Evidence for evolution comes from different areas of biology. Anatomy, biogeography DNA, and fossils are among the ways we come up with evidence for evolution. Here I will explain further about the different material that makes up evolution. First DNA which is a genetic code that reflect the ancestry of life. DNA shows how related species are alike. Than we have Biogeography which is the different Species that share similar physical features because the feature was present in a common ancestor homologous structures. (KHAN ACADEMY). last we Fossils the existence of extinct past species that are related to present-day species.
Evolution is a change in the genetic makeup and the features of a population over time. Biologists define two types of evolution, based on, Macroevolution refers to a large scale that occur over extended time periods, such as formation for new species and groups. Microevolution, which refers to small-scale changes that affect just one or a few genes and happen in populations over shorter timescales. They’re the same process and evolution but occurring on different timescales. Micro evolutionary processes occurring over thousands or millions of years add up to large scale change that define new species or groups. If two or more species share a unique physical feature, such as a complex bone structure or a body plan, they may all have inherited this feature from a common ancestor. Physical features shared due to evolutionary history are said to be homologous. (UNDERSTANDING BIOLGY) The limbs of whales, and humans, looks different from naked eye, it’s because they adapted their function in different environments. However, if you look at the bone structure of the limbs, you’ll see the pattern of bones is very similar across species. features like having DNA or carrying out transcription and translation are not so useful for figuring out how related particular organisms are. If we want to determine which organisms in a group are most closely related, we need to use different types of molecular features, such as the nucleotide sequences of genes. (UNDERSTANDING BIOLOGY)
Fossils are the preserved remains of living organisms, dating from the distant past. The fossil record is not, alas, complete or unbroken: most organisms never fossilize, and even the organisms that do fossilize are rarely found by humans. First, fossils are often contained in rocks that build up in layers called strata. (UNDERSTANDING BIOLOGY) The strata provide a sort of timeline, with layers near the top being newer and layers near the bottom being older. Fossils found in different strata at the same site can be ordered by their positions, and “reference” strata with unique features can be used to compare the ages of fossils across locations. In addition, scientists can roughly date fossils using radiometric dating, a process that measures the radioactive decay of certain elements. (KHAN ACADEMY).
It’s a lot of evidence that support the theory of evolution which I explain above. But here are some more and a sum up summary. You have Homologous which provide evidence for common ancestry, then analogous structures show similar selective pressures that are produce similar, can be used to determine species’ relatedness. Biogeographical patterns provide clues about how species are related to each other. To cap it off fossil provides information on what species existed at particular times of Earth’s history.