Brief Literature Review on the Development of Sustainable Citywide
Inclusive Urban Sanitation Framework through Effective Partnership amongst the
Actors in the Sanitation Service Chain

The provision of citywide inclusive sanitation
service is by no means an easy feat. There are lots of challenges associated in
delivering the service sustainably due to the plural nature of our cities and
the inhabitants. This review examines how issues such as technical options, poor
inclusion, enabling legal framework (policy), political, socio-cultural, institutional
conditions would be addressed in making service delivery workable and
sustainable. WSP report hinted that sound framework alone cannot achieve
inclusive sanitation but rather coordinated partnership throughout the service
chain which includes households, landlords, civil society, the private sector,
local authorities, utility companies, regulatory agencies, state and national
governments, donor agencies, and academic institutions amongst others (WSP

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Globally, there is disparity in access to
sanitation facilities in urban areas between the rich and the poor especially
in the developing world (WSP 2013; AMCOW 2011). AMCOW 2011 also reports that
more than 80% disparity on access to sanitation between the rich and the poor
and JMP 2012 reports that the poor has 42 % access and the rich has 91% access
in Sub-Saharan Africa. These disparities highlight the need for a comprehensive
approach in addressing urban sanitation challenge to effectively cater for the
need of the poor communities.

A World Bank study shows that due to high
population density, poor sanitation is prevalent in the urban areas than the
rural areas irrespective of the income (Spears 2013).  Many Urban areas in developing
countries have a mixture of on- and off-site sanitation facilities and
services, some provided by householders, some by private developers, and some
by the municipality or utility (Evans et al. 2006). However, low income areas
in urban centres have onsite facilities predominantly with a high population to
facilities ratio and poor maintenance practices, the facilities get dilapidated
quickly resulting in poor sanitation. Also, high population in a small space becomes difficult to provide
adequate onsite sanitation infrastructure (WSP 2013). The resulting self-help
measures usually adopted by the residents result in poorly constructed
facilities with toilets discharging into poorly functioning open
drains blocked with uncollected solid waste, malfunctioning and abandoned
communal toilet facilities inadequate services for managing the faecal sludge
from on-site facilities and the woes compounded by inadequate water supply (Koné
et al. 2007; Schmoll et al. 2006; JMP 2012; GOI 2012).

These bring to fore the need to develop an
effective and sustainable sanitation chain that is poor inclusive and citywide
to properly cater for the sanitation needs of the urban poor communities. Although it may take a while to achieve, developing a system which is supported
by consumer awareness, sustainable financing, and effective decision-making and
service delivery systems is a step in the right direction.


arrangement for sanitation is location specific as it relates to local laws,
policies, etc (Fobil et al. 2008). It
evaluates the rules that have been developed to guide organizational
interactions in economical, social and political environment. There is an
understanding that these rules could impact positively or negatively on policy
reforms (World Bank 2007).

vesting the responsibility in a particular institution has proved to be a
success factor as well as clearly spelt out role of the stakeholders in the
service change (Verspyck and Guene 2012, Colin 2011, WSP 2011). WSP
2013 report opined that improving coordination amongst stakeholders and or
multi-stakeholder partnerships in the service chain proved to be more
successful especially in the slum regions. Examples of such programmes are the
slum networking program “Parivartan” in Ahmedabad, and a
municipality/nongovernmental organization (NGO)/community-based organization
(CBO) partnership in the Mumbai Slum Sanitation Program (WSP 2013).

coordination of the different stakeholders’ role is necessary to ensure success
of the scheme as such establishing a coordination institution becomes a
necessity to forester leadership (WSP 2009). In India for example, NGOs are
efficient in facilitating coordination especially in low income areas which is
dominated by informal private participation (WSP 2009). However, establishing
an independent sector regulator could be another good way of coordinating the
service chain in a citywide scale. An analysis of waste collection performance in Ghana under two different
institutional arrangement of purely public and public-private partnership showed
that the overall performance of the services delivery increased rapidly with
increased private-sector controls under the public-private partnership
system  (Fobil et al. 2008). Also, the long term
sustainability depends on maintaining an enabling environment (Fobil et al. 2008). Social concerns relating to
relationships and interaction amongst different organizational levels as
described in (World Bank 2007) will be analyzed with a view of identifying the
most appropriate approach for such interactions.

Framework (Policy):

Establishment of an enabling environment
through the provision of policy framework is widely held consensus as one of
the basis for successful sanitation intervention. Such frameworks like
Sanitation 21, CLUES, are globally available and emphasises on the users need
and the functionality of the service delivery at city level (WSP 2013). There
are however some examples of programs at national level aimed at establish
enabling environment for urban sanitation such as the Indonesia Sanitation
Sector Development Program (ISSDP) (Colin 2011, GOI 2012), the National Urban
Sanitation Policy (NUSP) and the National Urban Faecal Sludge and Septage
Management (FSSM) of India (FSM4 2017) as well as the National Urban Water
Reform Projects (NUWRP) in Nigeria (NUWRP 2013).

implementing these frameworks depends on the political drivers for
policymaking, resource allocation, and operational decision making (WSP 2013). Implementing these frameworks at
local and city level in the global south is often challenging due to absent and
or near absent of local laws, policies and regulations that ratify this
globally acclaimed frameworks. Thus here is need to incorporate decision makers
at the national, state and municipality, and community levels as strategic
partners in the sanitation service change to facilitate the creating of the
necessary laws and policies to create and enabling environment also to ensure
the successful implementation of the framework. Incidentally decision makers at
local level tend to focus attention in the technical aspects leaving the
enabling environment aspects lacking. Currently, there is a shift from
universal policy reforms to context specific approach (World Bank 2007).  This research would evaluate mainly context
specific reform in relation to pro poor environments and the efficiency of such


Generally to successfully implement a citywide
urban sanitation, both decentralised and centralised systems are adopted
depending on the area. Decentralised, 
most often self-built on-site systems with poor faecal sludge management
are often found in the low income areas and less planned out area while
sewerage or centralised system managed by local government or a utility are
often deployed in the planned out areas with middle to high income earners (WSP
2013). There have been a lot of technological developments in sanitation over
years especially on the user interface, collection and treatment systems.
However, there is little development on the sewer system and pit toilet
constriction over the years (WSP 2013, Jha et al. 2012).

With experience, Sanitation challenges can
mainly be attributed to governance and institutional factors not necessarily
technical (WSP 2014), as such this research will not focus much on technical
analysis a lots has been done on this regards which could be adopted to diverse
scenarios to achieve result. However, different technical options that could be
adopted would be evaluated with interest n decentralized systems.


Political economy enables the analysis of
political readiness of a given state. This analysis is generally grouped into
different levels depending on coverage as; global analysis, country analysis,
sector level analysis and issue specific analysis (Harris and Booth, 2013). For
this research, the different levels would be assessed on select global south
countries with respect to urban sanitation as
outline in Political Economy of Sanitation (WSP, 2011). Political stability and support has
been identified as one of the main factors that work in favour of policy
implementation (Grindle and Thomas, 1989)

is ongoing concern that governments, at many levels, are not devoting enough
attention and resources to sanita­tion services, particularly when compared to
spending on water supply and other infrastructure services. Additionally,
existing sanitation investments and service provision are not always pro-poor.
Many reports suggest that governments’ limited sanitation expenditures are
determined largely by political, rather than technical or economic constraints
in the context of compe­ting demands for resources (World Bank 2007, Satterthwaite
and McGranahan 2006). It is against this background that the Sanitation Global
Prac­tice Team of the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) and the World Bank
commissioned a global study on the political economy of sanitation with case
studies from Brazil, India, Indonesia, and Senegal (WSP 2011).

aspect of the research would focus on current approaches to political economy,
and establish how the social, political, and economic processes and actors
determine the extent and nature of sanitation investment and service provision.
Effects of political stability would also be analysed.


Delivery of effective sanitation to all urban
dwellers requires the whole chain of services, supported by a combination of
domestic, decentralized, or fully networked infrastructure.

This, in turn, requires an appropriate enabling
environment that can engage the many stakeholders involved, from communities to
national governments, to drive change and secure sustainable financing for
services provided through both the market and the public sector, reinforced by
clearly defined accountability mechanisms.

To achieve a citywide urban sanitation, the
approach must be holistic with high level of private participation and enabling
environment created by putting in place appropriate policies and enforcement by
relevant institutions to ensure compliance by the service chain actors and
overall sustainability of the system. Thus, sustainability entails the view of
sanitation as a service provision rather than infrastructure provision.


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