C)

 

 

 

Our project
is the Bahrain World Trade Centre in Manama is a beautiful example of
sustainability meets plan.

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It was
composed with the objectives of utilising renewable power sources as well as
with sustainable design.

While still
on the designing phase, they initially suggested putting solar panels onto the
two towers but then they concluded that the outrageous warmth
climate-conditions of Bahrain made it an unfeasible suggestion. So they decided
to use another option to make the building sustainable. The new idea made it
look even more extreme and futuristic than the idea of putting solar panels.

The idea of the three 29-meter wind turbines that are supported by a 30-meter bridge
traversing between the two towers.

 

The key
point in achieving this was the floor plan. The wing-like towers help to
channel and quicken the breeze speed between them. Besides, the distinction in
the vertical state of the towers should help lessen the weight contrasts
between the bridges, which, when joined with an expanded breeze speed at the
more high levels, ought to give an equivalent speed among the turbines. This
will accommodate a much more noteworthy proficiency in the running of the
generators.

 

 

Environmental Design Principles

 

Sustainability
was the main idea that was incorporated from the starting point. In its plan,
the Bahrain world trade Centre exploits the area to amplify the energy that can
be caught from the ocean breeze. One of a kind to this building, and meeting
people’s high expectations of incorporating sustainable power source
arrangements with manageable engineering, the plan accommodates these three 29m
diameter wind-turbines to be placed horizontally between the two towers.

 

The
research, the dialogues with the turbine makers earlier, the feasibility study
and design stages took months. The technical confirmation incorporated the
consolidation of environmentally responsive outline components such as the wind
examination of turbines execution and also SARM (Safety, Analysis and Risk
Management) examination approval.

 

The
turbines create energy that reaches the amount of 11 and 15 percent of the
total electrical utilisation of the building.

 

As a
result, this innovating achievement was the world’s first combination of
turbines inside a commercial building structure is considered as a triumph.

 

 

 

The Bahrain
world trade Centre building has other environmentally responsive outline
components, which decrease carbon discharges in the atmosphere compared with
most of the structures in the district. That made Bahrain to be recognised as
the leader in the adoption of environmentally responsible practices among the
region.

 

The
environmental aspects of the project create a new way of building with
sustainability and what can be achieve in the future and more generally, the
exhaustion of non-renewable energy sources.

As a result,
Bahrain has built up the first of its kind inside the market, and added to
their capital esteem programs that will be developed around this point of
convergence on Manama’s coast.

 

 

 

Beside the
breeze turbines, it includes various other design features that are of interest
and reduction of carbon discharges when compared with different structures in
the Middle East. Some of those features are:

 

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1. Buffer
spaces between the external environment and air-conditioned spaces to reduce
sol air temperature and reducing conductive solar gain;

2. Deep
gravel roofs in some locations that provide kinetic insulation;

3.

Significant proportion of projectile shading to external glass facades;

4.

Balconies to the sloping elevations with overhangs to provide shading;

5. Where
shading is not provided to glazing, a high quality solar glass is used with low
shading co-efficient to minimise solar gains;

6. Low
leakage, windows;

7.

Enhanced thermal insulation for opaque fabric elements;

8. Dense
concrete core and floor slabs presented to the internal environment in a manner
that will level loads and reduce peak demand with associated reductions in air
and chilled water transport systems;

9. Variable
volume chilled water pumping that will operate with significantly less pump
power at part loads than conventional constant volume pumping;

10. Low
pressure loss distribution for primary air and water transport systems that
reduces fan and pump power requirements;

11. Total
heat energy recovery heat wheels of fresh air intake and exhausts to recover
“coolth” from the vitiated air and recover it to the fresh make up air;

12. Energy
efficient, high efficacy, high frequency fluorescent lighting

13. Dual
drainage systems that segregate foul and waste water and allow grey water
recycling to be added at a later date;

14.

Connection to the district cooling system that will allow an order of magnitude
improvement on carbon emissions since in Bahrain efficient water cooled
chillier are not allowed due to water shortage, whereas the district cooling
solution will involve sea water cooling / heat rejection and much improved
levels of energy conversion efficiency;

15.

Reflection pools at building entrances to provide local evaporative cooling;

16.

Extensive landscaping to reduce site albedo, generate C02 and provide shading
to on grade car parks;

17. Solar
powered road and amenity lighting.

 

 

Economic Background of the Wind-Turbines into buildings Idea
And the Benefit of gaining experience from such project to the world

Atkins
(Architectural engineering company) showed the world that Bahrain is focused on
choices that reduce the demand on fossil fuel reserves products. Bahrain holds
and will move urban and building design in dessert-climates to a whole new
sustainable course. The difficulty of incorporating huge scale wind turbines in
a building structure isn’t to be underestimated, and it is expected after the
completion of such project that the information and experience gathered would
be able to be spread to design groups worldwide.

 

In the same
way as other architects around the globe, the Atkins design team in the Middle
East has considered plan arrangements that fuse sustainability and have
explored the idea of using integrated wind turbines on a few past design ideas.

The wind in the Arabian Gulf with its prevailing ocean wind trademark is
helpful for collecting wind energy.

 

Research by
Atkins has revealed that the usage of wind-turbines into structures most of the
times fails because of the high cost (up to 30% of the project’s value) related
with the adjustment of the building design, and furthermore because of high
development/research work costs for such turbines. From the start this venture
had as its essential premise of design the usage of customary technologies and
the improvement of a building design that would be supportive to getting
wind-turbines. The premium on this project for including the wind-turbines was
under 3% of the project’s value.

 

So with the
advantage of a good/strong wind and a design reasoning that limited turbine
building costs, Atkins, with a group of world driving technologists moved ahead
with the plan and addressed the key issues of :

 

1 Producing
practical solutions

 

2 Balancing
energy yield (advantage with investment)

 

 

More
generally, while achieving such innovating ideas (incorporation of
wind-turbines onto structures) then a lot of things are affected from it.

Socially, people tend to think more about sustainability by seeing the
successful result of the Bahrain World Trade Centre and with that way, a lot
more can be achieved in the following years.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

PARAMETERS
8-14 (12,14 not included)

 

8)

 

Today large
quantities of clean fuels are used in many countries, and there is a prospect
of widespread use of them in the future. The need to use alternative and
renewable fuels for oil and its products has begun to play a very important
role in the developed world. Biofuels, biogas, hydrogen, etc. can replace or
supplement fossil fuels. Biofuels are all solid, liquid and gaseous fuels
derived from biomass (renewable energy source). The most important are
biodiesel produced from vegetable oils and animal fats, bioethanol produced
from sugarcane, cellulose and starchy plants, biogas produced from organic
agro-industrial and other wastes and residues, as well as from energy plants.

Economic,
social and, above all, environmental reasons require the replacement of fossil
fuels, since biofuels contribute to reducing emissions of hazardous pollutants
that have a significant impact on health and are responsible for global climate
change and, in particular, for greenhouse gases.

Biomass
production can contribute to local development, boosting agriculture and
creating new jobs, thus contributing to the development of a sustainable energy
system that ensures at the same time fuel safety, economic efficiency and
environmental protection.

 

Biofuels
generate 90% fewer hydrocarbon emissions and 50% less carbon dioxide emissions,
which is safer for our health. It is non-flammable and non-toxic and safe for
handling and touch.

The
benefits of cooking oils are that they can be mixed with regular oil and can be
operated with any diesel engine. So buildings can use it as a fuel for boilers
or their heaters.

By
converting the food and other organic waste from the building into clean
energy, bio-methanisation creates fertilizer and methane gas. The gas can be
used to supply large gas engines to produce electricity.

90% of the
building will be used to construct the building to avoid pollutants from
conventional fuels, such as power-operated concrete mixers and electric
forklift trucks. The use of hydrogen has been studied is difficult at present.

As is well known, the use of fossil fuels in internal combustion engines leads
to the emission of hazardous pollutants that endanger public health. Nitrogen
oxides, and various volatile organic compounds and increased carbon dioxide
production, are threatening the atmosphere and therefore the use of alternative
energy sources such as hydrogen production seems to be the best solution to
avoid climate change and the greenhouse effect. Hydrogen is theoretically the
best fuel, without any environmental burden, because when it is burned with
oxygen it only forms water. Hydrogen can be used in automotive engines, so
greenhouse gases are not formed during its combustion, as opposed to
conventional pollutants that continually contaminate the atmosphere with
dangerous pollutants for health and the environment. In this way we will achieve
a reduction in air pollutants and noise in the wider area.

 

 

9)

 

Public
Urban Transport is a key pillar in the day-to-day operation of urban areas
around the world. The use of public transport services contributes to the
day-to-day movements of citizens and visitors of a region and leads to the
reduction of urban traffic, which means reducing the number of private vehicles
and consequently congestion.

By aiming
to reduce energy consumption, emissions of air pollutants into the environment
and thus to create better traffic conditions, we contribute to improving
environmental conditions – reducing pollutants and upgrading the quality of
life.

 

Bahrain
World Trade Center is located in the core of Manama’s business region. It
offers direct access to the Bahia’s primary courses, the King’s Faisal Highway.

The central area of the building is only a fifteen moment drive from the
airport which interfacing Bahrain to the world. Of course, near the building,
there are various public urban transports, which are offered to people so that
they can move around the country.

 

A Part of
the Ministry’s procedure is to improve the public transportation division
through provision of high level services to enhance the usage of the public transportation
by adding facilities like terminals and new transport stations to basically
help and enhance the standard and value of the bus-transport service.

 

 

 

10)

 

With the
current data, the car is an integral part of everyday life and development
itself as it is directly linked to the facilitation of travel with public
services and in general with every aspect and activity of the citizens. The use
of a private car leads to crowding out of public space and characterizes the
area by a lack of quality infrastructure for pedestrian and bicycle travel and
environmental degradation.

The ability
to cope and not to use a private car creates urban areas “free of
cars”. The implementation of measures to restrict private cars requires
the promotion of alternative means of transport. Such as extensive pedestrian
zones, an extensive network of city buses and fixed-track means (underground,
tramway) as well as a bicycle path network.

The above
alternative means of transport reduces air pollution from industrial and
transport activities. Secondly, noise pollution is reduced. Sound generated by
the use of motor vehicles is an important source of negative impacts for
network users, pedestrians and residents of the area. And thirdly, jamming and
cost-effectiveness.

 

Unfortunately, in the area of Bahrain world trade
center although there are a lot of public transports, the usage of cars is has
not been reduced much due to the reason that the stations available do not
include (mostly the local people) the destinations that they want to go. On the
other hand, tourists mostly use the public transports as it covers most of
their desirable destinations so slowly the problem may be solved by adding more
and more bus-routes

 

 

 

 

 

11)

 

It is noted
that in many countries, citizens show increased interest and implement innovative
practices to improve quality of life. They aim to promote cycling and walking
as an alternative means of transport. That is, they aim at integrated
interventions targeting cities without a car, a direction towards
sustainability.

Walking and
cycling helps reduce traffic congestion and brings further public health
benefits from reduced car use, thus reducing air pollution, carbon dioxide
emissions, noise and the overall level of traffic risk and at the same time
improves the human traffic system, allowing people to engage in a form of
healthy exercise during everyday life. Finally it causes an increase in the
number of people of all ages who are out on the streets, making public places
look more hospitable and safer, day and night, providing opportunities for
social interaction.

The
measures required to deal with wider walking or cycling influences should be
safe, convenient and enjoyable. This includes measures to reduce road hazards
and redistribute road space, recreation of public space to create a more
favorable environment, flexible transport and taxi systems, bus services,
express services, information and awareness raising. Finally, action in these
areas is particularly important in addressing health inequalities, including
disability-related issues.

 

Bahrain is
a big dusty country. Although people do cycling and walking the country is not
bicycle and walking friendly. Especially during the summer time, daytime is not
a good action no matter how prepared you are due to the reason that the temperature
is dangerously hot.

 

 

12)

 

It is noted
that in most countries, citizens show increased interest and implement
innovative practices to improve the quality of life. They aim to promote
cycling and walking as an alternative means of transport. That is, they aim at
integrated interventions targeting cities without a car, a direction towards
sustainability.

Walking and
cycling helps reduce traffic congestion and brings further public health
benefits from reduced car use, thus reducing air pollution, carbon dioxide
emissions, noise and the overall level of traffic risk and at the same time
improves the human traffic system, allowing people to engage in a form of
healthy exercise during everyday life. Finally it causes an increase in the
number of people of all ages who are out on the streets, making public places
look more hospitable and safer, day and night, providing opportunities for
social interaction.

The
measures required to deal with wider walking or cycling influences should be
safe, convenient and enjoyable. This includes measures to reduce road hazards
and redistribute road space, recreation of public space to create a more
favorable environment, flexible transport and taxi systems, bus services,
express services, information and awareness raising. Finally, action in these
areas is particularly important in addressing health inequalities, including
disability-related issues.

 

 

 

 

13)

 

The
construction sector, which is directly related to the construction of
buildings, homes and infrastructure such as transport, communications, water
supply etc., is a prerequisite for the proper economic and social development
of each country and the achievement of sustainability at a global level.

According
to the European Union, buildings account for 40% of the total energy
consumption, while the sustainability of construction concerns mainly technical
matters, such as the type of local materials and energy saving as well as the
reduction of the overall environmental impact.

The
sustainability of a building must be local and renewable in order to contribute
to the creation of an ecologically responsible world. It must be built using
locally viable materials such as materials that can be used without negative
effects on the environment and produced locally, reducing the need for
transport and transport and, at the same time, emissions of gases into the
atmosphere.

Bahrain’s
nature offers some wonderful building materials, some of which are renewable
resources such as stones and sand. And because these materials require little
processing or transportation, environmental and economic costs are low.

 

Of course
the usage of other materials was used. Below is the list of the building
materials.

 

Concrete

4000cubic
meter

Steel
reinforcement

730
tonnes

Cement

1600
tonnes

Stone
and sand

7400
tonnes

Water

1600
litre

 

 

14)

 

The forest,
as we all know, is trees, shrubs and other plant and animal organisms that,
together with soil and climate, are in constant influence and dependence on
each other. Our forests offer various forest products such as the necessary
wood production, produces significant amounts of biomass, binds energy and
carbon dioxide releasing oxygen and moisture, which affects the microclimate
positively but also the air quality.

It also
offers a variety of operations at a global level, including the control of
water erosion and control, the cultivation of water resources, the limitation
of global warming from CO2 absorption, and the conservation of biodiversity.

Our forests
offer wood for the construction of houses, biomass for fuel, wood, paper pulp,
medicines and many other products. Timber is a renewable, recyclable, natural
resource and a major factor in economic, social and cultural development.

Nevertheless,
it is up to us both to preserve existing forests and sustainable wood, as the
climatic and soil conditions of our country favor the development and expansion
of forests.

Sustainable
timber refers to logs that have been harvested responsibly. This requires that
when a tree is cut for use, another is planted to replace it. However,
“Sustainable forestry” means more than replacing trees such as
harvesting – it also includes ensuring that there is no ecological damage to
the environment or its natural flora and fauna.

The
harvesting of forest products refers to tree dropping, decay, shredding,
peeling, log shifting and firewood transport. Wood products can still be used
effectively even after they have served their purpose. For example, timber can
be reused after building demolition.

 Wood
can also be used as a fuel. In this way, coal is retained until the wood
products used as biomass fuel to produce electricity.