IntroductionIn this report I will explain how lung cancer affects a human’s lung. I will explain how lung cancer affects how the lungs normally operate, how lung cancer is caused, how this cancer is recognized and the treatment of this cancer. My conclusion will be about how common lung cancer is. 3. a) Describe how the normal organ functions and where it is located. What does the organ do in the body? Where is the organ?The lungs and respiratory system perform a process called gas exchange. During this process, at every cell in your body, oxygen is exchanged with carbon dioxide. After this, your bloodstream takes the carbon dioxide back to your lungs and then removes it from your bloodstream and then you exhale it. Your lungs are on both sides of your chest. b) Describe how the cancer affects that organ. How does the cancer “damage” the organ?Lung cancer begins when there are too many abnormal cells in your lungs. It is possible for them to get into tissues that are around the lungs and make tumors. The cancer can start anywhere in the lung and it can affect any part of the respiratory system. It is also possible for the cancer cells to spread to lymph node and to other parts of your body. The cancer cells divide very fast and form tumors. ┬ác) Describe the known causes of the cancer. Describe how we can lower our chances of getting this cancer. What causes it and how can it be avoided?Lung cancer can happen to anybody, even people who don’t smoke. Lung cancer with people who don’t smoke can be caused by exposure to radon, air pollution, secondhand smoke, and other things. People who work in placed that have a lot of asbestos and diesel exhaust are at a risk. There is no way to completely prevent lung cancer, but there are some ways to reduce the risk if you don’t smoke, stop smoking if you already do, try to avoid secondhand smoke, test your home for radon, exercise most days of the week, and eat a diet full of fruits and vegetables.d) Describe how this cancer can be detected. What are the signs that a person would notice if they had this cancer?Doctors say that lung cancer does not cause signs or symptoms in the early stages. The symptoms and signs usually are shown when the disease has advanced. Some of the signs are new coughs that won’t go away, coughing up blood even if it’s a little bit, shortness of breath, hoarseness, losing weight with no intention of it, bone pain, and headaches.e) Describe how the cancer can be treated. Go into detail describing how the treatments work. In most cases, the patient and their doctor choose a cancer treatment plan that is based on some factors like your overall health, the type and stage of your cancer, and the patients preferences. One of the options for treatments is surgery. During the surgery, the surgeon will work to remove the lung cancer and some healthy tissue. The procedures to remove the cancer are wedge resection which is to remove a small section of the lung that contains the tumor and some healthy tissue. Segmental resection is to remove a bigger portion of the lung but not an entire lobe. Lobectomy is to remove the entire lobe of one lung, and finally, Pneumonectomy is to remove an entire lung. Another option for treatment is radiation therapy. This treatment uses high-powered energy beams from sources like x-rays and protons to kill the cancer cells. While going through the therapy you have to lie on a table while a machine is moved around you, shooting radiation to precise points on your body. Chemotherapy is another option for treatment of lung cancer. Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. One or more chemotherapy drug can be given through a vein in your arm or taken orally. There is a combination of drugs that is given in a series of treatments over a period of weeks or months. There are usually breaks in between so that you can recover. The final main treatment is Radiosurgery. This treatment is a very intense radiation treatment that aims a lot of beams of radiation from a lot of different angles at the cancer. This therapy is usually completed in a few treatments.f) If possible tell how effective the treatment isRadiation therapy is not an option for all patients but it is possible to use for patients who have early-stage disease and small tumors. Unfortunately, I could not find anything on the other treatments. Even if you are diagnosed early, the percentage of most patients who are alive in five years is ranged from only 30-60%. When you combine the five year survival rate for all the stages combined, it is only 15%. g) Discuss how common the cancer is in Canada (or North America). Discuss which age groups or sexes are most likely to get this cancer. In Canada, 1 in 12 men is expected to get lung cancer during his lifetime and 1 in 13 will die of it. 1 in 5 women is expected to develop lung cancer during her lifetime and 1 in 17 is expected to die of it. In 2015, it was estimated that 26,000 Canadians would be diagnosed with lung cancer. This was more than any other type of cancer. 1 in 12 Canadians will develop lung cancer during their lifetime. ConclusionIn conclusion, in this report I explained how lung cancer affects a human’s lung, how it affects how the lungs normally operate, how the cancer is caused, how it is recognized, and finally how it is treated.