Before, the Indian army was well disciplined, equipped and trained to mainly protect their own government. The indoctrination from British made the Indian army to be more adhere and more fit to be called as a soldier, started in 1914 – 1919 where the British government used Indian army to become a combat role during First World War and the Second World War as well. After the independence, India faced many challenges especially in their neighboring country Pakistan and China where both countries support each other for the development of missiles and nuclear arsenal. This made India feel insecure in their defense development. To meet this challenges, India’s military is being modernized. In order to show these trends, India has to secure the six key domains of warfare: land, sea, air, nuclear weapon, outer space, and cyberspace.
Firstly, the land modernization. India seeks to modernize the land capacity through the substantial assets of advanced technology and reorganize the Army units. In terms of military technology, India is modernizing for both its mechanized and infantry capacities. A total of 330 T-90s main battle tanks (MBT’s) imported from Russia, and an additional 347 T-90S’ to be constructed in India and it will under the command of two regiments of Arjun MBT. F-INSAS ( Future Infantry Soldier as a System) is a project developed by India’s military which is to seek an improvement in communication, lethality, survivability and situational awareness of the infantry. The way to achieve the objective is by developing and procuring modern rifles that is reliable in any conditions and also increase their technology such as bulletproof and waterproof jacket to protect their infantry. India faced certain instantaneously threats with India’s borders, this made them have a reasonable proposal to create “Mountain Strike Corps” which expected to be ready and fully functional. About 40,000 troops to be posted along the Line of Actual Control adjacent to disputed territories held by China. About 20%-25% expenditure of total expenditure goes to salary, allowances, fuel, ammunition and maintenance costs. Thus budget allocation for land modernization was not as what they are expected, where many of the projects were delayed due to over budget.
As for India’s Navy, they wanted to have an extensive modernization especially to increase their quantity in modern vessels. The Navy chief Admiral Sureesh Mehta stated that by 2020, India will have an increase in aircraft carriers, submarines, destroyer, and frigates. In comparing from the year 2000 to 2015, no drastic changes in the navy modernizing where only a few numbers increasing in their frigates, destroyers, and Corvette. From here, it shows that India’s military modernization is more on qualitative in nature than quantitive; the Navy replaced the old vessel with high technology and modern ones. An evidence shows on the numbers of missile cells of a ship in 2011, a total of 402 cells added from 21 missile cells in 1991. India’s Navy has strong ties with Russian Navy wherein 2014, INS Vikramaditya (aircraft carrier) a nuclear-powered carrier bought from the Russian Navy and other two more that is domestically produced to be commissioned in 2018 and 2025. India faced logistical constraints and outdated hardware issues during the modernization of India’s Navy. In logistics, a slow process in vessel constructions because of Indian shipyards was only able to produce one vessel a year. In terms of hardware, almost half of the vessels were not fully operational because of the outdated system for example like INS Sindhurakshak sinking in Mumbai dockyard after an onboard explosion. Hence, this shows that India’s Navy did not go as planned and also low expenditure caused to the production to be slow.