriculum with little or no consultations of teachers.
Teachers are than passive receiver of the curriculum to implement it without any adjusts. Lack of involvement in the curriculum demotivate teachers during implementation as they don’t have sense of ownership in the curriculum but mare implementers of what is planned by the specialist. The implementation is less likely to happen as only few people enjoy taking orders from external power.
2.6.6 Lack of benefit
If the teachers do not see the relevance of the new program to the and to their learners than it obvious teachers will reject the innovation. Most of the time teachers are trapped while trying to make sense of the curriculum they have to implement, the end results of this struggle is some teachers refusing to implement the new curriculum. Lack of content and goals specifications lead to denial of curriculum implementation of new curriculum, as there is no clear guideline as to what learning outcomes are to be achieved (Hoadley & Jansen, 2009).
At independence in 1990 education system got reformed because there was a feeling that the curriculum for that colonial power was irrelevant, defined by inequality, racialism, and the curriculum only prepared learners for basic educations. Vocational subjects were the only option for black children and yet this did not prepare the student for dynamic environment, it is against this background that Bantu education system was totally rejected by the majority as there was no benefits emanating from it.
2.6.7. School leadership support, coordination and motivation
In many cases, teachers are vulnerable to new curriculum implementation as a result of insecurity as to what comprehends. Teachers find it difficult to change from old ways of doing things, because they think that curriculum innovation comes with more responsibilities, and not all teachers want to do a lot of work than before. To ensure that all these catastrophes are dealt with, it is obligatory to explore the extent to which the goals relating to the new curriculum can be translated.
According to (Arend , 2009) states that one of the most phases of developing effective curriculum change at schools is to ensure strategies that bring about co-operation, communication and support. Co-operation between the curriculum developers and the users, will enhance effective curriculum implementation in schools. This can be done the evaluation of the part of curriculum implemented to see to it that it is in accordance with standard set.
According to (Fullan M. , 2001) Argues that the success of curriculum implementation exist in coordination, in improving relationships in creating and sharing of knowledge and in all aspects that influences curriculum implementation. It is also imbedded in organizing of all resources needed at national, and regional in a rational classical. Efforts by school management it is of utmost importance in the implementation of new curriculum. They need to create a conducive environment that enables effective curriculum implementation.
2.6.8 Parental involvement
literature is steady showing that parental involvement in their child academic work is very important, and that those who design educational policies view community involvement in education as a panacea for deficiency in education delivery. Parents send their children to schools while remain with high expectation that their children come back home with expected knowledge (Epstein, 2001).
Quality of education will only be strengthened if both teachers and parents share educational responsibility through interaction. Teachers will hardly complete their work without support from the parents, and parents need to be informed of what is happening in school so that they support schools. The outcomes for physical science curriculum relies heavily on home as an extension of school activities (Epstein & Salinas, 2004). Parents participation in their children education it important for all families, be it those with low income and those that feels not included in education, low self-esteem because of teacher’s attitudes must be encouraged to participated (Epstein, 2001).
Literature indicate that high participation of parents in their children’s education is fuelled by the following condition. School must understand and must appreciate parental involvement, School must create opportunities for the parents to offer technical support such as assessments and classroom activities to enhance learning, create a conducive environment were parents feel free to offer their support, involving parents in the formulation school policies such as PAAI (plan of action for academic improvement) and school governance, School must use different channels of communication.
Teachers should see parents as a source of support for the work. According to (Bester, 2001) means that the education of learners is a joint accountability of both teachers and parents at home. Parents should by all means be involved in the children’s education by practicing continuous informal assessment by commenting on the work of their children, such as test assignments and end of term tests. (Bester, 2001).
Schools must ensure to put up parent’s day in their school calendar whereby parents have to take a day off to come to school and see their learners written work. Schools must also send learners portfolio to parents and see their children’s work and thereafter sign to show that they have seen the children’s work (Schmacher & Lefevre, 1999).
According to (Spady & Schlebusch, 1999) content that schools should send portfolios to parents regularly and create an opportunities so that they comment on their children’s work and take part in the teaching and learning process. Spady and Schledusch further assert that it imperative for the parents to set time to go through their children’s in more detail, to find how learners are doing and listen to what kids are saying about their school work.
Although parental involvement in their children’s education is of utmost important, there are many challenges. Literature is showing that parents stereotypical judgements by teachers, economic status and educational deficiencies impede parent’s relationship and support to schools (Souto-Manning & Swick, 2006). According to the literature, parent’s involvement in their children education is determined by their socio-economic background (Simt & Liebenberg, 2003). Stressing that parents who are from stressful background are too reluctant to help their children with their education.
On the contrary many schools set up programs to involves parents in their day to day activities even though there are barriers such as poverty and sickness among others. Schools communicate with parents through letters, parents meeting and through viewing progress report for their children (Shezi, 2012). Some schools go to the extent of home visit, for the teachers to familiarise themselves with learner’s background and thus strengthen the relationship with parents. Numbers of schools welcomed parents involvement to a certain degree, as teachers get worried of parent getting overly involved and going beyond their limits (Shezi, 2012).
Chapter 3 Research Methodology
According to (Bean, 2005) states that, the methodology applied to generate and analyse data is well-thought-out to be the most important components of research design, he further states that best results of any research merges from appropriate methodology used. Chapter three follows on chapter two, which is all about the theoretical framework with the review of the literature. Theoretical ideas about implementation of new Physical science curriculum for grade 8 learners are discussed in chapter two. The foundation of dealing with the problem is strongly laid by the theoretical framework and the review of literature to enable the use of data collection instruments discussed in this chapter. Interview and questionnaire were used in this studies in order to collect information that provide answers to the research questions for this study. This chapter emphases on the research design and methodology used to conduct the study, to generate answers to the following questions identified in Chapter one:
• What are the school factors affecting the implementation of new Physical Science Curriculum for grade 8 learners in Ncuncuni Circuit Kavango West?
• Which strategies used to disseminate new physical science curriculum for grade 8 learners to teachers in Ncuncuni Circuit Kavango West.
• What are teachers’ factors affecting implementation of new Physical Science Curriculum for grade 8 learners in Ncuncuni Circuit Kavango West.
• What can be done to curb difficulties during implementation of new physical science curriculum for grade 8 leaners be curbed in Ncuncuni Circuit Kavango West.
This chapter focuses on comprehensive account of the research design, research approach, research paradigm, Population of study, sampling procedures, research instrument, data collection procedure, data presentation and analysis, trustworthiness (validity and reliability) ethical considerations and chapter summary.
There are diverse definitions of the term research by different scholars and researchers from various fields. According to (Maree, 2007) defines research as study undertaken in order to find out new meaning in a systematic way in this manner of increasing knowledge. According to the (Creswell, 2003) defines research as a way of investigation undertaken in order to discover new information and increases knowledge.
Based the above definition of research it means that research is a planned study conducted to establish new facts and information to the existing knowledge of particular phenomenon. The researcher must first identify a problem or area of interest and formulate the identified problem into research problem, collect and analysing data and present the findings of the study. In this affection research consist of aspects of collecting data, administering tests in order to verify knowledge and construct new one based on the area under study (Creswell, 2003).
3.2 Research Design
(Bless & Higson-Smith, 1995) refers to research design as the overall strategy that a researcher selects to incorporate various components of the study in an analytical way and finding relationship between variables. Whereas (Maree, 2007) defines research design as the overall plan of a study that shows boundaries of data collection. The study located within Exploratory Sequential Design research design that can have enhanced triangulation. According to (Stake, 2000, p. 443) argues that triangulation is “generally considered a process of using multiple perceptions to clarity meaning, verifying the repeatability of an observation and interaction” researcher choses this design to depict participants accurately.
Triangulation is best in facilitating interpretive validity and brings about data trustworthiness because the conclusion is based how qualitative data are supported by quantitative data and vice versa (Mcmillan & Schumacher, 2001). Bias is reduced during this process because data is collected from different individual using different methods. The challenges of triangulation are that it takes less time to be completed than a sequential method (Creswell, 2003). Triangulation address the issues of trustworthiness as the researcher conclude research findings based on quantitative and qualitative data collected. Triangulation gives assurance to validity of study due to multiple research instruments used in quantitative and qualitative methods.
3.3 Research paradigm
A Paradigm is best defined as a shared world view that signifies a certain beliefs and values in a discipline and that guides how problems are solved. A paradigm constitutes of for parts namely ontology, epistemology, methodology and methods. It is an approach of describing a world view that is informed by philosophical assumptions regarding the nature of social reality which is known as ontology, that is what do people know about social reality? Ways of knowing known as epistemology, that is how do people know what they know? And ethics and value systems known as axiology-that is what do we believe is true?) and appropriate approaches of inquiry (known as methodology-that is how should we study the world?). The philosophy underpinning this mixed method research is the constructivist/ interpretativist paradigm which address issues of understanding the world as others experience it. Constructivist approach can be traced back from the work of Max Weber (Crotty, 1998). According to (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2003) argues that constructivist shows that reality is multi-layered and complex. They believe that human being construct their social reality.
On the issue of ontology, on question of what is reality, the constructivists assume that reality is socially constructed (Creswel, 2013). He believes that there are multi and intangible realities constructed by many individuals, explaining why reality differ from one person to another. Epistemologically, constructivist researchers believe in subjectivist views, simplifying that subjective interpretation is significant. According to (Grix, 2004) postulates that based on constructivism, the word is constructed via interaction of individuals, he further states that the natural and social world are not separate and the researchers form part of that social reality and that are not isolated from the subjects they are studying.
Methodology the aim of constructivist is to understand people experiences, as the study is carried out within participant natural setting. Methods, constructivists employ purposeful sampling and choose participants and sites that are regarded as information rich (Crewell, 2003). Various methods of data collection are employed, such as interviews and questionnaires.
3.4 Research Approach
The nature of the study generally leads to the choice of research methodology to be used. The study was conducted using a mixed methods research approaches. Mixed method research refers to methodology that involves gathering, analysing and integrating both quantitative and qualitative data (Creswell, 2003). According to (Maree, 2007, p. 269) defines mixed methods as a procedure for collecting, analysing and “mixing” both quantitative and quantitative data at some stage of the research process within a single study to understand a research problem more completely.”
The study applied this approach whereby survey is conducted to first highlight attitudes of participants based the topic, whereas in-depth interviews was used thereafter. This has enabled the researcher to learn about participant’s views and reality about the topic from their constructivist point. It has allowed the researcher obtain multiple meaning of participants’ experience. Mixed methods combine quantitative and qualitative within a single study, collecting all numeric (number) data and textual (word). Mixed methods design can be used to collect information from the participants immersed in the setting of everyday life in which the study is bordered. There are known advantages of mixed method approaches, this approach is used so that the data collected complement each other and it enhanced more quality analysis of the situation under study (Teddlie ; Tashakkori, 2009).
This method can be used to find answer to different research questions and mixed method has helped in gaining comprehensive understanding. Mixed methods approach allowed the researcher to tackle the situation under study from different vintage points (Creswel, 2013). Comparison of both quantitative and qualitative data lead to the production of well validated conclusion. This approach is less time consuming in completing than a chronological study.
Disadvantage of mixed research method are that “The researcher need to consider how the different data sets will actually be compared with each other (this can be very difficult!) and what to do if the two sets of result do not agree” (Maree, 2007, p. 275). Mixed methods approach requires that more effort is needed to collect and analyse for both quantitative and qualitative data for a single study. Mixed method is time consuming in a sense that you are conducting both quantitative and qualitative research. Not all the researchers that are expert in both quantitative and qualitative research, the researcher have to master various methods to mix each methods effectively.
3.5 Population of study
According to (Chirom, 2009) define a population as all the individuals, units, objects or events that will be considered in the research. This means that the conclusion after study will be generalised to the population. The target population for this study was 9 male teachers teaching physical science at grade eight levels and 30 grade 8 learners that is 15 boys and 15 girls from three selected combined schools in Ncuncuni Circuit.
3.6 Sampling procedure
Sample is defined as small group or subset of the population selected from whole population (Chirom, 2009). Sampling is a process of selecting individual for a study in such a way that they represent the large group from which they are selected (Maree, 2007). The study used purposive sampling method. Purposive sample involves researcher selecting the cases to be included in the sample. It is a method is used to choose individuals that are likely to be well-informed and helpful about the phenomenon under study. With purposive sampling, participants are intentional selected due to certain reason, hence the researcher sampled participants that are involved in the implementation of new Physical Science curriculum for grade 8. Teachers and learners were selected from selected schools in Ncuncuni circuit.
3.7 Research instruments
According to (Maree, 2007) define research instruments as measurement tools that are design for the purpose of collecting data on a topic, the study will adopt interview and questionnaire.
Interview is defined as verbal technique of collecting data (Maree, 2007). According to (Chirom, 2009) interview is a verbal question or process of directly interacting with subjects for the aim of obtaining data for the study (Chirom, 2009). This study adopted structured interview, because of its ability to collect primary data. Interviews consist of scheduled interaction between the researcher and two or more participants whereby the researcher ask questions that are relating to the topic of interest and the participants has to answer to the questions. According to (Willman, 2006) states that Verbal interaction enhances the opportunity to discover and collect an in-depth data from the participants, their views and experiences pertaining the phenomenon under study. With semi-structured interviews, questions can be reorganised and can be rephrased to enhance further probing toward phenomenon under study.
The researcher used semi-structured interview because is allow the researcher to be flexible when asking questions during interview session. The researcher will be able to probe and seeks for in-depth information that’s covers important aspects that the researcher need (Miles & Gilbert, 2005). Interviews are flexible and it will enable the researcher to change the question during the interviews so that rich data about the study are collected, it aims is to generate descriptive information that will enable the researcher to understand the reality constructions of the participants.
It is unique as data collection is done through direct interaction between the interviewee and interviewer and generally opens all normal channels of communication to them and unstructured questions will be used (Miles & Gilbert, 2005). The interviewer can seek in-depth information around the topic because interview allows more detailed questions to be asked. Interview is best at follow-up to responses from the interviewee. Interviews can be structured or unstructured and this depend on what the researcher (Chirom, 2009), and the researcher choses structured interview.
According to (Chirom, 2009) structure interviews consist of specific questions and the interviewer does not deviate from the list or add. So the researcher will have prepared questions that will conduct personal interviews with physical science teachers and grade 8 learners. According to (Chirom, 2009) structured interviews is typically a question and answer session. The advantage of interviews is that it will enable the researcher to generates data of depth richness. It is however have noted disadvantages, such as interviews are time consuming, setting up interviewing.
Participants might give bias information; wrong information might be collected by unskilled interviewer. The researcher will overcome these shortcoming by carefully select the participants, and the interview will be done after working hours because participants and the researcher are full time teachers and learners. The researcher will ask relevant questions and the researcher will use interview guide to enable the researcher to use collect procedures to collect information and avoid bias.
According to (Chirom, 2009, p. 24) defines questionnaire as a “form of inquiry, which contains a systematically compiled and organised series of questions that are sent to the population samples.” It is the most vital component of research process, because this is where data will be generated (Maree, 2007). The researcher will use both open-ended questions and close-ended questions. Open-ended question is one of the best methods one can use to develop good objective questions to a small sample of participants that represent the large population.
Open-ended question allows the respondents to respond freely and create that opportunities for the respondents to give depth response. The choice of open-ended questions is inspired by the work of The researcher will use group administration of questionnaires. The researcher will issue the questionnaires to the whole group and wait for respondent to complete questionnaires. According to (Maree, 2007) the questionnaires methods has the following advantages and disadvantages.
Advantages of questionnaires are as follow: Affordability is the primarily advantageous of written questionnaire It is one of the cheapest means of data gathering, the respondents can complete the questionnaires in a short period of time. This means that questionnaires can be given to a large number of responded simultaneously, the researcher can still check in to the questionnaire for accuracy, the researcher can assist the respondent with issues that are not clear in the questionnaires, questionnaire offers a superior uniformity across the situation under studies which is contrary to interview. With questionnaire all participants have to responds to the same questions due to standard instructional methods of completing the questionnaire is set, through the use of questionnaire as a techniques of data collection, reduce problems with interview which seriously undermine the reliability and validity of instrument used to collect data and it is generally easy to analyse the data collected through questionnaire than the data collected from verbal responses.
Although questionnaire has numerous advantages, it also has noted disadvantages. According to (Kidder & Judd, 1999) the advantages of questionnaire are as follow. Differences in understanding and interpretation. Written questionnaire does not allow the researcher to correct misunderstanding or answer the questions that the respondent would like to ask, some questions may be difficult and not easy to convey their emotions, Respondents may skip some questions; people generally opts to express their views verbally than doing it in writing and It is difficult for the researcher to probe response and cost could be high as you have print out questionnaires for all the participants.
3.8 Data collection procedures
According to (Maree, 2007) define data collection procedure as the process of assembling data or information using data collection techniques. This relate to procedures or steps used by the researcher the time of collecting data using research tools. The researcher obtained introductory letter from Midlands State University’s faculty of Education. The researcher submitted the letter to the Director of Education Kavango West and Principals of selected schools for the study.
Pre-arrangement was already made with the school principals of three combined schools that are under study in Ncuncuni circuit to collect data from teachers responsible of physical science at grade eight levels and the grade 8 learners. The researcher made prior arrangement with the participants at all selected schools. The researcher explained the objectives of the research to participants. Interview was conducted in a classroom with a group of teachers teaching Physical science at grade eight.
3.9 Data presentation and analysis
Data analysis refers comprises of the organisational and interpretation of all collected data into simplest form, presenting information in a better way that can be understood. At first all collected data were thoroughly checked to ensure completeness in case of questionnaire, thereafter data are coded and placed into categories. After qualitative and quantitative data analysis was done, the quantitative data presented in percentage (%), graphs and frequency tables, whereas qualitative data were organised analysed, categorised and interpreted.
3.10 Trustworthiness (Validity and reliability)
According to (Mayan, 2001) describe validity as the exactness staging of context or event as described by the researcher. To ensure credibility the researcher will apply triangulation to method of data collection. The researcher will design the questionnaires and interviews questions assessed by the supervisor to see to it that it is measuring what it’s supposed to measure. The researcher will acknowledge his own subjectivity while allowing the participants to speak for themselves, thus the researcher will therefore allow the participants to state their position with regard to the study.
3.11 Ethical considerations
The issue of protecting the rights of participants in any study is very sensitive; efforts was made to protect the rights of those who participated in the study. The researcher acquired an introductory letter from Midlands State University, the researcher used this letter to seek permission from the Educational Director of Kavango West. Following this, the researcher used the consent letter from the Director to seeks permission at identified schools in Ncuncuni circuit that made up the sample.
Researcher required informed consent from those interested in the study to provide much needed information. The researcher also explained the objectives of the study. The researcher obtained permission from the concerned person and institutions. The participants were assured that the information that obtained from them was purely for academic purpose only. Participants were informed that if they have lost interest in the study can withdraw at any stage. To ensure privacy and confidentiality the researcher informed the participants not to provide their names on questionnaires. Documentary evidence, such as file are not being examined without permission, the researcher was being responsible for the confidentiality of data obtained from the participants. participants were assured that the data were to kept anonymous and confidential.
3.12 Chapters summary
This chapter focused on justification and discussions of the research methodology, how data was collected, the discussion includes data analysis strategies that was utilised. The reasons for sampling was outlined; the advantages and disadvantages of research method was discussed. The chapters concluded with the outlining of the ethical considerations and measures to ensure the trustworthiness (validity and reliability) of the research.
DATA PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION
This chapter presents the analysis of data collected from teachers’ and learners’ interviews and questionnaires responses. Data collected was analysed and presented using various methods. Data analysis is generally a process used to analyse and interpret data and be able to make meaning out of it. The aim of this study is to explore factors affecting the implementation of new Physical Science curriculum for grade 8 learners in Ncuncuni circuit Kavango West.
Factors affecting implementation of new Physical Science curriculum for grade 8 learners were inter alia, in-service training for teachers, curriculum facilities and resources, resistance to change, lack of ownership, lack of benefit, school leadership support, coordination and motivation and parental involvement as outlined in chapter three, data were collected using questionnaires and interviews completed by the grade 8 Physical Science teachers and learners from selected combined schools in Ncuncuni circuit.
The results obtained from the questionnaires and interviews are presented as follow; Biographical information of teachers and learners, Physical Science facilities and resources to enhance teaching and learning, Support from Directorate advisory services; Science department, Parental involvement in teaching and learning, Assessment methods used by the teachers, Results discussion and conclusion.
4.1 Presentation of results from teachers’ and learners’ questionnaires
The following section embodies the presentation of data collected via questionnaires and through interviews.
4.1.1 Response rate
Table 4.1.1 Response rate
Instrument used Number issued Number returned Rate in (%)
Teacher’s questionnaires 9 9 100
Learner’s Questionnaire 30 30 100
The above table indicates that the questionnaires issued to the participant’s both teachers and learners were answered and received by the researcher, showing 100% response rate. This is because the questionnaires were given to the participants in group and they completed them and the researcher collected them thereafter. Physical science teachers were given group interview after they have completed the questionnaires, and their responses were collected using a pen and paper method.
4.1.2 Learners’ age group8
The graph below presents the age group of grade 8 learners who participated in the study(n=30)
The total of thirty (30) learners participated in the study, majority are aged 15 and 16 respectively, two female learners and one male indicated under 15 an indication that they are at a grade level of their age group. Two male and one female learners indicated 16+ years which is a low level for their age group.
4.1.3 Table 4.2.4 New Physical science textbooks for learners.
New Text books Frequency %
Yes 8 27%
No 22 73%
Total 30 100%
Despite this notable positive impacts by the textbooks, ministry of basic education and culture has in most cases experience shortage of textbooks supply caused by budgetary constraints and learners enrolment is on the increase over the years. Other evident shortcoming is textbooks quality being produced. Table 4.2.3 shows that most learners did not receive new textbook for Physical Science, only 27% received new textbook, an indication that one school that participated in the study managed to procure new Physical science textbooks. A total of 73% are operating in a vacuum (without textbooks for the new curriculum),
Table 4.1.4 shows frequency distribution for Physical Science practical investigations and experiment.
Investigations & Experiments Frequency %
Yes 10 33 %
No 20 67 %
Total 30 100 %
Table 4.2.4 show that despite teachers’ effort to teach Physical Science, they are doing it without exposing the learners to practical investigations and experiments. This deficiency is fuelled by lack of teaching materials such as chemicals.
Table 4.1.5 shows parental support
Parental support Percentage (%)
Yes 83 %
no 17 %
Total 100 %
Table 4.1.5 above show clear evidence of high parental support, many parents are willing to participate cannot help their children because they do not know how to read and write.
4.1.6 Teachers’ age group and gender
Table 4.1.6 below shows the biography for the teachers that participated in the study.
Age group Male female Frequency
Under 30 3 0 3
30-39 years 5 0 5
40-49 years 1 0 1
Total 9 0 9
Table 4.1.6 indicates gender bias as it is only dominated by male teachers, this means that teachers who participated in this study it only male teachers. Female learners might get discouraged by seeing only male teaching Physical science issues of role modelling negatively affected. The table indicates that the majority of the teaching force for Physical science are young one at the age of 30-39 yeas making up 56% of the sample.
4.1.7 Science laboratory at school
Table 4.1.7 below shows the response of teachers about Science Laboratory at school (n=9)
Science Laboratory at schools Frequency
Table 4.1.7 show that all schools chosen for this study do not have school laboratory. This is the reason why 67 % of learners in table 4.1.4 indicated that they don’t carry out experiment, because there are no science laboratories at schools. many schools with deficiency of infrastructures does not experience successfully implementation of the curriculum, but the condition itself distract. the possibilities of focus and attention on teaching and learning. The main educational challenge in Namibian schools alongside the curriculum implementation is the provision of material resources for teaching and learning. Science curriculum is being implemented in school that does not have laboratory.
4.1.8 Teaching experience
The graph below shows the teaching experience of for the Physical Science teachers
Graph 4.2.8 shows the teaching experience of teachers; the graph indicates that 56% of the teachers are new having 0-5 years of teaching experience. Those that had 6-10 years of teaching experience made up 22% and 11% each for those who have 11-15 and 16-20 years of experience. This shows that new teachers are the one responsible for teaching Physical Science.
4.1.9 Provision of Physical Science teaching resources
Table 4.1.9 shows level of Physical Science resources provision at schools.
Physical Science resources Frequency
No resources 0
Table 4.1.9 shows teachers indication of level of teaching resources provision at their schools, it’s clear that all schools are under-resourced, effort need to be made by the directorate and other stakeholders to curb this problem.
4.1.10 Textbook- learner ratio
Graph 4.1.10 bellow indicates textbook-learners’ ratio at schools selected for this study (n=9).
Textbooks provide teachers with various teaching methods and instructional activities that can be used to determines learner’s competencies.
Despite this notable positive impacts by the textbooks, ministry of basic education and culture has in most cases experience shortage of textbooks supply caused by budgetary constraints and learners enrolment is on the increase over the years. this is supported by the finding of this study which shows that textbook-learners ration of 1:4 and 1:5 respectively.
4.1.11 Support given to the Teachers
Table 4.1.11 indicates the type of support given to teachers to ensure smooth implementation of new curriculum (n=9).
Support T1A T2A T3A T1B T2B T3B T1C T2C T3C
In-service training no no no no no no no no no
External support yes no yes no yes yes yes yes yes
Participated in curriculum reform no no no no no no no no no
Table 4.1.11 shows response of teachers on support given to them to help them implement the new curriculum. The table shows clear evidence that the support to teachers is very minimal. Be it in term of external support, in-service training and teachers indicated that they are not given chance to participate in the reform of the curriculum
4.1.12 Assessment method used in Physical science
Assessment Approach Never (0) Sometimes(1) Often (2) Always (3)
Diagnostics 6 1 1 1
Tests 0 0 3 6
Practical investigations 1 1 6 1
Formative assessments 0 1 6 2
assessments 0 6 2 1
Assignments 1 2 5 1
Summative assessments 0 0 0 9
Homework 0 1 5 3
Compare learners work 0 4 1 4
Standards to set targets 0 3 4 2
Assessment is known as the process whereby teachers determines to what learners have learned. The table above present the type of assessment used by teachers to measure students’ performance and certification. The table shows that teachers uses various type of assessments occasionally but the majority are consistence in using tests as a major assessment method.
4.2 Presentation of teachers’ responses to interviews questions.
4.2.1 Teachers views with regard to provision of facilities and resources.
The facilities and resources in question are such as laboratories, laboratory apparatus and chemicals, textbooks, classrooms and libraries among others. Most teachers indicated shortage of Physical Science resources such as textbooks and materials and chemicals. This finding is in support with the ministerial report (MBEC, 1995) which shows indicated that although there were procedures in place to direct the education system on how to put into practice the new curriculum, however, implementation remains far from a living reality, due to lack of resources such as textbooks. (MBEC, 1995).
They indicated that schools were not provided with textbooks for the new curriculum, each school received one copy of the textbook during workshop on new curriculum. The total of 67% of teachers indicated that textbooks for the previous curriculum are still being used for new curriculum due to non-provision of textbooks of new curriculum. there are no school laboratories, this means that no learners are taught theory and no practical investigation and experiments. Teachers indicated that few available locally materials are used but do not yield desirable results.
4.2.2 views on teachers’ training for new Physical science curriculum. According to (Brown, Oke, ; Brown, 1982) state that the process of curriculum implementation can only be realised if the teachers have a mastery of subjects that they have to teach. According to (Rogan ; Grayson, 2003). Educators need in-service training about new curriculum; it’s teaching pedagogy, assessment, teaching resources e.g. textbooks, language among others. According to (Arend , 2009) states that for successful change, the level of preparedness of the implementer must be ensured. The findings of the study are contrary to the literature because the respondent felt enough was not done to prepare them.
Teachers indicated that they have attend the training on how to implement the new Physical Science curriculum, 100% of the teachers who respondent to this question stated that the training workshop was done in less than two days. The respondents felt this was less to adequately prepare teachers for the new curriculum. they indicated that during training few materials for the new curriculum was provided but other materials such as textbooks were not provided. The respondent also raised a concern that the facilitators during the training where not well equipped with knowledge about the new curriculum, this is because they failed to interpret and answer the questions about new Physical Science curriculum posed by the teachers during the workshop. teachers did not get time to discuss how to introduce different topics and how to go about assessments. This is because after the workshop teachers had to go back to their respective schools.
4.2.3 Teachers opinions on new set standard (passing requirements).
About the new set standards most teachers 67% indicated that the set standard is good as it motivates learners to put more effort in their academic works, because those that will score 39% and less in the examinations that are conducted at the end of each semester will obtain a u symbol. Despite this encouraging passing requirements the teacher raised a concern of the Physical Science resources that are not available.
They indicated that the standards are not corresponding with the available teaching resources. About 33% of teachers stated that the set standards are too high, we are already finding it a challenge to achieve the previous set standards. We don’t have necessary Physical Science teaching resources, no apparatus and chemicals needed to enhance smooth implementation of new Physical Science curriculum.
4.2.4 Teachers views with regard to dissemination strategy used to disseminate the curriculum.
Of all the teachers who respondent to this question indicated that they are passive receiver of the curriculum that they are given to implement as it is given to them. They indicated that have received direction from National Institute for Educational Development (NIED) (a body responsible for the curriculum change and innovation in Namibia). The curriculum innovation was never an idea from the teachers but, by the curriculum specialists.
4.2.5 Teachers views on support by the Directorate and management. According to (Fullan M. , 2001) Argues that the success of curriculum implementation exist in coordination, in improving relationships in creating and sharing of knowledge and in all aspects that influences curriculum implementation. It is also imbedded in organizing of all resources needed at national, and regional in a rational classical. The finding of the study indicate deficiency in support offered to teacher to implement new curriculum, indicating it as one of the factor that is hindering the smooth implementation of new Physical science curriculum fir the grade 8 learners.
Teachers that respondent to this question indicated that support from Department is minimal, the department ensure the provision of syllabus, subject guide and schemes of work, subject advisers presently known as Senior education officer (SEO) hardly visit schools with regard to implementation of new curriculum. there was no follow up workshop to first workshop when new curriculum was introduced. Most Science workshop are only dedicated to the grade 10 teachers. In most cases the subject advisers put more emphasis on grade 10 curriculum as it is the grade that is perceived as an indicator of smooth or poor curriculum implementation. The department send Regional Internal School Self-Evaluation (RISSE) to visit schools that did not do well at grade 10 level.
Teachers indicated that support from the management is reduced by limited resources, 100% of the respondent indicated the management put up a budget to secure resources that are identified by the Physical science teachers. A small budget is meant to buy item such as textbooks, posters, among others. This budget is meant for transport cost if a teacher chooses to visits a certain school to see how others are implementing their curriculum.
4.2.6 Teachers views about parental involvements and curriculum implementation.
The finding of the study is in line with the finding of (Shezi, 2012) who argues that numbers of schools welcomed parents involvement to a certain degree, as teachers get worried of parent getting overly involved and going beyond their limits. Teachers indicated that parents are involved in a number of ways. They indicated that their involvement is not necessarily directed to implementation of Physical Science in particular, but it contributes to smooth implementation of Physical Science curriculum. The findings for this study agrees with the finding of (Souto-Manning ; Swick, 2006) which state that although parental involvement in their children’s education is of utmost important, there are many challenges.
Literature is showing that parents stereotypical judgements by teachers, economic status and educational deficiencies impede parent’s relationship and support to schools. many parents cannot help their children because they do not know how to read and write. Teachers also indicated that schools real do not have procedure on to include parents in the process of teaching and learning. Parents only visit schools when they are called for parents meeting. Parents are also not informed about new curriculum and it requirements thus they do not know where they can extend their helping hand.
4.2.7 Teachers reaction to new Physical Science curriculum.
The finding of the study agrees with the findings of (Yimaz ; Kilicoglu, 2013) Which state that for the schools to maintain survival and future success of the school teachers must be prepared to adapt to external demand the school is subjected to, school must be prepared to face the demand of dynamic environment and respond promptly. No matter how careful is the innovation is planned there is always some teachers at school level that behave differently.
Thirty-three (33%) of the respondent indicated that the objectives and goals of new curriculum was is not clear stated. They indicated the fear of lack of resources of new curriculum. we are not given the reasons for curriculum change. Sixty-seven (67%) said that the Physical science curriculum change is a good move because it preparing the learners for high grades. They also indicated that lack of resources make difficult to put curriculum plan in to practice.
4.3 Discussion of finding
From the data collected from sampled schools in Ncuncuni Circuit, it was found that there are number of factors affecting the implementation of new Physical Science curriculum, such textbooks. Despite notable positive impacts by the textbooks, ministry of basic education and culture has in most cases experience shortage of textbooks supply caused by budgetary constraints and learners enrolment is on the increase over the years. Other evident shortcoming is textbooks quality being produced (MOE, 2010). The findings on textbooks agree with the report by the ministry of education in 2010 that shortage of books in most Namibian schools is a serious problem.
The finding shows that all schools chosen for this study do not have school laboratory. The findings agrees with the report by (Mutorwa, 2004) who state that many schools with deficiency of infrastructures does not experience successfully implementation of the curriculum, but the condition itself distract. the possibilities of focus and attention on teaching and learning. The main educational challenge in Namibian schools alongside the curriculum implementation is the provision of material resources for teaching and learning. Science curriculum is being implemented in school that does not have laboratory.
According to (Ball ; Cohen, 1996) who state that provision of curriculum facilities and resources is seen as the strategy behind success of curriculum implementation and the rate at which current curriculum is being implemented. He believed that assessment is highly influenced by availabilities of physical facilities, such as classroom, laboratories, shortage of such facilities lead to overcrowding of classroom, beyond ministerial norms of teacher’s learner’s ratio. This finding agrees with the ministerial report (MBEC, 1995) which shows indicated that although there were procedures in place to direct the education system on how to put into practice the new curriculum, however, implementation remains far from a living reality, due to lack of resources such as textbooks (MBEC, 1995).
Regarding teachers’ training Teachers indicated that they have attend the training on how to implement the new Physical Science curriculum, 100% of the teachers who respondent to this question stated that the training workshop was done in less than two days. The respondents felt this was less to adequately prepare teachers for the new curriculum. they indicated that during training few materials for the new curriculum was provided but other materials such as textbooks were not provided. According to (Brown, Oke, & Brown, 1982) state that the process of curriculum implementation can only be realised if the teachers have a mastery of subjects that they have to teach.
According to (Rogan & Grayson, 2003). State that educators need in-service training about new curriculum; it’s teaching pedagogy, assessment, teaching resources e.g. textbooks, language among others. According to (Arend , 2009) suggested that for successful change, the level of preparedness of the implementer must be ensured. The respondent also raised a concern that the facilitators during the training where not well equipped with knowledge about the new curriculum, this is because they failed to interpret and answer the questions about new Physical Science curriculum posed by the teachers during the workshop.
The finding about Departmental support, teachers indicated that support from Department is minimal, the department ensure the provision of syllabus, subject guide and schemes of work, but subject advisers presently known as Senior education officer (SEO) hardly visit schools with regard to implementation of new curriculum. According to (Fullan M. , 2001) Argues that the success of curriculum implementation exist in coordination, in improving relationships in creating and sharing of knowledge and in all aspects that influences curriculum implementation. It is also imbedded in organizing of all resources needed at national, and regional in a rational classical.
Regarding parental involvement, teachers indicated that parents are involved in a number of ways. They finding of the study is in line with the finding of (Shezi, 2012) who argues that numbers of schools welcomed parents involvement to a certain degree, as teachers get worried of parent getting overly involved and going beyond their limits. The finding is in line with the findings of (Simt ; Liebenberg, 2003) who states that parents stereotypical judgements by teachers, economic status and educational deficiencies impede parent’s relationship and support to schools. Teachers also indicated that schools real do not have procedures to involve parents in the process of teaching and learning. Parents only visit schools when they are called for parents meeting. This findings agrees with the finding of (Souto-Manning & Swick, 2006) which state that although parental involvement in their children’s education is of utmost important, there are many challenges.
Literature is showing that parents stereotypical judgements by teachers, economic status and educational deficiencies impede parent’s relationship and support to schools. many parents cannot help their children because they do not know how to read and write. Parents are also not informed about new curriculum and it requirements thus they do not know where they can extend their helping hand.
Teachers indicated that the objectives and goals of new curriculum was is not clear stated. They indicated the fear of lack of resources of new curriculum. they indicated that reasons for curriculum change was not clearly stated. Sixty-seven (67%) said that the Physical science curriculum change is a good move because it preparing the learners for high grades. They also indicated that lack of resources make difficult to put curriculum plan in to practice. The finding of the study agrees with the findings of (Yimaz & Kilicoglu, 2013) Which state that for the schools to maintain survival and future success of the school teachers must be prepared to adapt to external demand the school is subjected to, school must be prepared to face the demand of dynamic environment and respond promptly.
The chapter focused on the presentation, analysis and discussion of the research finding. Data was presented by the use of frequency table and bar graphs. Thereafter data presentation and analysis was discussion of findings which highlighted that the implementation of new Physical Science curriculum for the grade8 learners is affected by numbers of factors including; lack of facilities and resources, lack of support, insufficient teachers’ training and no clear channels of communication among others. The next chapter will present the summary of study conclusion and recommendation of the study.
Chapter five: Summary, Conclusion and recommendations
Following the data presentations analysis and discussion in the previous chapter, this chapter focused on providing a brief summary the whole project. The researchers also draw conclusions based on the findings of the research conducted. Possible recommendations relating to finding s are given at the end of this chapter.
The study aimed and exploring factors that influence implementation of new Physical Science curriculum for grade 8 learners at three selected combined schools in Ncuncuni circuit. the respondents highlighted numerous challenging conditions that prevail at their schools such as lack of Physical Science facilities, the same number of respondents also highlighted insufficient support from the department, and they indicated shortage of teaching resources, insufficient training of teachers on new curriculum and minimal parental involvement in teaching and learning, Such conditions exist at schools heavily contributes to the inability of teachers to successfully implements new Physical Science curriculum. the study sough to address the following research objectives and research questions outlined in chapter one, and below are the research questions used to border the study.
The usage of questionnaire and interview as research instruments enabled the researcher to collect data. Questionnaires and interviews were administered to selected participants a total of 39 participants took part in this study.
5.2 Major findings of the study
Based on the data presented in chapter 4 the following are among factors that hinder successful implementation of new Physical Science curriculum at three selected combined schools in Ncuncuni circuit. Provision of Physical Science facilities and teaching resources, regarding provision of new Physical science facilities and teaching resources, the finding was that schools do not have common science facilities such laboratory and needed apparatus for experimental studies. It was found that the experimental activities indicated in the syllabus are not being carried out due to lack of chemicals. It was found that schools are experiencing lack of teaching resources such as textbooks, and both teachers and learners continued using textbooks for the previous curriculum.
Teacher training on new Physical Science curriculum, although most teachers indicated that they have received training on how to implement new Physical Science curriculum, they also indicated that the training did not yield good results as it was done on a short period of time. They indicated that professional development is very important for implementation of a new curriculum. teachers indicated that training supposed to equip the teachers on how to use the teaching material for the new curriculum, but the training was done with the teaching resources. Teachers indicated that after a short period training, no monitoring and evaluation of the curriculum implementation was done by the directorate, to see how teachers are coping with the new curriculum and also to identify area of improvement.
New standards and dissemination strategy used to disseminate new curriculum, most teachers 67% indicated that the increased set standard is good as it motivates the learners to work extra hard to meet the set standard. The indicated that 39% score in examination was too low for the learners to be promoted to grade 9. They also indicated at the same time that this is hindered to shortage and lack of Physical Science teaching resources. There are no resources for the new curriculum, such as textbooks apparatus and chemicals for Physical Science yet we (teachers) are expected to score high.
About 33% of the teachers are against the increased passing requirements they indicated that they are already struggled with the previous passing requirements. And now for the new curriculum is increased, they ask how will they achieve this if they do not have required teaching materials. Teacher indicated that non-involvement of teachers in the reform is another factors, they indicated that, in case such as lack of teaching materials, they do not have another alternatives as they are just passive receiver of the curriculum and implement is as it is given.
Support from school management and the Directorate, teachers indicated that the school management assist were they can, their support is limited by lack of resources such as financial resources. Teachers indicated that school heads allocate little fund to procure teaching materials that are identified by the Physical Science teachers and those deem necessary in the teaching of Physical Science. Teachers also indicated that school head also avail transport money for the teachers to visit another schools to seek for assistance. Regarding support from the directorate in particular advisory services, they said that the support is minimal, they hardly come to schools to identify area of improvements and help where is needed. The directorate officials are not available to monitor the implementation of new curriculum. teachers indicated that even the final results of grade 8 Physical science it seems it does not matter to them that much. Teachers indicated that the Directorate only visit schools that did not do good at grade 10 level, that is when a panel called RISSE (regional internal school self-evaluation) is dispatched to low performing schools.
Challenging factors in the implementation of new Physical science curriculum, Teachers indicated that challenging factors range from shortage of textbooks for new Physical science curriculum. teachers point out that the outlined experiment are not being carried-out because there is no apparatus and chemicals that can be used. Teachers indicated that there are no workshops on the implementation of new curriculum, apart from the on three days training that given to them.
Other challenging factors include lack of Physical science facilities such as laboratory and apparatus that can be used to carry out experiment. Teachers indicated that instead of caring out Experiment is Physical Science they present such topic theoretical. Teacher also indicated that overcrowdings of classes is another impediment to smooth implementation of new curriculum.
Parental support and involvement, regarding parental support and involvement, almost all teachers indicated that parents are involved in teaching and learning of their children. Teachers indicated that most parents do not know how to read and write and lack modern scientific knowledge, thus they can really help their children with homework. Parents ensure that children have calculators and erasers and ruler are among few item that parent can afford to buy for their children. Teachers indicated that teachers only visit schools during parents meeting are scheduled. Other findings are such as that schools have many programmes such as science fair but parents are not included in such programmes. Teachers also indicated that some parents choose to stay at home and do their domestic work despite invitation to visit school where they discuss about the child academic performance. Parents do not know the goal of the curriculum thus some parents do not value school at all and they give little time to their children to do their schoolwork at home.
Teachers’ reaction to the new curriculum, Thirty-three percent (33%) of teachers had reservation with the new curriculum, they indicated that reasons and goals for new curriculum is not clearly stated to them. All they know is that the curriculum is reformed and they have to put it into practice. They indicated that lack of teaching resource is one of the factor hindering the smooth implementation of the new curriculum. They indicated that there are no textbooks and they are using textbooks meant for the previous curriculum. about 67% of the respondent indicated that it’s good that the passing requirement are set high, as it will motivate learners to work harder. High standard is also preparing learners for high grades. They indicated that the 39% passing requirement was too low for the learner to be promoted to the next grade.
The main purpose of this research was meant to explore factors affecting the implementation of new Physical Science curriculum for grade 8 learners at three selected combined school in Ncuncuni circuit. Based on the finding of this research a various recommendations are vital to robust the implementation of new Physical science curriculum, and these recommendations are made accordingly with the improvement with respect to teaching support materials, training, orientation of teachers to new curriculum, routine monitoring of curriculum implementation, circuit-level support and parental support and involvement. The recommendations are as follow:
• With regard to learning support materials, the researcher recommended that the curriculum should be piloted, and after the best learning materials are identified and developed. Here, the directorate of education must give a clear framework in Physical science on time for the textbooks writers and publishers so that they use it to produce textbooks on time. School heads must work closely with the Directorate of education to secure science apparatus and chemicals for experimental studies. School head must identify a store room at schools so that it is used as laboratory.
• The study recommends the curriculum panel to conduct curriculum analysis of agreed-on design principles, the curriculum must be unpacking the components of the new curriculum and see how they fit together in term of focus and coherence, check underlying belief and assumptions. Curriculum analysis will identify potential and actual problems as early as possible, see if different parts hold together, determine whether the goal have been met, identify strengths and successes in order to build on them and enhance demonstration of the worth of the curriculum to different stakeholders.
• The study also recommends that learners must be provided the opportunities to carry out all investigation stipulated in the syllabuses as this will help to develop learners’ scientific skills.
• Training of teacher should than follow the production of resources, this can be done in form of workshops conference and seminar presentations. Teachers need to be trained on how to use such materials as they are presenting their lesson and assessment of their learners. Teachers need training in the evaluation and selection of textbooks to be used to achieve set goals for the curriculum. professional development of teachers is very important in the implementation of new curriculum. it is imperative to give enough training to the teachers and prepare them for implementation of new Physical science curriculum.
• The study recommended grade 8 Physical science teachers set up a centre within their circuit where they will meet to develop some teaching materials and plan together on how to achieve the common goals of the new curriculum.
• With regard to monitoring and evaluation of curriculum implementation, and circuit-level support, the study recommends that the Directorate of education (DoE) must sent a team of specialists (subject advisors) to schools and provide on-site support to teachers, identify area of improvements and how to overcome barrier to curriculum implementation at various schools. The team must be able to evaluate the implementation process few days from the start, the team can visit school twice a month, oversee the assessment which is being used by the teachers at schools.
• The study also recommends that teachers in Ncuncuni circuit must organise a coming together so that they compare their work and the performance of learners to see if they are all working towards one common goals.
• Regarding parental involvement, the study recommends that schools must emphasise the importance of parental support and involvement to parents, and encourage them to extend their helping hand. Schools must have clear procedure on how to incorporate parents into school activities. Schools must have open door policy where parents are welcome to visit school so that they look at their children written work. New curriculum comes with new needs so the schools must ensure that the goals of the new curriculum must be stated clear to the parents so that they are aware of what is expected from them. Parents too must divide their time and be able to create time to be at the assistance of their children with their school work.
The purpose of this research was to explore factors affecting the implementation of the new Physical Science curriculum for grade 8 learners at three selected combined schools in Ncuncuni circuit. The study shows that most teachers encountered the same problem during the implementation of new Physical science curriculum. The finding from this research revealed problem such as inadequate training given to teachers, lack of teaching materials for Physical Science, lack of facilities such as laboratories, insufficient support from the Directorate of education (DoE), lack of monitoring and evaluation of the new curriculum implementation. The educators reported late arrival of teaching and learning support materials such as textbooks. The research provides the baseline information regarding factors affecting smooth implementation of new Physical science curriculum for grade 8 learners in Ncuncuni circuit.
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Questionnaire to grade 8 Physical Science teachers
I Pinehas Hangula am doing a research for the partial fulfilment of Master’s Degree in Curriculum Studies with Midlands State University. The title of my research is Factors affecting the implementation of new Physical Science curriculum for grade 8 learners at three selected combined schools in Ncuncuni Circuit. The information you are going to give will be treated confidential.
The questionnaire attempts to find out factors affecting the implementation of the new Physical Science curriculum for grade 8 learners in three combined schools in Ncuncuni circuit. The information obtained shall be used purely for research purposes and nothing else. So be truthful in answering each of these questions. Please put a tick (?) in the box to right answer.
1. Biographical information
1.1) Indicate your sex Male Female
1.2.) Age group
? Under 30
? 40 49
1.3). Physical science teaching experience
? 0-5 years
? 6-10 years
? 11-15 years
? 16- 20 years
? 20+ years
1.4) Position that you hold. Permanent Temporary
2. Physical Science Facilities and Resources
2.1) Have you received adequate materials for new Physical Science curriculum?
2.2) Does the received materials enable you to implement new Physical science curriculum?
2.3) Do the school have Science Laboratory?
2.4 If yes, Do you carry-out practical investigations and experiments in your teaching?
2.4) How do you rate your school based on the availability of Physical science resources?
? No resources
? Adequately resourced
2.4) Does the textbook address the aspects of new Physical science curriculum?
2.5) Beside textbook, what other teaching materials do you use to teach physical science? _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.5) What is the textbook-learner’s ratio at your school?
3.) Professional Development of Teachers
3.1) Have you received adequate training to implement new Physical Science curriculum?
3.2) If yes, state the duration of the training you attended.
? One week
? Two weeks
? Three weeks
? Four weeks and more
3.3) Did the training empower you to implement new physical science curriculum?
3.3) Did you participated in the science curriculum reform at national level?
4 External supports
4.1) Do you get from help from your management?
4.2) How do you ensure successful implementation of new curriculum in a circuit?
4.3) Do you receive from support from the advisory services from regional office assist you?
4.4) How does the directorate of education monitor the progress in the implementation of new Physical science curriculum?
5 Assessment strategies
Indicate how often you use each of the assessment methods listed below. Use the rating scale given by putting a number at the end of the end of each statement.
Never Sometime Often Always
0 1 2 3
Item No Assessment methods Rating
1. I use diagnostic test to find out the cause of learning barrier.
2. I use tests to assess learners’ performance.
3. I use practical investigation and experiments to assess learners’ performance.
4. I use formative assessment to measure learner’s progress and support them.
5. I use peer assessment to assess learners during the lessons
6 I use assignment to assess learner’s performance.
7. I associate learner’s performance to standard they are expected to achieve.
8 I give learners homework to ensure that the read further.
9 I use summative assessment to determine the overall performance of learners.
0 I associate learners performance to that of other learners at same school and same grade.
Thank you for your time
1. What are your general views with regard to the provision of resources for the new physical science curriculum?
2. What are your views with regard to the provision of facilities for the new physical science curriculum?
3. What are your views on teachers training in the new Physical science curriculum?
4. What are your opinions with regard to new standards for Physical science?
5. What are your views with regard to dissemination strategies used to disseminate the curriculum?
6. Does the directorate of education monitor the implementation of new curriculum?
7. What are challenges faced by Physical science teachers in Implementing new curriculum?
8. What are your general views with regard to parental involvement and the implementation of new curriculum?
9. How does the school management support in the implementation of new curriculum?
10. What were your reactions toward the new physical science curriculum?
Questionnaire for pupils
I Pinehas Hangula am doing a research for the partial fulfilment of Master’s Degree in Curriculum Studies with Midlands State University. The title of my research is Factors affecting the implementation of new Physical Science curriculum for grade 8 learners at three selected combined schools in Ncuncuni Circuit. The information you are going to give will be treated confidential.
The questionnaire attempts to find factors affecting the implementation of new Physical science curriculum for grade 8 learners at three selected combined school in Ncuncuni circuit
Please put a cross (x) in the appropriate box. Do not write your name. All details are confidential.
1.) Indicate your gender
2.) Indicate your age.
Under 15 years 15 years
16 years 16 + years
3.) How often do you get assessed in Physical science?
Monthly End of semester
4.) Have you received textbooks for new Physical science curriculum?
5.) Does your Physical science teacher use over-head projector (OHP) to teach?
6.) Do you carry- out experiment in Physical science?
7.) What types of assessments are used by your Physical science teacher?
8.) Does the support from your parents help to improve your Physical science performance?
Explain your answers____________________________________________
9.) Are you informed that the passing requirement in Physical science changed?
10.) If yes, what are your plans to keep up with demanding passing requirements?
Thank you for your time.
PO Box 362
Director of education Kavango West
Private Bag 6193
Dear madam Teopolina N.L. Hamutumwa
I am a teacher at Mupini combined school currently registered for Med Degree in the faculty of education at Midlands State University Zimbabwe. This letter is written to request your permission for me to conduct interviews with several grade 8 Physical Science teachers in Ncuncuni Circuit. The interviews would form part of my Master’s Thesis as well as enable me to gather data to assist with implementation of new curriculum.
Curriculum implementation will be explored using the following area of focus.
1. What factors have helped or hindered teachers in translating the new curriculum?
2. What are the roles of teachers in the achievement of the envisage innovation?
I have selected three combined schools and variety of teachers and learners as outlined below.
Ruuga Combined school (3 teachers and 10 learners total 13 participants)
Nakazaza combined school (3 teachers and 10 learners total 13 participants)
Christian Haihambo combined school (3 teachers and 10 learners total participants)
Your office is assured that the study will not in any way interfere with the normal running of the schools; interview will be done after school hours.
The name of schools and educators will be strictly treated as confidential, but the findings of the study can be forwarded to your office should you wish so.
Your permission to conduct research in this circuit will be highly appreciated