KEYSTONE AND INDICATOR SPECIES OF AN ECOSYSTEM

S.no Name of Ecosystem Indicator species Keystone species
1 Forest Ecosystem
Oaks Plant,
Owl Mouse,
Rabbit
2 Grassland Ecosystem
Elephant,
Tiger Grass,
Rat/ Squirrel
3 Tundra Ecosystem
Polar Bear,
Penguin Krill,
Small Fishes
4 Desert Ecosystem
Hawk,
Cactus Lizards
5 Ocean Ecosystem
Coral Reefs, Shark, Diving Birds Phytoplankton,
Algae

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BIODIVERSITY SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS
International Union for the Conservation of Nature- IUCN aims to influence impact to improve healthy ecosystems – by generating and using knowledge, influencing policy and by demonstrating solutions to biodiversity conservation.
Maintaining biodiversity is essential for sustainable development. The Sustainable Development Goals represent a bold, ambitious and transformative sustainable development agenda for the conservation of nature. Some Aichi Biodiversity conservation Targets to be achieved by 2020 are:

? Integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes.
? Strengthen engagement of the private sector in biodiversity conservation.
? Increase the coverage of protected areas of important sites for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity.
? Sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans.
? Conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information.
? Effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices
? Increase the value of the IUCN Red List Index.
? Ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and dry lands, in line with obligations under international agreements.
? Promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally.
? Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species.
? Increase the number of identified invasive alien species and also increase the number of countries that have adopted national legislations to the prevention or control of invasive alien species.
? Prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution by 2025.
? IUCN will produce a global map and analysis of potential opportunities for mangrove restoration using best available globally consistent data, modeling and expert reviews.
? Reduce the number of documented illegal and/ or environmentally harmful activities at all levels, including in areas beyond national jurisdiction, Antarctica and Arctic.
? Provide capacity and guidance to members to incorporate nature friendly policies and practices.
? Increase the number of countries complying with international obligations, in particular the Sustainable Development Goals, Convention on Biological Diversity and other environmental agreements.
The loss of biodiversity can lead to loss of ecosystem services, loss of well-being, loss of livelihoods and have severe consequences for humanity.
“Healthy nature provides us with countless benefits vital for our survival and well-being”