An estimated 1,500,000 Algerians died for
independence, according to Algerian historians (“Algeria”).
Colonization of Algeria by France began in 1834, even though local tribes
resisted the French annexation. In Algeria, the European minority formed a
privileged elite and forced an economy similar to France’s on the Algerians. On
Novermber 1, 1954, the Fronte de Liberation Nationale (FLN) started the war
against France for independence and in retaliation, a French army of 500,000
troops were sent to Algeria to combat rebels. Algeria used guerilla tactics,
while the French military used torture and execution on hundreds of Algerians.
On March 18, the Evian Accords were signed and the war ended. Algeria became
fully independent on July 5, 1962. Consequently, through the Algerian War of
Independence, Algeria was able to gain independence by using guerilla warfare
strategies and foreign negotiations, which resulted in new policies and
behaviors of Algerians.

Algeria longed for
independence from France and acted upon by starting the Algerian War of
Independence. For example, the movement for independence began during WWI and
gained momentum after French promises of greater self-rule in Algeria were
unfulfilled after WWII (“Algerian War”). Algeria had assisted France in both
World Wars. The Muslim population didn’t have political rights like the French
did and had many restrictions. Additionally, the FLN’s principal objective was
the liberations of Algeria, but also a sovereign state based on Islam
(Feraoun). It pledged to respect Algeria’s basic liberties without distinction
of race or religion. The FLN was a socialist political party organization that
led in the movement for independence.

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         Algeria
was able to gain independence by utilizing guerilla strategies against the
French. The FLN divided Algeria into 6 zones and a guerilla commander led each
zone in 1956 (“Algeria”). Guerilla warfare includes the use of hit-and-run
tactics, raids, ambushes, and sabotage by small, mobile groups to fight a more
traditional army. Algerian geography is especially well suited to guerilla
warfare. The nation had a vast and carried terrain, from mountain summits to
lush valleys that provide great hiding spots for attacks. In addition, “The
most serious fighting occurred in/around Algiers, where FLN fighters launched a
series of violent urban attacks know as the Battle of Algiers” (“France in
Algeria”). The Battle of Algiers lasted from 1956-1957 and began with terrorist
attacks launched by the FLN. The French army had a lack of knowledge of
Algerian territory, giving Algerians an advantage in where to attack and where
to hide.

         Foreign
negotiations were curcial for Algeria to gain independence from France. In May
1958, a typical settler uprising called for Charles de Gualle to return to
power (“Algeria”). Charles de Gualle was the head of the French government
during the 1945 repression of Algeria, retired, but continued to negotiate with
the Algerian government. He granted Muslims full rights of French citizenship
and declared Algerians had the right to determine their future in front of the
United Nations. On March 18, the Evian Accords were signed and cease-fire was
declared (Feraoun). The Evian Accords consisted of 93 pages of detailed
agreements about Algeria’s independence and was signed by France and the
Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic. On July 5, 1962 Algeria was
recognized as fully independent by the United Nations, following the successful
negotiations with the French.