The purpose of writing this task is to go through all roles,
and parts of an engineering profession in society. The initial segment will be
a composed reflection. With this in mind, engineering profession is an
important factor nationwide. The things I will be discussed is the history of
engineering and how it started. Also, the development of engineering
profession, and how it is being improved, and how it bullied up its own orders.
Secondly The reflection will be about levels and structures of
the engineering profession. In addition, engineering diversity, culture and the
roles will be discussed. Also, the improvement and development over time in
profession improvement. Including what is the responsibility of an engineering,
how a specialist is associated with the general society, and what they involved
The third piece of the task will be a contextual
investigation that displays an instance of negligence. The occasion of
negligence will be examined and the occasions which happened will be specified.
As well as, some issues and a few solutions to prevent this from happening and
the avoidance of them.
History of the profession and the development of
. The word engineering has
been used since the 1600, with this in mind the back ground of the engineering
profession begun 100s of years ago
Until 1600, proficient engineers
were alluded as researchers, directors or business visionaries. The word Latin
word “ingeniatorium”. “Ingeniator” was linked connected to
military designers from about the season of the Norman Conquest of Britain in
By 1592, “enginer”
portrayed a planner of expressions or scholar. From 1600, later varieties of
the word including “ingenier” and “engyner” were utilized
to portray developers and producers of things.
The roots of
“design” is by all accounts all the more firmly identified with the
English word “smart” (which means strong, clever and creative) as
opposed to “motor”.
From the above, unmistakably
the beginnings of the English word “build” and the German word
“ingenieur” are fundamentally the same as and show a brilliant
individual who is astute, capable and creative.
Faculty of Two:
Should the approach be pragmatic or hypothetical?
At long last, in 1889, Columbia’s trustees chosen to build up a division of
electrical designing, offering two years of graduate examination to
understudies who had finished the standard four-year mines educational modules.
Edison’s thought, including the offer of an
endowment of hardware for a showing historical centre, worked on it for almost
10 years as Columbia authorities thought of how such a train would work with
the material science and designing instructed at the School of Mines.
Francis Bacon Crocker2 had extensive experience
with industry as organizer of the Crocker-Wheeler Electric Motor Company while
Michael Idvorsky Pupin3 was a splendid Serbian migrant and physicist via
1900s: A Four-Year Program:
By the mid twentieth century, the whole building
school had moved to Morningside Heights alongside whatever is left of the
University, and Pupin set up his storied research facility, the Marcellus
Hartley Laboratory, in the cellar of Philosophy Hall, where he regulated the
advancement of enduring commitments to electrical designing.
World Wars: Motors and Radio:
Under the administration of Walter
Slichter, who led the office from 1910-1941, Columbia engineers assumed a key
part in giving the U.S. an edge in radio interchanges and electrical
innovation. A center gathering of workforce drove the way, including Slichter,
Morton Arendt, John H. Morecroft and the amazing Armstrong. Read more about the
and Radio Communications:
CC’13 HON’29, totally altered radio correspondences. When he kicked the bucket
in 1954, the workforce’s remembrance determination acknowledged him for five
“age making” developments. wideband FM radio; For his commitments to
the U.S. war exertion amid both world wars – he rose to the rank of major amid
World War I – he was respected by both the American and French governments.
The rundown of his developments and
significant respects is long and incorporates the Medal of Honor from the
Institute of Radio Engineering, 1917; the Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur in
1919 from the French government; the first-historically speaking Armstrong
Award from the Radio Club of America, named after him to respect his
accomplishments in radio, in 1935; Columbia’s Egleston Medal in 1939; the
Holley Medal from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1940; the
Franklin Medal from the Franklin Institute, 1941; the Edison Medal from the
American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1942; and in 1947, the Medal for
Merit with a presidential reference, the most astounding regular citizen grant
given by the U.S. government
Period: The Golden Era of Systems and Control Theory:
The 1950s and ’60s introduced a
period of dangerous development, with a solid surge of graduate direction and
doctoral research. Out of the blue, understudies could gain a PhD in building
science, and Columbia doctoral understudies went ahead to wind up pioneers in
Among them was John R. Ragazzini,
who joined the staff in 1941 and furthermore filled in as division seat. In
1945 Ragazzini and his partners exhibited an “operational
intensifier,” which later turned into a key building square of electronic
Other departmental stars included
Ralph J. Schwarz, Lotfi A. Zadeh and Jacob Millman, writer of an original
course reading in gadgets. Due to a great extent to their endeavors, this
period ended up plainly known as a brilliant time of exercises in frameworks
and controls. Read more about these specialists and their contributions.6
1970s: The Modern Era Emerges:
transistor, advanced gadgets, PCs – these developments were quickly expanding
the universe of the electrical architect in the 1970s. While Columbia had
turned out to be known in the past two decades for its hypothetical
commitments, the ’70s saw an arrival to trial parts of electrical building,
incorporating research in strong state gadgets, plasma material science,
millimetre waves and coordinated circuits.
In the meantime, the office started to
create vital long haul associations with industry, government and other
scholastic foundations, particularly in correspondences, hardware, current
radar building and related fields.
With the development of computerized
registering, the division was renamed Electrical Engineering and Computer
Science in 1968.
One breakthrough of the cutting edge
period was the making of the Center for Telecommunications Research (1985-97),
financed by the National Science Foundation and mechanical accomplices to lead
central and connected research in rapid correspondence frameworks.
Other than a rich
heritage of mechanical developments, employees have distributed more than 70
course readings since Pupin himself composed his Pulitzer Prize-winning
personal history, From Immigrant to Inventor. Together, Jacob Millman and
Mischa Schwartz have a consolidated aggregate of 16 top rated writings. As
their work and that of others has been converted into remote dialects, Columbia
designing has accomplished worldwide strength. (JA, 2017)
In 1983, the centennial year of the Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers, a survey of the calling was taken to
choose the main 10 specialized givers, mechanical donors and teachers for a
centennial corridor of distinction. Of the 10 teachers, three of them – more
than at some other establishment – were Columbia workforce: Pupin, Millman and
Schwartz. Also, showing up at the highest priority on the rundown of 10
unsurpassed best specialized donors – in a tie with William B. Shockley, the
designer of the transistor – was Edwin Howard Armstrong.
Diversification of engineering:
There are verity
paths inside the Engineering profession, a few cases of a couple of
specializations of engineers are:
Engineering usually use their insight into science, science and material
science to remove and make oil, oil and to create new things, an example can be
seen, plastic that is universally spread as one of the biggest utilized items.
Concoction builds additionally create the compound we use in aging,
horticulture and even in conservation of items.
Engineers deliver complex electrical circuits and frameworks. Their part is to
make conceivable the wiring of lights and energy to regions and urban areas and
also tackling issues inside these territories. Electrical architects are
likewise in charge of media transmission frameworks and furthermore for the
creation of numerous electrical items.
Engineers are included inside the art of engine building and moving mechanical
power into electrical power. They are additionally in charge of many transport
frameworks and furthermore vast business machines to make less demanding the
life of people, taking into account substantial procedures to wind up plainly
speedier and less demanding with the utilization of machines.
Engineers are associated with the formation of open works. This implies they
are in charge of the development, outline and upkeep of streets, railroads,
structures, trenches and so forth.
everything into account, the part of all Engineers together are what make the
general public, science and innovation as progress as it has moved toward
becoming today. To better comprehend the part of designers in the public arena,
we should investigate the history and improvement of the Engineering calling.
STRUCTURE & LEVELS OF THE PROFESSION:
There is heaps of
professional engineers with verity of academic degrees, responsibility on some
projects. The distinguish from professional engineers and standard is an
important matter. The most significant factor is how engineers solve the
problems they face and how avoided danger from happening:
take a disciplined, holistic approach to consist many different parts and
connect them. With this in mind they have to be capable of finding or
suggesting solution to avoid risks from happening. They must be professional
when it comes to judgments and lead in the environment
To be an
engineering technologist need to have a good background to come up with usful
solution and able to do a practical application. They must be familiar with new
developments on what they work on, so they can work in their fields of
technicians must have a good understanding and background about standards and
codes of practice. Their knowledge is basically a practical nature than
theoretical that held by engineers and engineer’s technologists. Table below
shows levels of the profession.
usually mixed of cultures, ages and genders. This is why differences bring for
us many different plans, solutions and ideas to overcome any unexpected danger.
Because it is important for engineers to be able to work in a team work,
combine their knowledge to help achieving new goals, which is a beneficial way
for everyone. However, engineers need to be smart and awake to predict and
Language and jargon
Gender roles or specific cultural engagement.
Perceived power structure within a group
Cultural business customs varying across
of the Engineer within Industry and Companies:
in industry engineers are directed toward customers, toward
manager, toward different architects, and toward the general public which is
essential piece of the life of an expert specialist. Contemporary designers
need to achieve a scope of parts through the course of a profession which
Chief, venture supervisor, architect, site delegate, group
pioneer, examiner, specialized counselor, advisor, industry contact
These parts have numerous desires which should be adjusted
so as to settle on right and dread choice for all gatherings those engaged with
a task. engineers today work in diffuse and various groups, frequently a cross
time zones and national outskirts. . In the meantime, the specialist’s issues
are being called upon to be comprehended, have turned out to be bigger and more
unpredictable. These difficulties incorporate:
confinements and directions
restrictions and intensity
• Health and
engineers are relied upon to take after arrangement of
standards and controls, applying wellbeing and security and morally based
choices are the main requirements those will oversee the achievement for the
parts above. As specified some time recently, the dependable direct towards
society and customers is the centre of designing.
Role of institution and in
career development to your ongoing career:
The fundamental part for institution are to give a level of
judgment to the individual so he/she can comprehend their part as an Engineer
and can play out his/her work in reality to details and necessities alongside a
specific level of competency. This empowers the general public to confide in
the yield being conveyed by these experts alongside ensuring that these works
are being done effectively and meeting every one of the prerequisites, similar
to security, costing, consistence, and so on. By Institutions we can allude to
Universities alongside building national bodies that guide in speaking to
designers’ enthusiasm for the nation.
With the presence of Universities, engineers can encourage
their licensed innovation and handle more mind boggling ventures/issues which
contributes emphatically towards the general public. With national bodies that
speaks to the architect’s enthusiasm to the nation, this can help specialists
to work in abroad nation and enables screen/to uphold capability, moral
benchmarks for calling in accordance with worldwide practice. Building has new
progressions that are made much of the time, new programming projects to make
work less demanding, speedier and more exact, in this manner being refreshed
with changes and new specialized aptitudes are a need. These establishments
encourage for new progressions and keep experts refreshed, particularly if the
models or set of principles changes.
Future roles for
The propensity for general profession movement inside a
designing setting has a tendency to be from the specialized nature to a more
administrative, warning part. Junior architects need to adjust to take in the
specialized parts of the business while being tutored adequately be more senior
partners. As experience is picked up the capacity to hold greater duty and
administration, group pioneer parts, incorporating spend significant time in
certain activity perspectives creates. Senior designers are frequently
empowered into administrative, oversight parts in which the everyday specialized
nature reduces while a more organization asset centre creates.
Future architects should be taught and hone in such a way so
they can play out their parts in an expert way in the worldwide condition,
being socially, ecologically and monetarily mindful of their choices. The
present designers are the future architects, so they will be required to see
all the more generally and be in charge of additional extensive choices.
The political field is a territory where engineers are not
generally prepared, however with the level of specialized understanding
architects have, this learning should be offered as a powerful influence for
the approach making at legislative and committee level to change our future for
the better on preserving assets as well as empowering an economical future.
B: Negligence and Accidents:
In everywhere there are hazards in all spots of work, and risk that
might be a disaster if not looked into it precisely. It does not matter if
there are managers who knows who is experienced sometimes danger happen from
unexpected factors. However, some of these hazards cannot be avoided and
completely accidental, others are caused by careless people. (Lowell, 2012)
For instance, if electrical engineering
involved in the work area there are heaps of safety taken on day to day basis.
All electrical engineers should have a big background of dangers that they
might come across while working in the area. Because some of the engineers
required to use some gadgets even though they know how dangers it is. So when
accidents do happen and everyone could go wrong with no expectation. This could
cause injury to themselves or another people.
Part B: Negligence and
A young mother
searches in the case of anything can make people avoided getting electrocuted
in December 2007, was shocked in the airing cabinet of her level in the West
Midlands. At an examination into Miss Shaw’s passing, the jury heard how the
catastrophe came about because of a plasterboard settling screw being attached
into a hidden link when the level was being fabricated the earlier year, making
the metallic edge of the parcel turn out to be ‘live’ when the electrical
establishment was empowered.
The harm to the
link had not been distinguished on the grounds that protection tests had not
been completed legitimately on the wiring, the jury was told. The blame had
stayed undetected until the point that water from a break in a high temp water
chamber came into contact with the metal segment. This caused water on the
airing pantry floor additionally to wind up ‘live’, which prompted the electric
shock when Miss Shaw endeavoured to kill the water stop rooster when in contact
with the water. As the level was on the first (university, 2014)
floor, no RCD
insurance had been given.
Her child, at
that point matured 23 months, had been closed in the front room while his mom
went to keep an eye on the break. Last December, in the wake of tuning in to
two weeks of proof, the investigation jury found that the underlying testing of
the electrical establishment in the level by the introducing temporary worker,
Anchor Electrical and Building Services Ltd of Staffordshire, was “not
completed to an expert standard, if by any means. evidence at the investigation
uncovered that when the electrics were introduced, a progression of mistakes
were made. These incorporated an inadequate circuit repairman’s mate trying and
supporting the wiring in the level. The investigation heard that four wellbeing
records that the mate had rounded out, and which were checked by the
organization’s director, likewise had various blunders in them. The jury said
that there had been a “disappointment by the organization to evaluate the
capacities of their workforce and always screen their advancement” and an
“inability to conform to their wellbeing and security principles”.
They inferred that Miss Shaw had been unlawfully killed.be safe and get
electrically tried Following the decision of unlawful murdering, the Health and
Safety Executive affirmed that new proof would be passed to the Crown
Prosecution Service, which had already said that there was deficient
confirmation to effectively arraign anybody. The Coroner told the examination
that he would utilize coroner’s tenets to write to the NICEIC and other
applicable bodies, inquiring as to whether anything should be possible to
control the act of circuit testers marking security testaments construct
exclusively in light of data answered to them by other. (university, 2014)
Root cause of accident:
Lake of knowledge
Improperly maintained switches and circuit breakers
Water or liquid near electrical equipment
Damaged tools and equipment
Worn or broken conductor insulation
A worker doing,
his job outside walls of a building housing in New York. He got his license
from city. His project is just by electric line delivering to the factory. The
voltage in the power line was 13,000.3-phase, and the transformer will convert
this to 220/120 volt. The worker is a hard worker and he always finishes his
job on time, in that day when he was almost done from what he was doing
suddenly without warning he fall over in the ground. Because he was
electrocuted via asphyxia 2,8 and 34 as he could not breath at the time, so
his co-worker heard what happened and decided to help. However, suddenly he
followed his co-worker and slump over and burned greater than the first one.
Electricity is now forming 2 circuits. It leaves the pole, travels through the
air, and goes into the first man. At this point, the electricity splits. Some
of it leaves the first man by his upper torso and enters the second man who is
grounded by contact with metal capping at the roof ledge. The electricity also
leaves the first man at various points on his body and enters the bucket of the
boom which is in contact with ground. The truck that supports the boom has
metal feet placed down on the flat sidewalk for added mechanical strength.
Later, after the truck is moved, there are burn marks on the sidewalk where the
feet were placed in contact with the sidewalk. This is proof that electricity
Analysis of this case:
expressed, the sign holder was excessively near the power source. His
supervisor (an authorized sign holder) neglected to gauge
the correct and
safe separation to keep from the electrical cable. On the other hand, his
supervisor could have reached the power
stop the power, and he didn’t. The power organization had the power wires near
the production line in light of the fact that
adjacent was a non-upkeep divider, i.e. there was no sign of any movement that
should have been continued
close to that
divider. For instance, a divider with an entryway or window is an upkeep
divider. It would be normal that individuals
engineering has a big effect on everywhere of
our lives, and many people still cannot get understand how significant it is.
With this in mind, reach the power company before you work near a dangerous
place specially that high voltage involved in it, or if ladder or scaffolding
being used is always an advantage to keep it away from found. However, this is
not that practical.
would enter the entryway or remaining
close to an open window. Likewise, after the sign was introduced, it
excessively turned into a upkeep divider. In any case, these realities ought to
have been accounted for to the power organization before (physician,
C, S. (2012, 8 13). Electrical Engineering and
Experts For Negligence Cases. Retrieved from Legal forums for everyday
Electrical Engineering and Experts For Negligence Cases
JA, S. C. (2017, 11 27). Grace Electrical
Engineering Pte Ltd v Te Deum Engineering Pte Ltd 2017 SGCA 65.
Retrieved from SingaporeLaw.sg:
Lowell, U. o. (2012). Retrieved from DISCUSSION ON
HIGH VOLTAGES AND THEIR SUCCESSFUL INTRODUCTION IN TO THE ENGINEERING CLASS
physician, t. e. (2014, 5 10). ncbi.
Retrieved from electron physician :
university, c. (2014). coulombia engineering.
Retrieved from http://www.ee.columbia.edu/ee-history
What is engineering (2015), what you need to
know about engineering. Retrieved from http://whatisengineering.com/