FIJI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
IVI TRIANGLE, SUVA CAMPUS, FIJI
Topic: Job Analysis, Job Description and Job Specification
Student Name: Purnanand Lalbachan
Student ID #: 2017145313
Lecturer Name: Sir Hirdesh Shukla
Unit Name: Human Resource Management
Unit Code: HRM 801
Date of Submission: 2018-07-16
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Job Analysis, Job Description and Job Specification …………………………………. 1
How Job Analysis, Job Description applied to the Guyana Oil Company Limited …. 2-4
List of Staff Interviewed from the Guyana Oil Company Limited …………………… 4
Advantages and Disadvantages of Job Analysis ……………………………………… 5-6
Advantages and Disadvantages of Job Description …………………………………… 6
Advantages and Disadvantages of Job Specification ………………………………….. 7
Challenges (HR) faced by the Guyana Oil Company Limited ……………………….. 8-9
How to improve Job Analysis, Job Description and Job Specification to
Strategically align to the Guyana Oil Company Limited ……………………………… 9
How this project is associated to Journals Articles Reviewed ………………………. 10-11
References ……………………………………………………………………………… 12
Job Analysis, Job Description and Job Specification
Job analysis is a systematic process that involves the collection of information about a specific job. It entails a thorough investigation of the duties, tasks, responsibilities, outcomes, skills, abilities and knowledge that are desired so as to perform a job successfully. There are three main components of job analysis. These are job content, job requirements and job context. Job content refers to the activities that can directly controlled by the employee (for example their performance and promotion) while job requirements is the skills, abilities, experience and educational background that is required for the position (for example three years working experience as a human resources officer along with a first degree in human resources management for the position of human resources manager) and job context refers to the environment and others factors that are controlled by the organisation (for example the job atmosphere, remuneration, technology and interaction with co-workers). In addition, the human resources manager of an organisation normally be the person who is responsible for conducting job analysis. The manager may conduct job analysis when “a new position or job is created, when a new company starts operation and when a job has changed significantly over a period of time (for example information technology positions)”. (Ahmed, 2018). Moreover, the main outcomes of the job analysis process are job description and job specification. As a result, the ultimate goal of the human resources manager in the job analysis process is to put the “right person on the right job”. (Juneja, 2018).
The job description is considered the key output of the job analysis process. It is formed from the information collected during the job analysis process. In simple words, a job description can be defined as a written document detailing the duties and responsibilities that are associated with a particular job. This document normally contains information such as “the title of the job, the location of the job, the nature of supervision, the reporting relationships, job summary, the working conditions of the job, the duties and responsibilities associated with the job, the machines, tools and equipment’s used in performing the job, rewards and finally the hazards associated with the job”. (Topdifferences.com, 2018). In addition, the human resources manager must prepare a job description for each job before a vacant position is advertised. This is to ensure that potential candidates know in advance what roles, responsibilities and tasks, they will need to perform, in the event they are selected. This will save the organisation money because managers will spend time reviewing only those applications that meet the criteria set out in the job description.
Job specification is another important output from the job analysis process and it is derived from the job description. Job specification can be defined as a written statement that tells us the “minimum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a job properly”. (Topdifferences.com, 2018). These human qualities include the educational qualifications (for example a degree in Accountancy), experience (for example 3-5 years in a related role) and skills (for example good communication and time management skills) a person must possess so as to function effectively in that position. Moreover, job specification helps the human resources manager to hire the ‘best fit’ candidate for the job.
HOW JOB ANALYSIS, JOB DESCRIPTION AND JOB SPECIFICATION APPLIED TO THE GUYANA OIL COMPANY LIMITED.
Overview of The Guyana Oil Company Limited
The Guyana Oil Company Limited (Guyoil) started it operations on the 16th of June 1976. The company is exclusively owned by the government of Guyana and its head office is located at 191 Camp Street, Georgetown, Guyana, South America. The company currently has the largest market share and the largest fuel distribution network in Guyana. Also, the company has a subsidiary company named Guyoil Aviation Services, which is located at the Cheddi Jagan International Airport (CJIA), Timehri, Guyana. The subsidiary company supplies jet fuel to international airlines carriers in Guyana. In addition, the company has eight (8) company owned service stations along with thirty five (35) dealer owned service stations across the country. The company business includes “the importation, storage and marketing of Gasoil, Kerosene, Heavy Fuel Oil, Motor Accessories, CASTROL Lubricants, Bituminous Products and Aviation fuel” through its subsidiary Guyoil Aviation Services. As a result of the vast operations of the company, it currently employs around four hundred (400) staff and has assets totaling “9.4 billion” Guyana dollars (1FJD = 100 GYD). (Guyoil.gy, 2018). The reason I have chosen the Guyana Oil Company Limited to do this project on is because I have worked there for four years as Accounts Officer.
According to Mrs. Rafeena Mohammed (Management Accountant of the Guyana Oil Company Limited), the company went through a comprehensive job analysis exercise that started in January 2016 and concluded in March 2017. Also, she informed me that all staff of the company were interviewed during that exercise. Prior to the 2016, only senior managers of the company had job descriptions. I can safely confirm this fact because during my period of employment with the company, neither a job description nor job specification was given to me. I was trained how to do my job by the senior accounts supervisor. In addition, in the four years that I was employed with the company, no performance appraisal was done for me nor my colleagues in the finance department. According to the management accountant, the company had a staff turnover rate of twenty percent (20 %) for the year 2016. Further, she said that the company had a strong relaxed culture (static) and all departments’ staff were performing at their bare minimum. For example, many staff in the HR department can be seen gaffing and playing games on a regular basis despite the fact that they have work to do. To illustrate this point, to simply process and approve employee leave, Insurance benefits etc., other departments staff have to go through lengthy delays awaiting approvals of their leave and so on. Consequently after many complaints about employee’s performance, the board of directors saw it appropriate to hire S.V. Jones and Associates (a human resource consulting firm) to conduct job analysis for all jobs within the company.
Conducting Job Analysis at the Guyana Oil Company Limited
During the job analysis process, all departmental managers were given one week advanced noticed so as to arrange their junior staffs for scheduled group interviews. Managers and senior officers were interviewed individually on specified dates agreed on. On the scheduled dates, junior staffs were interviewed in groups of five by the consultant of S.V. Jones and Associates. The consultant asked staff questions such as “what do you do on a daily basis, what position you currently holds, what tasks do you need to complete at the end of each working day, what tools and equipment’s do you use to do your work, what are the daily targets/ outcomes of your job, what are the skills/ techniques you use to complete your assigned tasks, what are the physical demands of the job, what educational qualifications you currently holds, are you happy with your job, do you enjoy working in the current environment, who is your supervisor/ manager, when was your last performance appraisal done, are you a permanent/ temporary/ part-time staff, how long have you been working with the company, have you ever been promoted/ demoted/ given warning letter, what areas would you like to see improvements in, what are your career goals, what further studies would you like to pursue and how will it improve your job/ performance, what is your dream position in the company, what is your take home salary, in what areas do you think we can perform better and what are the challenges/ difficulties you faced in performing your work”. These are some of the questions staff were asked during their interview with the consultant. According to the Mrs. Mohammed, similar questions were asked when interviewing managers and other senior staff. The main aims of the consultant is to create a job description and job specification using the information provided by staffs during the interview. Also with this information, the consultant will be in a better position so as to ensure the right person is in the right job at the right time.
Job Description & Job Specification
After the interviewing process was completed, each employee was given a very detailed job description. The job description is a comprehensive document specifying all the critical factors that are necessary for job success. The top section of the job description includes headings such as “Job Title, Location, Reports To, Job Code, Department and Salary Grade”. In addition, immediately below the top section of the document includes numbered headings (1-5) such as “(1) Summary Statement, (2) Nature and Scope of the Job, (3) Principal Organizational Relationships, (4) Duties, Work-Field & Traits and (5) Job Description Evaluation – Qualifications Profile”. Also, under headings three to five (3-5) includes sub headings. As mentioned earlier, while both the job description and job specification are outputs from the job analysis process, the job specification is derived from the job description.
The job specifications section can be found in the job description under heading numbered five (5) – Job Description Evaluation – Qualifications Profile. This section includes details about the “educational requirements, experience/ job knowledge requirements, supervision, responsibility for materials/ cash, compliance and quality of work requirements, analytical, technical/ professional and interpersonal skill requirements, mental/ visual demands of the job and finally the working environment” in which the job will be done. (Guyoil.gy, 2018). For reference purposes a sample copy of the company job description will be included at the end of this project.
According to the company Fixed Asset Officer (Raj Kumar), after the job analysis exercise was completed, “the human resource policy was updated and the company went through some changes”. Some of these key changes/ policies includes:
All senior managers had to re-apply for their job position.
All employees were given increases in salary (between 1-10 percent).
Performance appraisals/ evaluation are now to be done half yearly and employees are rewarded (1-10 % increase in salary based on their performance) or punished (given a verbal warning, no year-end bonus etc.) accordingly.
Some departments were renamed – for example the operations department were renamed facilities and administration department.
No staff is guaranteed employment with the company – Job security is based on good performance.
The ‘laid back, traditional and static’ culture of the company was replaced by a dynamic one.
Training will be provided as required so enhances employees performance.
Some employees were promoted to senior positions and some job titles were changed – for example the senior receivables clerk was promoted to payroll supervisor, the payables supervisor was promoted to management accountant and the finance controller job title was changed to financial accountant.
All employees now have a job title and a job description.
The current employees are now motivated to work harder so as to increase their earnings. Most importantly, the human resources manager now have a document to guide him in selecting the “right employee to the right job which will results in an increase of individual and organizational efficiency”. (Topdifferences.com, 2018).
INTERVIEWING KEY PERSONNEL’S
On the 7th of July 2017, I contacted and interviewed the following officials of the Guyana Oil Company Limited via Facebook Messenger:
Rafeena Mohammed – Management Accountant
Raj Kumar – Fixed Asset Officer
Allan Drupe -Debt Collector
Subrina Sammy – Payables Supervisor
Shristhi Ganesh – Payroll Supervisor
Latchmi Ramkissoon – Finance Clerk
During the interview, the following questions were asked to the interviewees:
What is your current job title?
When was the last job analysis for the company done?
Do you have a job description currently?
Explain the job analysis process/ exercise that was carried out?
What are some of the outcomes of the job analysis process?
How have the job environment changed from before the job analysis process to after it was completed?
What is the staff turnover rate of the company?
All the interviewees were ask the exact same questions so as to eliminate any bias information being presented in this project. All the employees that were interviewed express similar or the exact same view as their colleagues on the questions asked. Thus, I can safely say at this point in time the information presented by the employees were objective and is a true representation of what actually taken place during and after the job analysis process.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF JOB ANALYSIS
The main advantages of job analysis are:
Provides key job information – The job analysis process provides the consultant/ human resources managers with information on the skills, duties, responsibilities and dangers that are related to a particular job.
Assist in establishing good hiring standards – The human resources manager use the information that is presented during the job analysis process as a benchmark, so as to maintain good hiring practices and standards in the future.
Assist in putting the right employee on the right job – This is one of the major challenge facing managers today. However, with job analysis human resource managers are able to better understand employee needs and align it with the job objectives.
Assist in the performance appraisal/ evaluation process – Human resource managers compare actual performance/ results of employees to those standards set during the job analysis process. This assist managers in evaluating who should be promoted or punished.
Helps in determining the appropriate remuneration package for a particular job – An objective job analysis process helps human resource managers in determining a suitable salary, allowances and fringe benefits that should be given to an employee. The remuneration should be based on the responsibilities and risks associated with that position.
Assist in examining training and development needs of employees – The job analysis exercise provide answers to the following questions:
Who needs training?
When should the training start?
What the training should entails?
What type of training is needed – technical, professional or behavioral?
Who will be responsible for the training?
The main disadvantages of job analysis are:
The consultant/ job analyst may lack the necessary skills to conduct a proper job analysis successfully. As a result, the consultant/ job analyst will need to be trained so as to gather accurate information.
Information is only collected from only one source – For example when job analysis was carried out at the Guyana Oil Company Limited, only the interview method was used to collect information from employees. As a result, the information that is collected may be distorted.
The job analysis process is very expensive and time consuming – For example the Guyana Oil Company Limited spend 20 million dollars on its job analysis process/ exercise last year.
Traits, motives, attitudes and values cannot be directly observed – Employees behave differently in different conditions and these qualities cannot be easily observed. For example, emotional intelligence.
The job analysis process may be tiresome for some employees – This is because there is no predetermined format or questions that will be asked during the interview. As a result, employees will be asked different questions for different jobs.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF JOB DESCRIPTION
The main advantages of job description are:
Define employee’s expectations – For example, before a potential employee apply for a vacant position in an organisation, they will read the duties and responsibilities on the job description advertised. As a result he/ she will be made aware at the beginning of the expected standard of performance that is required in the event they are selected.
Helps in hiring the right employee for the job – A comprehensive and accurate job description will attract the right candidate who can perform the tasks listed. Also it prepares that individual mentally to deal with the likely questions that will be asked during the interview process.
Helps current employees who must work with new recruits to understand the limits within which the new recruits must perform their duties.
Helps managers in aligning employee’s activities to the strategic business objectives of the organisation. The job description will increase the probability that the organisation objectives will be achieved.
The main disadvantages of job description are:
Job descriptions become obsolete quickly in a rapidly changing environment – Job descriptions are up to date when they are created (output from the job analysis process). However, in a rapidly changing business environment, they become out of date quickly. For example, a new production machine that was installed to improve the organisation productivity. The employee’s job descriptions will need to be updated/ changed to reflect the new responsibilities.
Discourages creativity and innovation – The job description contains specific tasks that must be performed by the employee, as a result “the employee is naturally discouraged from deviating from it.” (Haines, 2017). For example if the employee discovered a new and more efficient way of completing a particular task, he/ she will be compelled to use the old method because they are rewarded on the accomplishment of the specific tasks listed in the job description.
No Flexibility – Most job descriptions have specific duties and responsibilities that the worker is expected to perform. However, if a worker finishes his work early and wants to help his colleague in a different assembly line, he will be restricted because his job description does not caters for cross training.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF JOB SPECIFICATION
The main advantages of job specification are:
It highlights all the details necessary to perform the job successfully – It gives perspective candidates the level of qualification (for example, a diploma in human resource management) that is required to perform the job adequately.
Human resource managers can use the job specification as a benchmark, so as to find the best fit candidate for the job.
It helps in the screening and selection of perspective applicants – For example a human resource manager browsing through numerous applications will shortlist only those candidates that fit the criteria in the job specification.
Human resource managers can use the job specification to develop the relevant training programmes, if the employee does not meet the specific requirements in the job specification.
It helps the human resource managers in conducting performance appraisal and granting of promotions to those staff that have excel academically on the job.
The main disadvantages of job specification are:
Job specifications are written statements that will need to be changed regularly in a fast paced environment to reflect “changes in technology, knowledge and skill requirements”. (Assignment Point, 2018).
The creating of the job specification for a particular job is time consuming and tedious.
The job specifications in the job description is a best guess of what is required by the person who created it. However, no manager cannot specify with certainty, the perfect qualifications, the skills or experience that is needed to perform a job effectively.
CHALLENGES FACING BY THE GUYANA OIL COMPANY LIMITED
Some of the major challenges (HR) facing the Guyana Oil Company Limited are:
There is political interference in the management and daily operations of the company. This is despite the company is govern by its own board of directors. This is largely due because the government owns 100 percent of the shares in the company and some government officials use their position to meddle in the daily affairs of the company. According to a former human resource manager of the company, “one particular director will go around to service stations and gossip with junior staff about managers. She would also make it very clear that she is a politician, and she has connections with the ‘big ones’.” (Kendall, 2018).
The company have been operating without a chief executive officer for the past two years – the previous chief executive officer was fired after a new government was formed in 2015. In addition, there have been three acting chief executive officers during this period. It begs to ask the question, is it there is no qualified and competent individual to fill the position, there is bias in the selection process or the company simply cannot attract the right candidate.
Nepotism – A position was created as Corporate Services Manager and a “functioning board member was interviewed by her colleagues of the board and was offered that position”. (Kendall, 2018). This is a clear conflict of interest and transparency issue here. In addition, the job description for the said position requires a post graduate management degree or a master’s degree. However, the position was filled by the director who holds a first degree in economics.
High turnover – According to the company management accountant, the current staff turnover rate is unknown. However, in 2016 it was twenty (20) percent. According to Ronley Kendall (a former human resource manager of GUYOIL), “at least five (5) senior managers have resigned from their position within the past year (August 2017 to present)”. (Kendall, 2018). This gives a clear picture that there is definitely some critical human resource issues with the company that needs to be fixed urgently.
Some promotions are not aligned to the requirements set out in the job descriptions and linked to the company objectives. According to Ronley Kendall, “there are at least five (5) officers who are acting in senior managerial positions who does not have the relevant academic qualifications or experience as outlined in the job descriptions”. (Kendall, 2018). This is a clear indication that the job descriptions criteria for filling these position was not adhered to. As a result, these employees are promoted above their level of competence. It begs to ask the question if the multi-million dollar job analysis exercise was a waste of time and money.
Cyber-crime/ hacking – Only recently (June 2016) the company finance manager was forced to resigned because she transferred US$230,000 to a bank account of a supplier (CASTROL), but the amount was never deposited in to that account, instead it went into a hacker bank account. This is clearly not the finance manager fault but she was forced to part ways with the company over something she has no control over.
Favoritism and Discrimination – In April 2018, the marketing and sales manager of Guyoil was relieved of his duties by the board. This is despite having an excellent performance evaluation for the year 2017. Further, during his tenure he has overseen the growth of the market share by 40 percent (in the company aviation business) when compared to the previous year. This is clear situation of favoritism and discrimination because the manager was fired despite having a sound performance record.
HOW TO IMPROVED JOB ANALYSIS, JOB DESCRIPTION AND JOB SPECIFICATION TO STRATEGICALLY ALIGN TO
THE GUYANA OIL COMPANY LIMITED
The main objectives of conducting job analysis is to gather information so as to create the job description and job specification for a specific job. This document (job description and job specification) will then be used by the human resource manager along with other departmental/ functional managers to align employees’ goals to the organizational goals so as to achieve the strategic business objectives of the company.
Based on the information that was collected and presented above, there appears to be some mismatches between employees and their jobs. However, to align the employee’s goals to the organizational goals, the company’s board of directors need to act in a professional and objective manner. The board need to review each job descriptions for all the managerial positions in the company and ensure that only those candidates who meet the requirements as set out in the job description are selected for those positions. This can be done by talking to those managers (or staff who were promoted/ the management team) and explain to them their role and responsibilities (Job description) and how their performance will help in achieving their individual goals, their department goals and the overall organizational goals. In addition, those managers who do not possess the required qualifications and personal qualities (job specifications) should be encouraged to pursue further studies so as to fit into the criteria as set out in the job description.
The board should offered incentives to those managers who need to upgrade their qualifications so as to encourage them to pursue further studies. The company can offered incentives such as full refund of the cost of the courses those employees undertake as long as the managers maintain or achieve an above average grade. Also, the board should indicate to the managers what specific area to pursue further studies. Further, the relevant training programmes should arranged so as to enable managers to perform their jobs adequately. Moreover, as these semi-skilled managers become skilled by way of training or upgrade of their qualifications, their remuneration package should also be reviewed and each managers be rewarded accordingly. A similar approach should be adopted by the human resource manager and implemented at the lower level of the organisation hierarchy. Most importantly, after every training programme/ academic courses are completed, there should be an evaluation done so as to determine the level of success or failure. If an evaluation is not done the training/ educational enhancement will be of no value to the organisation.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT INVENTION, VOLUME 4 ISSUE 10, OCTOBER 2015
Journal # 1 Title: Effects of Job Analysis on Personnel Innovation
Author: Anas Ghazi Alam Ediem (Higher Institute of Business Administration, Syria)
The study examined the degree to which job analysis is being implemented in Syrian companies and the impacts it has on those organisations and their employee’s. According to the study, job analysis plays a very important role in aiding employee growth and development. This is a true statement because when job analysis was carried out at the Guyana Oil Company Limited, some staff were promoted and while others were given salary increases. Further, the study revealed that there is a shortage of human resource experts and as a result, most Syrian companies only carry out basic job analysis. This situation is similar to Guyoil, in that, the company had to hire a consultant (expert) to carry out its job analysis. On the other hand, it’s in contrast to Syria’s because no recent job analysis was carried out at Guyoil prior to 2016. Also, the study shows job description and job specification as direct outputs of the job analysis process. In addition, the author went on to state that these outputs have a significant effect on HR activities such as “selection, job evaluation, compensation and benefits, productivity, training and development”. (Edien, 2015). Thus, this view is consistent with those expressed by the management accountant of Guyoil. Moreover, Edien (2015) recommends that “to increase performance, job analysis must be tied into the business strategy of the organisation so that the objectives for integrating job analysis schemes in organisations could be achieved”. It is unclear up to the date of conducting this research whether Guyoil job objectives are fully aligned to the company strategic business objectives.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ACADEMIC RESEARCH IN ACCOUNTING, FINANCE AND MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, VOLUME 3, NO. 1, JANUARY 2013
Journal # 2 Title: Competency Based Job Analysis
Authors: Naveed Saif, Muh Saqib Khan, Khalid Rehman, Shafiq ur Rehman, Zia Ur Rehman, Tufail Nawa and Muh Naqeeb.
The main purpose of the research is to assess the “relationship between skills, attitudes and job analysis” at the Bank of Khyber, Pakistan. (Saif et al., 2013). The questionnaire method was used for collecting data from sixty employees at the Bank of Khyber (Head Office). The outcomes of the study indicates that knowledge, skills and performance were strongly linked to job analysis. This means that these three variables (knowledge, skills and performance) are very important when conducting competency based job analysis. This view is consistent with those expressed by Raj Kumar (Fixed Asset Officer at Guyoil). However, results also revealed that attitudes were not directly related to job analysis. There was no information available from the Guyoil staff who were interviewed to confirm or deny this claim. In addition, the authors of the journal made recommendations to improve the relationship between knowledge, skills, attitudes, performance and job analysis. These recommendations includes training staff to improve their motivation so as to boost organizational commitment. Further, the authors emphasized the need to evaluate staff performance and suggests that the organisation can use these variables as key performance indicators (KPI). These recommendations are similar to the outcomes and changes that Guyoil went through after the job analysis exercise was completed.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, 29TH SEPTEMBER 2015, VOLUME 41, NO. 1
Journal # 3 Title: Job Description and Job Specification: A Study of Selected Organizations in Sri Lanka
Authors: Dr. T. Mangaleswaran and Mrs. Kirthiga KirushanthanThe study focused on examining eighteen (18) Sri Lankan organisations to determine how they practiced and maintained job descriptions and job specifications. In addition, the study seeks to investigate what are the contents that make up these job descriptions and job specifications. The authors used both primary and secondary methods to collect data. Primary data was obtained by conducting interviews with the organisations proprietors/ human resource managers and the secondary data was collected from the organisations job descriptions and specifications. This same technique was used by the consultant during the job analysis process that was carried out at Guyoil in 2016-2017. The article revealed that job descriptions and job specifications are practiced and used at different levels of the organisations hierarchy. More specifically the use of job descriptions and job specifications depends on the nature of the organizations business. A similar situation existed at Guyoil prior to 2016. The contents that make up these job descriptions and job specifications in Sri Lankan organisations are similar to those used by the Guyana Oil Company Limited.
Ahmed, E. (2018). Chapter 5 – Job Analysis, Job Design and Quality of Work Life. Managing Human Resources (4th Edition), Class Notes, HRM 801, Trimester 2, FNU.
Juneja, P. (2018). Job Analysis – Job Description and Job Specification. online Managementstudyguide.com. Available at: https://www.managementstudyguide.com/job-analysis.htm Accessed 7 Jul. 2018.
Topdifferences.com. (2018). Difference between Job Description and Job Specification. online Available at: http://topdifferences.com/difference-between-job-description-and-job-specification/ Accessed 7 Jul. 2018.
Guyoil.gy. (2018). online Available at: http://guyoil.gy/?page_id=924 Accessed 8 Jul. 2018.
Guyoil.gy. (2018). online Available at: http://guyoil.gy/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Corporate-Legal-Assistant.pdf Accessed 8 Jul. 2018.
Opm.gov. (2018). online Available at: https://www.opm.gov/policy-data-oversight/assessment-and-selection/job-analysis/job_analysis_presentation.pdf Accessed 9 Jul. 2018.
Ansary, S. (2012). Advantages and Disadvantages of Job Analysis. online Forum.daffodilvarsity.edu.bd. Available at: http://forum.daffodilvarsity.edu.bd/index.php?topic=7525.0 Accessed 9 Jul. 2018.
Haines, J. (2017). Advantages and Disadvantages of Job Descriptions. online Bizfluent. Available at: https://bizfluent.com/info-8331818-advantages-disadvantages-job-descriptions.html Accessed 9 Jul. 2018.
The Balance Careers. (2018). Everything You Need to Know About Employee Job Descriptions. online Available at: https://www.thebalancecareers.com/job-descriptions-positives-and-negatives-1918556 Accessed 9 Jul. 2018.
Assignment Point. (2018). Advantages and Disadvantages of Job Specification – Assignment Point. online Available at: http://www.assignmentpoint.com/business/human-resource-management/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-job-specification.html Accessed 9 Jul. 2018.
Potawad, K. (2012). Job description and job specification. online Slideshare.net. Available at: https://www.slideshare.net/KalpitaPotawad/job-description-and-job-specification-15298725 Accessed 9 Jul. 2018.
Kendall, R. (2018). Poor governance at Guyoil | Guyana Times. online Guyanatimesgy.com. Available at: https://guyanatimesgy.com/poor-governance-at-guyoil/ Accessed 9 Jul. 2018.
Edien, A. (2015). Effects of Job Analysis on Personnel Innovation. online Ijbmi.org. Available at: http://ijbmi.org/papers/Vol(4)10/B0401009018.pdf Accessed 11 Jul. 2018.
Saif, N., Khan, M., Rehman, K., Rehman, S., Rehman, Z., Nawa, T. and Naqeeb, M. (2013). Competency Based Job Analysis. online Hrmars.com. Available at: http://www.hrmars.com/admin/pics/1450.pdf Accessed 12 Jul. 2018.
Mangaleswaran, D. and Kirushanthan, K. (2015). Job Description and Job Specification: A Study of Selected Organisations in Sri Lanka. online Jitbm.com. Available at: http://jitbm.com/41%20volume/4%20JOB%20DESCRIPTION%20AND%20JOB%20SPECIFICATION.pdf Accessed 13 Jul. 2018.