I. Writing a ‘How to cope with Stress Essay.’
In your introductory paragraph, begin by defining the term stress and establishing a thesis statement. For example, “Stress is defined as a psychological demand placed on one’s body when one must cope, adjust or adapt to situations. The term stress is a term many individuals can relate to, either through work, traffic, or school. Ultimately, if not properly managed, stress can in some extreme cases end in death. Stress is managed in numerous ways. If not managed properly, its results are negative. Therefore the manner in which stress is dealt with contributes significantly to its eradication.” As seen in the above example, define the term stress; then establish your thesis statement from which your essay’s body paragraphs will expound on.
In your essay’s first body paragraph, discuss the causes of stress – from physical (like fear of something dangerous) to emotional (like worry over employment or family). Discuss also the effects of stress on the mind and body (like how individuals under extensive stress amounts can become unwell, fatigued, and incapable of thinking clearly and concentrating.
In your essays, second body paragraph, discuss mental and physical symptoms of stress. Expound on physical and mental symptoms of short-term stress, example (fatigue, muscle spasms, headaches, and frequent bathroom visits). Also in this paragraph, discuss mental and physical symptoms of long-term stress which occurs over extended periods and is coupled with greater effects on one’s body, e.g., ‘nervous’ behavior like teeth grinding, fiddling, twitching, and heightened dependency on alcohol or food.
In your essay’s third body paragraph, discuss how one manages stress: Physical approaches. Long-term approaches should be discussed here like, excluding yourself from stressful circumstances, deep breaths, and walking; incorporating strategies that ensure you are completely stress-free.
Once you have finished composing your three body paragraphs, write your conclusion. Your conclusion imparts an impression on your reader. Additionally, your conclusion sums up in four to five sentences what your essay mainly focuses on. Your conclusion states the essay’s significance (the implications and pertinence of your findings), reiterates the thesis statement, and summarizes noteworthy points from the body paragraphs.
II. How to begin a Compare and Contrast Essay
A compare and contrast essay involves the discussion of differences and similarities between two given subjects. Step one, carefully read what has been assigned to you. Generating a good essay involves the careful reading of your assignment. This aids in making notes and pre-writing gives you a head-start when you sit to compose your essay. Step two, list down key differences and similarities in your text. Once you have gone through everything, write down how those works are different and similar to each other. Here, the notes you took in step one are advantageous. Additionally, pen down or type in your ideas even though you think they are minuscule. Step three, isolate your most significant points and convert them into your main argument. Once you are content with your list, cherry-pick points you feel are importantly different and similar. Here, you should search for things that will make your essay most compelling. Select elements, for instance, which are significant to both your works’ identity. Consider their main characters, messages of each and major themes.
Step four; compose an outline which will form your essay’s skeleton. Your outline’s intent is breaking down your essay’s flow, only noting the key points you will cover. For compare and contrast essays, your essay could cover six paragraphs. You will begin with an introduction which will establish your argument’s general idea; your argument can be “I believe the manner these texts contrast and compare these elements is significant because…” Then you will compose your essay’s body mainly four paragraphs. You can separate them into two paragraphs each (one for contrasting one for comparing). Finally, conclude your essay and sum up your arguments and restate, possibly in a new way, the importance of your argument.
Step five, once your outline is set, composing your essay simply involves backing your points with proof from works you have read. This is advantageous in that; it gets your audience to welcome your arguments. For such essays, which cover more ground compared to regular essays, you can escape without penalty with asserting one killer illustration per text on each point you make. Step six, edit. Upon completion, pass through your work and look for errors in form (spelling, bad grammar) and content (faulty arguments). Undoubtedly, your instructor will grade your completeness, and an essay is not complete if it is riddled with errors. After completing the above six steps, you will have a compare and contrast essay at hand.
III. How to Focus on Writing an Essay
As an essayist, you must continually remember a prerequisite to composing essays: Focus. The absence of focus means every chance exists for your essay to be unstructured, lacking clarity and coherence. Acquiring the needed focus to complete composing your essay can be challenging owing to many reasons. But still, it is critical; high-quality essays are composed through sustained periods of focus and concentration. Remaining focused is challenging. Distractions exist everywhere. As individuals, we have thoughts and internal doubts to manage. Additionally, individuals and places around us contribute to disturbances and chaos, making it challenging to concentrate on composing essays. Chatter also interferes with the writing process. Given all these, how can one develop and maintain focus?
Focus mainly involves centering yourself. Being centered is the main point of staying focused. Focus is established when the intention to write is present. Therefore, when you sit to write and begin preparing your mind for writing, you have already begun getting focused. At this point, the key thing is retaining the state of your initial attention, then maintaining and enhancing it to sustained levels of extended concentration. Sustained concentrations result in quality work. Sustained concentration involves the achievement of state of flow (as asserted by psychologists). This is the highest concentration level an individual can achieve. The individual is physically and mentally immersed in creative work – they are engaged fully. Thereby, one can visualize all ideas he/she wishes to incorporate their essay and produce quality work.
The state of flow requires one to be fully and entirely alert when doing the task. The feeling created by this is likened to the feeling created when an individual swims or engages in meditation or separate activities which require complete immersion of one’s mind and body. Increase focus by taking breaks after extended periods of sustained productive work. This relaxes the brain and gives it ample time to process information. A change or shift in location also aids in improving concentration and the capability of doing sustained work.

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the ensuing civil war (1992-93) the country extension services are being provided today by a range of service providers: the public sector represented by the State extension officers, who are attached to the Ministry of Agriculture or to the regional or provincial governments; the private sector through private advisory services run by both international and domestic non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and private companies; Internal advice within collective Dehkon (Farmer) farms and non-privatized enterprises; and local forms of knowledge exchange and mutual consultation inside the Mahalla (Village) (Mandler, 2010).
Sustainable development involves ensuring the sustainability of economic growth, social development and environmental security. The Concept of Transition of the Republic of Tajikistan to Sustainable Development 1, adopted in 2007, identifies six main tasks: reducing poverty, ensuring energy security, ensuring food security, achieving social security, ensuring environmental sustainability, and achieving effective governance.
The main strategic document is the National Development Strategy of the Republic of Tajikistan (NDS), initiated in 2005 as a long-term socio-economic program.2 The NDS defines priorities and directions of state policy aimed at achieving sustainable economic growth, facilitating access to basic social services for the population and reducing poverty. All the existing state and sectoral and regional concepts, strategies, programs and plans for the development of the country, as well as the activities of government bodies, are based on the NDS. As part of the implementation of this document, in 2011, economic reform was completed, and a number of measures were implemented to improve the social sectors.
In 2011, by the Decree of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan, according to Article 6 of the Law of the Republic of Tajikistan “On State Forecasts, Concepts, Strategies and Programs of Social and Economic Development of the Republic of Tajikistan”, the “Concept of the formation of e-government in the Republic of Tajikistan” was approved.
The task of transition to electronic governance (or, otherwise, the electronic government) has been put before the authorities of the Republic of Tajikistan for more than 15 years. During this time, a number of conceptual and program documents were adopted, among which the following should be noted:
– The Concept of the formation of the e-Government in the Republic of Tajikistan (2012 – 2020) approved by the Decree of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan of December 30, 2011 N 643.
– Decree of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan of November 5, 2003, No. 1174 “On state strategy of information and communication technologies for the development of the Republic of Tajikistan”
– Decree of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan of 30 June 2004, No. 290 “On the Program for Ensuring Information Security of the Republic of Tajikistan”
– Decree of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan on November 7, 2003 No. 1175 “On the concept of information security of the Republic of Tajikistan”
– The order of uniform requirements for sites and local-computer networks of government agencies (Decree of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan of April 1, 2011, No. 166)
– The State Program for the Development and Implementation of Information and Communication Technologies in the Republic of Tajikistan for 2014-2017 (Decree of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan of July 3, 2014, No. 428)

– Increase of efficiency of activity of executive bodies of the government and management due to wide use of ICT;
– improving the quality and accessibility of public services provided to citizens and organizations;
– simplification of procedures and reduction of the time of provision of public services, as well as reduction of administrative costs associated with the provision of these services;
– increasing the availability of information on the activities of executive bodies of the government;
– formation of a unified system of information exchange using electronic information resources and constant communication with the system and a limited network of accounting for all users;
– formation of a unified system of information exchange, using electronic information resources and constant communication with system and a limited network of accounting for all users;
– Economic stimulation of the use of the Internet and modern information technologies.

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– development and implementation of functional information and analytical systems (IAS) which supports the process of making managerial decisions within the individual executive bodies of state power;
– automation of interdepartmental interaction in the process of making managerial decisions;
– automation of procedures for the provision of public services;
– increasing the transparency of information on the activities of the executive bodies of state power, expanding the access and direct participation of citizens, organizations and institutions of civil society in the procedures for forming and examining decisions taken at all levels of government;
– improving the quality of administrative and management processes;
– ensuring the efficiency and control of the performance of executive bodies of state power;
– ensuring the required level of information security of e-government in its operation;
– development and wide application, in the activities of the executive bodies of state power, of means of providing remote access for citizens and organizations to information on the activities of executive bodies of state power;
– elimination of the “digital inequality” (inequality among citizens in the use of information and telecommunication technologies, determined by socio-economic differences and geographical location), which is one of the central tasks of ensuring the effectiveness of e-government and which is implemented through the development of ICT infrastructure (territorial development of communication networks, improvement of communications quality, computerization of the population, development of the Internet in the territory of the country).

The Concept of the formation of e-government in the Republic of Tajikistan (hereinafter the “Concept”) was developed in order to implement the State Strategy of Information and Communication Technologies for the Development of the Republic of Tajikistan, approved by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan of November 5, 2003, No. 1174, State Program on the development and implementation of information and communication technologies in the Republic of Tajikistan, approved by the Decree of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan of December 3, 2004, No. 468, the Concept of the State Information Policy of the Republic of Tajikistan, approved by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan of April 30, 2008, No. 451 and the Strategy for Reforming the Public Administration System of the Republic of Tajikistan approved by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan March 15, 2006, No. 1713.

– creation of the necessary regulatory legal framework for the formation of e-government, including the creation of a unified infrastructure to ensure legally significant electronic interaction;
– the formation of the basic components of the e-government infrastructure;
– formation and development of electronic services of executive bodies of state power;
– creation and development of interdepartmental and standard departmental information systems;
– creation and development of information resources and systems of executive bodies of local government;
– development of citizens’ access to information systems;
– development of the portal and gateways of e-government;
– creation of the state automated system of resource management;
– protection of information infrastructure;
– improving the staffing of e-government;
– Development of architecture, the formation and development of the standards base in the field of ICT.
The implementation of the concept of the formation of e-government in the Republic of Tajikistan is planned to be provided in three stages.
a) At the first stage (2012-2013)
– A unified network of information technologies is being put into operation, which unites 48 ministries and departments of the Republic of Tajikistan, which is a key element of e-government in the Republic of Tajikistan;
– within the framework of this network, an automated register of civil servants will be developed and improved, the server of which is located in the UGS;
– including, within the framework of this network, broad access to the legal database “ADLIA” will be provided and provided;
b) as well as all public authorities:
– Create local computer networks and sectoral, departmental informatization programs for the introduction of ICT in the field of its activities, as well as its own websites (pages) on the Internet;
– a common information environment that ensures the presence in it of all structures and regions and their electronic interaction;
– Ensure the development of a project for the creation of a government portal;
– Widely and effectively use existing information technology networks between government bodies;
– Carry out activities to ensure access to electronic services.
At this stage, it is also necessary to develop standard departmental technological solutions to support the provision of public services and provide access to information on the activities of public authorities based on ICT. At the same time, it is expected to complete the design and creation of existing inter-departmental components of the electronic government: a single system of information and reference support for citizens, an infrastructure for inter-agency electronic interaction with a secure system of interdepartmental electronic document management.
At the second stage (2013-2015), it is ensured that the activities of state authorities are implemented in practice through departmental technological solutions, i.e.:
– Improvement of legal, organizational and technical conditions for the creation of e-government;
– formation of mechanisms for two – and multi-lateral communication, for the introduction of a single electronic document flow;
-extension of departmental and interdepartmental electronic information resources;
– Elimination of digital inequality in the territory of the republic;
– Creation of inter-departmental e-government systems in the structure of executive authorities.
The third stage (2015-2020) of e-government development covers the automation of the process of providing public services to the population and organizations, as well as receiving services from organizations for state needs. At the same time, the development of e-government services, such as a government portal and an electronic government gateway, is envisaged (an information system designed to integrate information systems in the implementation of electronic services).

Strategic goals and objectives
From the Concept implementation stages, a series of goals are outlined. Due to the lack of support these goals were never or partially fulfilled. The resulting lack of support regarding implementation of the Concept stages has resulted in the delay of the launch of the governmental portal and even absence of some executive Ministries’ websites. However, it is possible to examine operational process in terms of achievements of the Concepts priorities that were created:
– The policy of the formation and development of e-government in Tajikistan should be based on the principles of subordination of the informatization process to the priority tasks of the system of public administration and socio-economic development of the Republic of Tajikistan, consistency and balance of the pace and direction of informatization of individual executive bodies of state power and standardization of informatization processes of executive bodies of the government of the Republic of Tajikistan
– As part of improving the regulatory framework, it is necessary to ensure the preparation of a system of legal acts regulating the issues of information interaction of public authorities in the process of fulfilling the functions assigned to them, identification of participants in electronic interaction, the activities of authorized state bodies in electronic information exchange
– Improvement of the regulatory and legal framework on e-government issues provides for the introduction of the necessary changes and additions to the existing regulatory legal acts of the republic, as well as the development of new regulatory legal acts. This will eliminate the backlog of legislation in this area from the needs of society and the nature of social relations, as well as create an integral legal system and harmonize the legislation of the Republic of Tajikistan with universally recognized norms and principles of international law
– Assist in attracting citizens to use domestic materials on the Internet and improving the TJ domain and other everyday issues related to the implementation of e-government
– It is necessary to develop and improve the existing information technology networks among government bodies, take measures to increase the efficiency of their use and ensure electronic information rotation, including information databases
– In the regions, it is necessary to develop informatization programs that meet the requirements of a unified e-government architecture and are coordinated with the authorized body in the field of information and communication
– Since the provision of electronic services by local executive bodies is related to the level of development of departmental information systems, regulations for the interaction of information systems of local executive bodies with departmental information systems should be developed
– In order to improve the efficiency of public administration, it is required to complete the work on the creation and implementation of a secure technological system for interdepartmental electronic document management, which provides prompt information and documentary exchange between the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan, executive authorities and other agencies
In order to expand the possibility of citizens’ access to information on the activities of state bodies on the basis of the use of modern Information and Switching Technologies, it is necessary to create conditions for:
– the widespread development of the Internet, improving access to it;
– Creation of websites of the Government and all ministries and departments of the country on the Internet;
– development of departmental Internet sites that ensure the completeness and timeliness of the placement of relevant information on them;
– creation of internal computer networks of ministries and departments, further consolidating them into a single network for the phased introduction of interdepartmental electronic (paperless) workflow;
– the formation of public access infrastructure to the information posted on the Internet about the activities of public authorities and the provision of public services to citizens and organizations;
– Creation of a unified system of information and reference support for citizens on the provision of public services and interaction of citizens with government agencies.

First of all, it is necessary to recognize that the creation of e-government in the country is the most important task. Raising the level of education in the field of information and communication technologies is the most important task for the creation of e-government.
E-government has every chance of mass introduction in the future. With the development of social networking, the opportunities for communication will expand and new forms of interaction will emerge between the three branches of e-government – government, business and citizens. E-government as a set of practical tools for improving the quality of governance will undoubtedly become a catalyst for the transformation of the public sector.
Obviously, e-government can be one of the effective tools for accelerating political and administrative reforms. The introduction of e-government will help to efficiently manage public resources, improve the quality of public services, and strengthen citizens’ trust in power.

I.T. Java Programming Exercise

1) program= a specific set of ordered operations for a computer to perform

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low-level language= is a programming language that provides little or no abstraction
from a computer’s instruction set architecture—commands or functions in the language map closely to
processor instructions.Generally this refers to either machine code or assembly language

high-level language= is a programming language such as C, FORTRAN, or Pascal that enables a programmer to
write programs that are more or less independent of a particular type of computer. Such languages are considered
high-level because they are closer to human languages and further from machine languages.

source code= Source code is the list of human-readable instructions that a programmer writes—often in a word
processing program—when he is developing a program. The source code is run through a compiler to turn it into
machine code, also called object code, that a computer can understand and execute

compiler= A compiler is a special program that processes statements written in a particular programming
language and turns them into machine language or “code” that a computer’s processor uses. … The programmer
then runs the appropriate language compiler, specifying the name of the file that contains the source statements.

interpreter=In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes, i.e. performs,
instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without requiring them previously to have been
compiled into a machine language program.

3) an applet is a very small application, especially a utility program performing one or a few simple functions.
Rather than using a Web browser, a Plug-in brings up applets using Java’s Runtime Environment. A Java applet
does not use a regular operating system. Applets need another program to properly run

4) Java is portable,i.e. platform independent due to following reasons:
1)Output of a Java compiler is bytecode which is non executable code.
2)Bytecode is executed by Java run-time system, which is called the Java Virtual Machine (JVM)

5) the compiler makes it understandable to the computer the interpreter then executes th program from the compiler

6.a)An integrated development environment (IDE) is a software application that provides comprehensive facilities
to computer programmers for software development. An IDE normally consists of a source code editor, build
automation tools, and a debugger. Most modern IDEs have intelligent code completion.
6.b)JRE (Java Runtime) is needed for running Java programs. JDK (Java Development Kit), which includes JRE
plus the development tools (such as compiler and debugger), is need for writing (developing) as well
as running Java programs. In other words, JRE is a subset of JDK.
7) Netbeans,Microsoft Visual C++
8) algorithm=A programming algorithm is a computer procedure that is a lot like a recipe (called a procedure)
and tells your computer precisely what steps to take to solve a problem or reach a goal. The ingredients are
called inputs, while the results are called the outputs

flowchart=A flowchart is a type of diagram that represents an algorithm, workflow or process, showing the
steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting them with arrows

pseudocode=The following shapes are often used in flowcharts: Pseudocode is a method of describing
computer algorithms using a combination of natural language and programming language.

10) see dedicated page.

import javax.swing.JOptionPane;
public class Q10 {
public static void main(String args) {
int f,c;
c=Integer.parseInt(JOptionPane.showInputDialog(“Enter centigrade”));
f= c*9/5+32;



12)comments are additional phrases used to communicatew between collegues using “//” in front of
a phrase to indicate it is a comment and for the computer to ignore it

13)a) a piece of code
b) System.out.println(“H There”)

15) Difference between the methods print() and println() The println(“…”) method prints the string “…”
and moves the cursor to a new line. The print(“…”) method instead prints just the string “…”,
but does not move the cursor to a new line. Hence, subsequent printing instructions will print on the same line.

21)it is to create a new variable in the very beggining of the code

22)when we give a value to the declared variables

23)import javax.swing.JOptionPane;
public class Q10 {
public static void main(String args) {
int f,c;
c=Integer.parseInt(JOptionPane.showInputDialog(“Enter centigrade”));
f= c*9/5+32;

23.b)import javax.swing.JOptionPane;
public class Q23b {
public static void main(String args) {

double area,rad,volume;
double pi;
pi= 3.141592653589793238;
rad=Double.parseDouble(JOptionPane.showInputDialog(“enter value of radius”));
double radsqrt = rad*rad;
System.out.println(“the area is: ” +area);
System.out.println(“the volume is: “+ volume);



27)Unicode=an international encoding standard for use with different languages and
scripts, by which each letter, digit, or symbol is assigned a unique numeric value
that applies across different platforms and programs.

Casting=taking an Object of one particular type and “turning it into” another Object
type. This process is called casting a variable. This topic is not specific to Java,
as many other programming languages support casting of their variable types

arthmetic operations=An arithmetic operator is a mathematical function that takes
two operands and performs a calculation on them. They are used in common arithmetic
and most computer languages contain a set of such operators that can be used within
equations to perform a number of types of sequential calculation.

incriment and decrement operators= Increment and decrement operators are unary
operators that add or subtract one from their operand, respectively. They are
commonly implemented in imperative programming languages. C-like languages
feature two versions (pre- and post-) of each operator with slightly different semantics.

operator precedence= use precedence levels that conform to the order commonly used in
mathematics, though others, such as APL, Smalltalk or Occam, have no operator precedence
rules (in APL, evaluation is strictly right to left; in Smalltalk and Occam, it is strictly left to right).

29)a)int (3.6)

34) In computer science, conditional statements, conditional expressions and conditional constructs are features
of a programming language, which perform different computations or actions depending on whether a
programmer-specified boolean condition evaluates to true or false.
import javax.swing.JOptionPane;
public class Q35 {
static void main(String args) {

int age =Integer.parseInt(JOptionPane.showInputDialog(“Enter your age”));
if (age