Surname and initials: Maleka TV
Student number: 2015277771
Lecturer: dr. kr mukuna
1.1″What teachers accomplish in their Profession is a function of the person they are” (Purkey and Stanley, 1991).
Invitational Theory (Purkey, 1978; Purkey & Novak, 1984, 1988, 1996; Purkey & Schmidt, 1987, 1990; Purkey & Siegel, 2013; Novak, Armstrong, & Browne, 2014) seeks to explain phenomena and provide a means of intentionally summoning people to realize their relatively boundless potential in all areas of worthwhile human endeavour.
Its purpose is to address the entire global nature of human existence and opportunity, and to make life a more exciting, satisfying and enriching experience. There are five basic assumptions that are essential in understanding Invitational Theory:
• People are able, valuable, and responsible and should be treated accordingly.
• Educating should be a collaborative, cooperative activity.
• The process is the product in the making.
• People possess untapped potential in all areas of worthwhile human endeavour.
• This potential can best be realized by places, policies, programs, and processes specifically designed to invite development and by people who are intentionally inviting with themselves and others, personally and professionally.
According to Purkey WW and Strahan DB (2002:59-70) the successful teachers learned to use one’s self in healthy and in creative ways and the four corners of invitational teaching can be applied such as:
Being personally inviting with others
As a teacher I will firstly start with personal growth that can be easily to take care of my health. By doing exercise and eating healthy food. Surround myself with people who will make me to grow and help to make the right decision. I will always be presence to another people who might need help, showing them respect building positive relationship with them. As a teacher I will try not to neglect people as the student who feels neglected will not do well in their studies. I will spend my time wisely especially be with a person who makes them to laugh more and enjoy my life.
Being personally inviting with others
Taking in to account the feeling and aspiration of others. Getting to know others by inviting them to church or party. Be involved in groups. Creating a pleasant atmosphere where my presence will always be appreciated by others. Reading extensively. Professional development. Being a lifelong learner so that I can improve my qualification.
Be professionally inviting with oneself
Punctuality always is on time to show that am caring for myself and to those who depend in my profession as they will forward in me. When involved in a conflict try to calm or cool down and not to respond to someone. Before answering listen care full to what u are saying in order not to hurt anyone. Always concentrate on what is important in a content that the student is learning.
Being professionally inviting with others
Have good interaction with others and have qualities of treating people not as groups or labels but individuals. To be honest and able to accept other human being behaviour. Work effectively and cooperatively with others. Always fight against racism and sexism in all the areas of the student.
Robert J.W., 2008.
Lesson planning, punctuality and always prepared
The teacher must come to class every day and be on time. A teacher must be ready for class, have in mind what will be taught for the day and how many hours will be spend for each lesson so that the time cannot be wasted in a necessary things. It is important to consider the resources that will be needed for the lesson and ensure that the class is organised in a way that lesson will go smoothly and effectively. The teachers must set a goal for each lesson of what the student should achieve at the end of the lesson and know how he or will do that.
The trait above is used daily in the classroom. The teacher will use communication when he or she explain/describe the task to the student. When the teacher teaches. When the work is being given in a group discussion student will have to interact with others and sharing thoughts and ideas. Verbal communication sometimes is used when the teacher give feedback to student like smiling to them when they got the right answer. Communicate with the students about their progress where did they go wrong and what should be done rectify the mistakes.
Teachers must praise the student positively and encourage them for what they have done in a class or for working hard when they achieved high levels in their studies. If other learners are not doing well in a classroom teacher must not say bad thing to them but uplift them, telling them that they have ability to achieve good marks as others. And if a teacher is positive he/she will always look for good things in person. Teachers help student act positively towards one another, sharing resources and form successful group.
Bambaeeroo F et al. 2017; 5(2):51-59.
Babonea A and Munteanu A. (2012:24-26)
To communicate the work of learners with their parents at school because some parents will always want to know how their children work at school.
Parents are able to be part of the children learning when they communicate with the educators of their children as they will want to know the progress of their child even a teacher can communicate the progress with their student and ask them how the academic achievement can be improved and giving individuals opportunity to express their thoughts.
Teacher should ensure they treat their body movement with care because changing position/physical location while presenting information convey message to student.
When teachers are moving while representing information the student tend to stop listening and pay attention to the movement of their teacher. A teacher must change those ways she/he was doing as the student won’t listen to them and this will distract the learners.
The thing a teacher can take into account is facial expression because it can make learners to have less confident in their ability like if the teacher after student has got wrong answer and turn to them with frown face they will thought they answers will not be approved and it will discourage those who know the right answers not to answer.
On the other hand eye contact helps teachers to establish rapport with their students because effective eye contact means focusing eye to eye contact with their student in order to build relationship with them and the rapport will help both students and teachers to have ability to understand others feelings and opinions.
According to research positive interaction is essential for a good teacher student relationship which facilitates students’ efficient work and their good academic results.
Teachers should attempt to attract and guide the learner’s attention through non-verbal and verbal communication during teaching.
The teachers challenging of the destruction within learning environment leads to failure in learning.
Teachers’ multifaced relationship with their students through various communication skills, both verbal and non-verbal, leads to maximum efficacy of the educational materials.
During the use of verbal communication for students’ encouragement, the teachers are recommended to use the corresponding non-verbal communication.
The teachers are suggested to pay attention to the students’ attitudes and ask their questions in a way that the learners feel the question is designed for them and participate in the discussions.
The teachers’ non-verbal communication during the students’ speech signifies their acceptability and avoidance of self-centeredness.
Teachers’ attention to the students’ nonverbal action in the classroom, e.g. eye contact, signs of tiredness, etc. are of importance, showing the teachers’ direction with the students’ mental and physical status.
Purkey WW and Strahan DB (2002:102-114)
According to Purkey 2002 there are six key levels of conflict management related to positive classroom discipline which are Concern, Confer, Consult, Confront, Combat and Conciliate.
The situation that Mr Lavender faces is really a problem and he must firstly identify concerns and decide how he will overcome them by taking action toward them. The teacher is concerned about lack of involvement of parents in their students school work, his health, his feeling of losing interest, affectation of his teaching and interpersonal relationship with staff and other members. He need to take action because if not the situation is not going to solve its self and avoid the situation not to causes him personal stress. Another thing he must stick to one issue at a time.
The teacher can ask student what are they want to achieve at the end the year and what they are going to do in order to achieve that. After he can address his concern to students of student who are not interested in their work that the academic achievement of some learners has deteriorated, learners who don’t respect authority, lack of parents involvement in the learners school work, the quality of teaching that affect his relationship with the staff and effect that the situation have on academic and social development. So the whole class will reach agreement if possible.
At this level what is expected d=from the student is clear. The ways of doing things will be changed and students were willing to cooperate. Mr Lavender if they will be still doing the same as previously the concern will take further action.
At this level Mr lavender can go to the leader of department in a school, point out in details what is his concern that they express the situation firstly and student promised to change but they didn’t that why he took further action as he was stated when he address the concern to students. At this stage the teacher must be prepared for any action because the student may rise up things that are not true.
At this level the situation reached a point that demands a resolution. Mr Lavender must be calmed and ensure that he have support from other student of the class.
At this level Mr Lavender must be careful of what they are saying to other and give student opportunity to express their opinions and if the solution has to be reached she must not talk about the situation again and be careful not to hold grudges against anybody.
Tartwijk J (Eds) 2014.
Mr Lavender in the informal time he can try to associate with some of his students. There should be physical space that allows him to interact with his student, asking them what are their interest what do they want to achieve in their life. What do leaners do with their time? He can chat with student during breaks. He can ask them what are they prefer and what they don’t. He can ask them about their family their friends or the people they love in order to know them. On the other hand he must give the learners their own space of doing their things at their time and encourage them to have responsibility on their own action. For those boys who have no interest in their success of their future he must have chat with them and give them advice and tell the boys that are things that will destruct their progress in the future and convince them to work together to overcome those challenges as young man who want to be successful.
In maintaining professional distance
Mr Lavender should be friendly to his student and respect them. He can provide extra support to the student and those who need to be helped with school work they can go to him to seek help so that their studies will be improved. The teacher must be careful of what he talks about with his student. According to Zandvliet D et al (2014:64) meeting student half way is a good metaphor for describing important relational dimensions in everyday school activities and it means creating middle ground without overstepping his professional boundaries.
At this point he should not view student as the only empty vessels that need to be filled with knowledge but demonstrate the value of recognising each other while they interact. As other girls are starting to have relationship with young man and others who are older than them Mr Lavender must be careful to protect the boundaries of teacher and try to avoid having relationship with them in social environments.
Prinsloo IJ (2013: 188-200)
Why the staff of Siyazama Secondary School cannot be considered as successful group.
The staff of Siyazama cannot be considered as a successful group. Some reasons why group is formed is because people who are in groups are social beings and have a need to share the thoughts with others and interact with people. According to Smit and Cronje (1999:307-310) certain characteristics of a group include Norms, Leadership and Cohesion. At the Siyazama School most of the members didn’t practice those traits that’s why there were lots of conflict.
Firstly they did not specify their norms as a group. They didn’t know what is important for themselves as the educators. There was no clarity that as a group what they want to achieve as a whole and what as a team are they going to do to attain their achievement. There was no vision or mission. There was no rules to follow like entry into school promises.
The principal shows no sign of leadership skills. If a person is a leader he or she must motivate his or her staff and give them direction. There is a poor relationship between the educators and principal. Van der Wethuizen91997:191-192) state that the character and personality of the head of school and the other education leaders are very important in teaching. Teachers at the school feel unsupported by their principal and these will hinder them to talk to principal as they will thought the principle don’t care about them. But if the principal behave like that how is he or she going to direct staff. It has been shows that the teachers issue is not taken into accounts that’s why they tend to strike. Its seem there is a shortage of educators that’s why they work is over load. There are classroom who need to be repaired but Principal has done nothing about it.
The principal is the one who is always making the decisions without the consultation of the staff and there is considerable dissatisfaction among the learners and staff because of his approach. The principal has lack of effective communication and these will form team not to focus not be informed with information in time. Teachers will not be able to express their thoughts freely. The communication will always break down. On the other hand principal lack positive interpersonal relationship. If so he won’t be able to work together as a team and be able to combine the skills of different people in order to produce something which cannot be created alone. The group as whole did not have a strength.
Squelch and Lemmer (1994:71-72) state that sharing of common aims and resources and trust are characteristics of successful group. Another aspect that the School did not have is Cohesion as it means the solidarity of the group, the fact that team stand together as a one unit to accomplish a goal. At Siyazama School the staff seem to be divided between those who are committed to their work and those who do the minimum that is required.
The group did not work together as a team to find solution of how they can overcome poor attendance and high dropout rate of learners by encouraging learners and motivating them to come to school. The group did not identify the needs of the learners and find a way of supporting them and work together to meet the minimum needs of the learners. Groups doesn’t have strong leader which is supportive.
The school of Siyazama cannot be considered as the successful team at all.
Prinsloo IJ 2013. Establishing Harmonious relations in School. An educator’s guide to school management skills. Pretoria: Van Schaik, Chapter 13 pp 188-200.
Purkey, W.W. ; Stanley, P.H. 1991. Invitational teaching, learning and living. Washington: NEA Professional Library. Chapter 2
Babonea, A. ; Munteanu, A. 2012. Towards positive interpersonal relationships in the classroom. AFASES, Brasov 24-26. Purkey, W. ; Strahan, D. 2002. Inviting positive classroom discipline. Ohio: NEA Publishers. Chapters 4 and 6
Zandvliet, D., Den Brok, P., Mainhard, T. ; Van Tarwijk, J. eds. 2014. Interpersonal relationships in education: From theory to practice. Rotterdam: Springer. Chapter 5
Robert J.W., 2008. Twelve characteristics of an effective teacher
Have a Sense of Humor Girdle fanny, Snotty. “Using Humor in the Classroom.” Techniques, 2005. 4 pages. Lipman, Larry. “Humor and Fun in Team Building and the Classroom.” Fun Team Building, 2004. 2 pages.
Positive Haynes, Judie. “Creating an Atmosphere of Acceptance,” ;http://www.everythingESL.net;. 1998–2004. 2 pages.
Bambaeeroo F, Shokrpour N. The impact of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching. J Adv Med Educ Prof. 2017; 5(2):51-59. Received: 15 October 2016 Accepted: 5 January 2017