Bridgeton Indistries is facing a competitive environment with the development of foreign competition and burgeoning fuel prices. These are leading to a shrinking pool of production contracts.

Related facts:
Bridgeton is a major supplier to the big three domestic automobile manufacturers. Their cost system is comprised of materials, direct labor and overhead. Their products fall into three different product classifications (Class I, Class II, Class III). From 1987-1990, overhead rates have begun to increase but with outsourcing, overhead costs have not decreased at the same rate as the labor costs.

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Discussion and analysis:
Bridgeton outsourced oil pans as well as muffler exhaust to improve their product quality. They also implemented programs, such as decreasing the time required to change dies, in the hopes of increasing efficiency. However, despite taking these measures, manifolds were downgraded from Class II to Class III in 1990. If they were to outsource manifolds, it would reduce variable/avoidable costs, but reduce revenue at a higher percentage, as manifolds account for 41% of Bridgeton’s sales.

With higher efficiency standards in place, I don’t think it would be a good idea for Bridgestone to outsource the production of manifolds. With the higher efficiency standards also might come a higher demand for manifolds, and with the higher demand will come an increase in sale price. But this is only the case if 1) the manifolds are not outsourced and 2) there is no significant increase in variable costs in during the production of the manifolds.

Bridgeton should focus on increase technological capabilities. Doing this would decrease their overhead, decrease their costs of good manufactured and increase their production. They could also sell their outdated equipment and initiate cost-cutting to increase their working capital. Both of these things would give them more money to increase their technological capabilities, labor or do whatever was needed to increase production.


Design thinking of a product or a service is a people focused, collaborative and action oriented approach to digest, contribute, reinvent and problem solving. Design thinking is mainly about the need that a product or a service meets for customer but less about its look. In his words of Steve Jobs “Design is not just what it looks like and feel like. Design is how it works.” Nowadays, people adopt new technologies, discover new solutions and develop different expectations. In order to meet the expectations of the people in the emerging technology, we need to connect them with empathy. The strategy of design thinking should address the customer’s problems in a creative way. Perpetual innovation of a product or a service to an organisation is a part of the success but the eternal innovative design thinking will fortify the success of that organization and it leaves a ratified impassion in customers mind. Everything in the universe is connected with designing. People are emerging from thinking ourselves as designers to designer thinkers. Design thinking is bit exciting because it puts a toolset for creativity in the hands of people who wouldn’t normally identify themselves as creative. The successful tool of design thinking creates a collective collaboration across the multiple disciplines and therefore offers organizations a way to do better, despite of its reputation.

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New Product Development

New product or service is the complete process of bringing a new product or service and to market that started from customers’ needs. It includes several phases like planning, research, design, production and sales. The traditional way of new product development process can be divided into several phases: product planning, concept development, system design, detail design, testing ; refinement and production. However, most important of them is product concept selection. The organization needs to identify customer needs, establish target specification, generate product concepts, select a product concept, test product concept, set final specs and plan downstream development. Each flow of concept development stage needs to be inspected, reviewed and revised repeatedly. The traditional view of the new product development abruptly changed to new design think new product development. Enabling the technological design think to the new product development has been resulted the best industries practice in the recent years. The Design thinking plays a crucial role in new product development. In recent days, the design thinkers are focusing on how the new product is meeting the customers’ need in the most stylish way. This strategy becomes obvious in the digital world. All the digitalized products such as mobile phones, tablets, laptops, watches, cameras, television sets, home decors, children tools, home appliance etc. are designed as customer centric. The tools are designing to keep the special designated impassion on the product in addition to the normal utilization. This leaves a reverential impact on the mind of the people to words the product or service.

The design thinking of a product or service adapts several set of strategies in order to meet the customer expectation and desire.
Customer orientated: we should start from what people, users, customers; consumers really need or want to do. Their motivations and the problems they are trying to solve. Empathy is key element. We need the ability to understand and share the feelings of others.

Highly creative: Design thinking stimulates you to look at situations differently and come up with new solutions that go beyond and improve existing alternatives. The main focus of the organization is to be integrative thinking. They need the ability to look at all the different aspects of a problem

Effective performance: Design thinking is more about working continuously towards the goal .not to spend on the discussions. Make ideas tangible. Execute the ideas in the early stage only. Prototyping is implementing the ideas to the reality with your hands. The last stage of the design thinking is to test hypnotises.

Iterative: The best way achieve to success does not follow a straight line. We need to repeat the cycle of understand – create – learn. The more we work on loop of the circle the higher chance you have for good results. Integrate is when the magic happens and something new makes a dent in the world. Implementation is everything. Design thinking is a circular process rather than a linear one. Core to it is the belief that things can always be made better, so iterate, iterate, iterate.

Design Thinking:
Digital transformation can be defined as a process whereby an organization shifts their business models, processes, and organizational culture with digital technologies to adapt to changing customer behaviors. They adapt to meet ever-changing customer expectations and engage with consumers in innovative ways. There several approach to execute the design thinking to keep the end user in mind to means to create the useful solutions. The general design thinking involves five steps

Empathy: we need to understand the really understand the problem perspective of the end user. We need to really grasp the experience, situation and emotion of the customer who we are working for. This can be administrated by observe the behavior of the users in their real by several market research techniques like engage with the people in the day to day conversations and ask them , watch them and listen to them what they really need.

Define: The information gathered from the empathy phase will be analyzed and interpreted in the define step towards the plan to execute. Keep the three things in mind while processing the plan
• Improve and understanding of the type of customers you are designing for
• Produce and select a limited set of needs that you think are vital to fulfill
• Highlight the insights you advanced and defined set of principles

Ideate: This is the most crucial step in the design thinking. The ideate step is about to create an innovative solution. In this step the research been conducted on the reality from the image. In other words this is the creative phase that delivers the detailed solution of the problem. You need to explore verity and large quantity of ideas to go beyond the solution of the problem.
• Creativity include integrate the conscious and unconscious rational thoughts and imagination.
• Encourage the groups by leveraging to reach out the new ideas and build upon other’s concepts.
• Segregate the different set of ideas from different generations and evaluations t achieve imaginative voice.

Prototype: The physically and tangible solution is created to the ideas in the ideate step. This step applies the creatively formed ideas into the tangible to the real world. The solution brought in to life all the way to keep the end user in mind. The process emphasizes frequent customer feedback from prototypes to their reaction. It is important to remember that prototypes are supposed to be quick and easy tests of design solutions. Here are a few guidelines that will help you in the Prototyping stage:
• Design Thinking has a bias towards action that means if you have any uncertainties about you are trying to achieve; your best bet is to just make something. Creating a prototype will help you to think about your idea in a concrete manner, and potentially allow you to gain insights into ways you can improve your idea.
• Prototyping is all about speed; the longer you spend building your prototype, the more emotionally attached you can get with your idea, thus hampering your ability to objectively judge its merits.
• All prototypes should have a central testing issue. Do not lose sight of that issue, but at the same time, do not get so bound to it so as to lose sight of other lessons you could learn from.
• Test the prototype against your expected user behaviours and user needs. Then, learn from the gaps in expectations and realities, and improve your ideas.

Testing: In this step the prototype is reviewed feedback is collected and adjustments be made. This step involves the finalizing the solution that will actually provided to the end user. The test step allows the detailed fine tuning and testing the detailed prototype meeting the needs of the desired people. This step allows the people to use your prototype and listen to them about the product. Encourage the people talk about how they experienced and how they feel. This process is repeated until that solution is perfect and fit into the customers’ mind as a result you need the repeat the each phase for necessary result be successful.
In the digital world the design thinking plays a crucial role to meet the expectations and needs of the end user in regular life. The following illustration deliberately explain how design thinking is became the backbone to the hospital industry.

In this lab experiment, E. coli bacteria was being transformed with a gene coding for green fluorescent protein, or GFP, in efforts to make the bacteria glow. The method used to transform the E. coli bacteria with the GFP gene was heat shock, the vector used was the pGLO plasmid, containing the GFP gene and a gene for resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin and the competent cell that was transformed was E. coli. In order for the GFP gene to glow the sugar arabinose, is required to turn on the biosynthesis pathway. It was hypothesized that if E. Coli bacterial cells are transformed with a gene coding for the green fluorescent protein then the E. Coli cells will show the trait. The predictions for the results of this lab, was that the only plate that would glow would be the LB/AMP/ARA plate with pGLO. The significance of the experiment is determining if genetic transformation was done correctly, because genetic transformation is a widely used technique in the field of genetics and medicine.
There are two vectors that are used most often in genetic transformation, E. coli plasmid vectors and bacteriophage ?, with E. coli being the most common used in recombinant DNA technology. Recombinant DNA is any molecule of DNA that is formed by joining DNA fragments from outside sources, by cutting DNA molecules then joining the resulting fragments. Plasmids are double -stranded and circular DNA molecules, meaning that they only work with prokaryotes such as bacteria and yeast, and very few higher eukaryotic cells that also have the circular DNA shape (Lodish et al. 2010).
The GFP gene has been around for over 160 million years, and is found in one species of jelly fish, Aequorea Victoria. The first time it had been cloned was in 1994, and since then GFP has been used in millions on laboratories around the world with species such as flatworms, algae, bacteria and pigs, to make them flow with the gene. Credit for the discovery of the gene was given to Osamu Shimomura, Marty Chalfie and Roger Tsien, along with the Chemistry Nobel Prize in 2008. GFP is such a useful gene because it makes results of experiments obvious, because when the green fluorescent light glows, it is clear if gene transformation in an experiment was successful or not if there is no glow (Zimmer 2017).
Materials and Method:
All procedures from this lab experiment were obtained from Weedman (2016).
A 1000 microliter pipette was used throughout the lab to micropipette various amounts of solutions. Two microfuge tubes were used for the +pGLO and -pGLO solutions. A total of 250 microliters of transformation solution was used, half in each tube. A total of 6 sterile loops were used to collect colonies of E. coli (2) and to spread solutions on the agar plates (4). 1 LB plate, 2 LB/amp plates and 1 LB/amp/ara plate were used to put the -/+ pGLO solutions on. A total of 250 microliters of LB nutrient broth was added to the – and + pGLO tubes, 250 each. 100 microliters of -/+ pGLO was added to each agar plate. Many new tips were used throughout the experiment.
The first steps in the experimental procedure were to collect two microfuge tubes and label them, with +pGLO and -pGLO, put gloves on and gather a 1000 microliter micropipette and a box of fresh tips, then transfer 250 microliters of the transformation solution into both tubes, close the lids and place the tubs on ice. Next was to pick up a single colony of bacteria using a sterile loop and immerse the loop in one of the two tubes, spinning the loop to get the colony off, then repeating with the other tube. Following that was to incubate the two tubes on ice for 10 minutes, while also obtaining 1 LB plate, 2 LB/amp plates and 1 LB/amp/ara plate. The plates were labeled on the bottom and with -pGLO on the LB and LB/amp plate and +pGLO on the other LB/amp plate and the LB/amp/ara plate. After the incubation period, the tubes were placed directly into the floating racks in a 42 C water bath for 50 seconds, after carrying the tubes to the water bath while in the ice beaker. This heat shock increased uptake of plasmid into E. coli by forcing the bacterial plasma membranes to be more permeable to the plasmid solution which enhanced the rate of successful transformation. After the 50 second hot bath, both tubes were immediately placed back on ice for 2 minutes, then placed back on the rack at the bench. 250 microliters of LB broth was added to the +pGLO tube, with a fresh tip, then the same to the -pGLO tube, with another new tip, then both tubes were incubated at room temperature for 10 minutes. After room temperature incubation both tubes were gently flicked to mix the contents. Using a fresh tip each time, 100 microliters of the +pGLO and the -pGLO suspensions were pipetted on to the correctly labeled LB agar plates. The suspensions were spread around evenly and gently on each plate, using a new sterile loop for each plate. Last steps were to stack the plates upside down, tape them and label them.

In this experiment, the bacteria E. Coli was transformed with the green fluorescent protein gene using the pGLO plasmid and arabinose sugar to activate the green glow. The hypothesis was that the LB plate with no pGLO plasmid and the LB/AMP plate and with pGLO plasmid would grow but nothing would glow, the LB/AMP plate without pGLO would not grow or glow and the LB/AMP/ARA with pGLO would both grow and glow.
The results were fairly accurate with what was hypothesized at the beginning of the experiment. The LB/AMP plate with the pGLO plasmid was hypothesized to grow but not glow, but it was observed that there was no growth and no glow. The LB/AMP/ARA plate with pGLO plasmid did glow green and also grew. The LB/AMP without pGLO plasmid did grow and did not glow as did the LB plate with no pGLO plasmids did not grow nor glow.
Plate Hypothesis Observation Agar surface covered
(-pGLO) LB Grow: yes
Glow: no Grow: yes
Glow: no 95%
LB/AMP Grow: no
Glow: no Grow: no
Glow: no 0%
Transformation Plates
(+pGLO) LB/AMP Grow: yes
Glow: no Grow: no
Glow: no 0%
LB/AMP/ARA Grow: yes
Glow: yes Grow: yes
Glow: yes 10%

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Results from in class experiment Hypothesized results

(Black and Wise 2018)
The predictions were that the LB plate with no pGLO plasmid and the LB/AMP plate and with pGLO plasmid would grow but nothing would glow, the LB/AMP plate without pGLO would not grow or glow and the LB/AMP/ARA with pGLO would both grow and glow. It was hypothesized that if E. Coli bacterial cells are transformed with a gene coding for the green fluorescent protein then the E. Coli cells will show the trait.
The results of the lab did support the hypothesis, because the plate with LB/amp/ara and the pGLO plasmid exhibited bacterial cells that were glowing under a UV light. There were about 18 glowing colonies counted on the agar plate with pGLO, LB, amp and ara. The one prediction that did not turn out correctly was that the LB/AMP plate with the pGLO plasmid should have had some bacterial growth, but none was observed after the experiment. On the LB plate with no pGLO there was significant bacterial growth, with about 95% of the plate covered in colonies. There was 0% coverage on both LB/AMP plates, with and without the pGLO. There was about 10% coverage on the plate with the glowing colonies.
The LB/AMP +pGLO and LB/AMP/ARA +pGLO both should have had bacterial growth because the pGLO plasmid contains a gene that is resistant to ampicillin, meaning that the antibacterial will not affect the growth of the bacteria. The LB -pGLO should have had bacterial growth because there was no ampicillin present to inhibit growth, there was only the broth, which serves as a type of food for the bacteria. The LB/AMP/ARA plate with pGLO should have been the only plate glowing because the plate contains the arabinose sugar required for the green fluorescent protein pathway to be activated to allow the cells to grow. The plate containing the pGLO protein on the agar with only LB and AMP did not glow, as there was no arabinose present.
The plate with the pGLO plasmid and LB/AMP was supposed to show some bacterial growth, but none occurred. The reason for this was likely an error in the experimental procedure, whether it was contamination of a pipette tip or loop, or something bigger like placing no pGLO plasmid on the agar instead of placing the plasmid on the plate.
Previous work
As with any lab experiment among any age of scientists, there is the possibility of error everywhere. Contamination was likely a huge factor in the chance of error in this particular experiment, as any of the solutions, plates, samples, etc. could have been contaminated at any point, which would alter final results and observations. Some weaknesses in the experimental setup and data collection procedures could have been things like miscommunication between the four group members at any point in the process, errors in keeping track of time during the many waiting periods during the process, or forgetting to keep samples on ice while transporting them to and from the lab bench to the heat bath, or at any other time they should have been on ice.
Genetic transformation was successful in this experiment. The hypothesis was entirely correct, and the predictions made for this experiment were right for the most part, meaning that if E. Coli bacterial cells are transformed with a gene coding for the green fluorescent protein then the E. Coli cells will show the trait, in this case the cells did glow. Growth was seen on the LB plate without pGLO plasmids and LB/AMP/ARA with pGLO because the LB serves as an energy source for the bacteria and the pGLO plasmids are resistant to ampicillin. The LB/AMP plate with pGLO should have showed some bacterial growth, but that was an example of where human error played a part and altered results.
Genetic transformation has already proven to be a widely used technique in the field of genetics and medicine, it will continue to expand and allow scientists to make discoveries that will benefit our world.