The crop losses during the
process of harvesting threshing transportation and storage of food grains are
quit considerable. There are two type of factor biotic and abiotic which cause
the losses during harvesting examples biotic birds, abiotic rain, time to
harvest, machine age, forward speed of harvester . The main objective of the
present study is to determine the losses by comparing the seed samples
collected from the field at different places per meter square after harvesting with
the stored seed samples of the same varieties for this purposes 15 seed samples
are collected from 5 varieties of wheat by collecting 3 samples from each
variety. These samples were taken from different sites, 1st sample was
collected from harvested area, 2nd was taken from the clean area, 3rd
was taken from the empty tank area. Then we will compare these samples with
each other on the basis of different parameters i.e number of grains, seed
weight, seed volume, seed length and width. These comparisons will be done to
find the maximum and minimum loss during harvesting.

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Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in one
of the major crops used for edible pupose in the world. Wheat is valueable
cereal cultivated in the different parts of world (Carvalho, et al. 2013) along with other cereal
such as rice, maiz, oat, millet, barley, sorghum and burkwheat. There are many
uses of wheat and its by product such as chapatti in asian countries. Wheat
bran have high amount of antioxidents. Wheat crop is important beacause it
contribute 20 percent in world’s food calories. The food  which we can get from wheat are bread, pasta,
muffins and cakes etc ( Ishfaq, et al.

Wheat is the widely grown crop
all over the world and it covers a significant area than all other cereal crops
on earth. It is the third largest cereal crop than maize and rice based on its
three year average beside the fact that it covers more space of land than all
other cereals. People’s life is significantly changed by domestication of
grains and development of agricultural life styles, which also encourages
permanent settlements, trade and the development of civilization. More
productive crops and a larger grains are produced as a result of wheat
domestication which required continued intervention of farmers that were
intentionally trying to plant it and could not have survived in the world.
(Wroot et al. 2001)

Though the wheat is considered as
a first grain to be domesticated but wheat cultivation started in the middle
east 9-11,000 years ago in the most fertile area of middle east and as a a
result modern wheat varieties were developed. It is usually considered that the
Neolithic period is identified by domestication of animals and cereal crops.
After this period farming was most developed and it continued till the
development of metal tools. The expanding geographical range of farming
resulted in bread wheat that became a staple food from England to China by the
4000 BC. Rice hold a significant value in the east Asian culture, where wheat
was considered as a nutritional food for cultures in all over the Europe,
Middle east and Asia (Wroot, S., Pinkersgall, D., and “Oz” et al. 2001). 

In Mexico wheat was introduced in
1520 by the spinards, and in 1600’s to the early American colonists. It was not
popular in new England at that time due to its soil and climate, but wheat was
grown for edible purpose to some extant and was introduced by migrating Europeans
and agriculture scientists.  In the
mid  1800’s, this area was later called
as “Wheat Belt”.1830’s was  an era of
great development regarding farming because in this era reaping and thrashing machines
were developed and as a result they increased productivity of crops during
harvesting. Steam engine was developed in 1880’s and early heat combustion
engine was developed in 1920’s, both increased the farmer productivity during planting
and harvesting. As a result of improvement wheat fields became larger. Wheat is
grown all over the world as a staple food for human beings and livestock but a
less amount of wheat  is also used a
source of animal feed. Wheat is usually grown for the production of whisky and
beer and husk can be grounded and used as bran. Wheat was a principle source of
starch for the sizing of cloth and paper before the introduction of corn in
Europe. (Oz et al,.
2001) , (Beuerlein, j et al. 2001).

Starchy kernels (less gluten) are
present in soft wheat varieties which mill easier than the hard wheat. For
French bread, Piecrust, breakfast food and biscuit soft wheat flour is usually
preferred and used. Cake, flour and bread 
are usually prepared by hard wheat that has high protein and gluten
levels than the softer ones. Durum is the hardest wheat and its flour is used
in manufacturing of pasta products, spaghetii and macroni. Soft wheats and
white wheats have high prices in the market because they don’t need any beaching
because of their natural color. (Beuerlein, j et al. 2001)

These are the
major wheat classes:

Hard Wheat:

red winter wheat:
It contains high protein content and mostly used for breads and flours, and
also as an addition to increase protein content in other flours. It accounts
for more than 40% of the U.S. wheat production and half of wheat exports of

wheat: It’s spring
wheat and may be either white or red wheat. Among all other types of wheat in
the U.S. it is the hardest. This type contains high protein as well as high
gluten content, and it is used to make the semolina flour which is used for making
pasta products and Mediterranean breads.

red spring wheat:
It contains the highest protein content, and is used to make different breads,
flour, flour blends and hard baked goods.

white wheat: It
contains medium protein content which is related to red wheat but not for
color, related in baking and milling qualities. Due to its sweeter flavor, it is
used in hard rolls, noodles, yeast breads, and also used in brewing. Wheat types
grown in the U.S. it is the latest class
(Beuerlein, j et al. 2001)

Soft Wheat:

red winter: Wheat
is low to medium protein wheat, and is used for blending and making breads. It
is used to make bakery products like flat breads, donuts, cakes and cookies

white wheat: It
contains the low protein content. But to growers this type of wheat gives good
yield. It provides a whiter product for high quality bakery products other than
breads, and it is well-matched for flatbreads in Middle Eastern.
(Oz et al,. 2001) , (Beuerlein, j et al. 2001)

that affects seed quality of post and pre-harvest seed:

Rain fall prior to harvest can
cause the pre- harvest germination. It could also cause the attack of fungal
attack (Fungi Cladosporium ) . Earlier harvesting having lot of moisture and immature
seed develop micoflora in the seed lot. Seed quality is lost due to mechanical
damage occurs in the process of dressing, cleaning, chemicals and at the time
of treatment and transportation. Ideal moisture for wheat harvesting is 12%.The
correct amount of doses and chemicals should be applied when treating with
fungicides and insecticides. Otherwise seed may show phyto-toxicity symptoms.

Review of

Sattar et al. (2015) studied that during
2010-11 at Adaptive Research Form Vehari, different harvesting and threshing
techniques affected grain losses in wheat. There are different methods from
which 3 are mainly used which are following (1) Manual & Thresher (2)
Rapper & Thresher (3) Combine harvester. These techniques had different
impacts on grain losses.164.37kg/hectare grain losses are accurately manual +
thresher and which were about 3.16% and 142.93kg/hectare occurred by reaper +
thresher which were about 2.76%. 
222.63/hectare, 199.4kg/hectare, 149.8kg/hectare, grain losses of wheat
occurred by harvesting and threshing process with manual + thresher, reaper +
thresher and combine harvest respectively and 4.28 %, 3.9 % and 2.9 %
respectively. Experiment showed that minimum loss occur by reaper + thresher
which were about (0.82%) by providing 42.9kg/hectare inert grain in the
produce. The cleaning efficiency of other harvesting and threshing techniques
were better than combiner techniques.

Agha and Siddiqui (2004) reported
that grain losses also affected by threshing timing. At the time of observation
dates meteorological characteristics were different. Collected data also showed
that grain losses also affected by threshing timing, grain losses increased
with late and also increased with early threshing. During middle of the day
there were minimum losses observed. By doing comparison of loss types show that
maximum losses were un-threshed following by unbroken grain losses.

Ibupoto et al. (1991) conducted an experiment to evaluate field grain
losses in wheat variety Sarsabz that were harvested, threshed and winnowed by
conventional method at Malir farm. Data from 30 samples showed that for
traditional methods average grain losses during pre-harvest, the harvest and
post-harvest stages were 10.8, 29 and 122.9 kg/ha respectively. They observed
that post-harvest grain losses were the highest. Among the post-harvest grain
losses bundling losses were maximum (1.41%) followed by threshing (1.02%),
winnowing (0.66%) and transport (0.12%).

Zaman et al. (1992) Monitor the harvesting losses by using 2 combine
harvester as well as 3 forward speed levels and with the help of these harvest
2 wheat varieties which had three different grain moisture levels (13% 26% 20%)
. Results showed that performance of Pak 81 was better than Punjab 85 in case
of losses during harvesting. In Punjab 85 grain damage was minor and also separation
losses were reduced when moisture level was lower but quality as well as shattering
losses increased.

Kumar et al,. (2017) investigated that at the time of crop harvest, standing
crop got damage due to occurrence of different storms and rain. Early
harvesting of crop produced many days for the good preparation of cultivated
land and for next crops gave proper time for sowing. By using different types
of harvesting machine crop harvesting at proper time and at proper maturity
stage can be done. After proper maturity stage, crop harvesting with machines
reduced grain as well as straw losses. There are several methods for harvesting
and threshing of wheat crop. Which are manual and mechanical methods. Under this
comparative study, the effective field capacity at 16 % moisture content was
0.30 ha/hr at speed of 3 km/hr. The field efficiency of self-propelled binder
was 74, 76.79 %, and 77.90 % at moisture content 20, 18, 16 % respectively. The
shattering losses of self-propelled reaper binder was 51 kg/ha at 3 km/hr
forward speed with 20 % moisture content and observed that increase forward
speed shattering losses was increase. The grain breakage percentage during
experiment of combine harvest at 3.25 km/hr speed with 20 % moisture content
was 0.06 % and observed that grain breakage percentage was increase with
forward speed and moisture content. The un-threshed grain percentage was 0.66 %
at 3.25 km/hr at 20 % level moisture content. The total grain loss was 1.7 % at
4.05 km/hr forward speed at 20 % moisture content.

Shamabadi (2012) observed that
most part of wheat that produced in Pakistan wasted at each stage of wheat
production. But at harvesting stage is very important stage where maximum wheat
losses occurred. The first step in planning for waste reduction wheat harvest
estimate the amount of losses and factors are identified. In this study
collective wheat harvesting in shahrood observed, for this purpose 8 different
types of combiners were selected and examined. 16.1% wheat losses were observed
in 3 samples. This loss of wheat was beyond the range of acceptation. 6.88 %
wheat loss was average from all combine harvesters. The result of study showed
that delaying in wheat harvesting and use of improper combiners were the main
causes of wheat losses.

Mirasi et al. (2014) investigated wheat losses during pre-harvest and
harvest stages in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province of Iran in year 2013. Wheat
losses at harvest stages were measured to wheat varieties in 2 levels of Omid
and Alvand were chosen and Combine types in 2 levels: JD 955 and JD 1165 while
were chosen. The data analyzed using and means were compared using SAS
Software’s and Duncan’s Multiple Range Tests were. The results showed that
higher amount of losses were in the Omid variety and JD 955 with totally 6.83 %
(307.4 kg ha-1) that 10.5 % of them attributed on the cleaning, 34 % on Header,
16.5 % on Drum, 21 % on impurity and 18% broken grain losses. The lowest losses
related to JD 1165 and Alvand variety wit h 3.97 % (178.66 kg ha-1) that 10 %
of them attributed on the cleaning, 38 % on Header, 13 % on Drum , 22 % on
impurity and 17% broken grain losses. Also, average losses amount in
pre-harvest was in all over fields the study 24.5 kg ha-1 that 9.8 % of total
losses represent the measured total losses Alvand 20.5 kg ha-1 3and the variety
of Omid 28.5 kg ha-1 respectively.

Bartholomeu et al. (2016) observed that losses during transportation in the
domestic market account for about 11.8% of the total amount of wheat grain that
leaves the farms. Losses during harvest and storage in cooperatives, which
account for 93.2% of total losses, stand out in this context. Transportation
operations account for 6.8% of total losses in the analyzed flow. Based on the
results obtained in this study, strategies are suggested to reduce food losses
in different links of the logistics chain, such as to evidence and quantify the
wheat losses to manage losses and set reduction targets and to give attention
to transportation service levels.

Losses of crops at the time of
harvesting, threshing, transportation and storage of food grains are needed to
be reduced. The present study has projected in Ludhiana and Ferozepur districts
of Punjab, estimated the losses occurring during post- harvest time from the
field of 120 farmers having different size of wheat growing fields. The study
has observed that harvesting losses were more for the late harvested crop due
to shattering of the grains, while losses during transportation, handling and
rodents attack in the case of stored grains have been found insignificant. Currently
1.84% the post-harvest losses have been observed as compared to 9.3 per cent
during 1971 and 3.71-3.85 per cent in 1992. Thus, post harvested losses in
wheat reduced by proper management at post-harvest time. The study has forced
on proper time harvesting of wheat crop and losses can be reduced by creating
awareness in people by arranging different types of seminar and workshops to
control insect losses of stored grains

Material and

of Wheat Grains / m2:

 To count the numbers of shattered grains are
collected from different experimental areas from field of PAROKA Farm at
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, these samples were collected in per
meter square of different varieties of wheat at experimental site. These will
be counted by simple counting method / by hand.


We will count the stubbles
remains in per meter square area after the harvesting of wheat from the
specific areas where we will collect the samples (PAROKA, UAF)

of seed weight:

After seeding the shattered wheat
grains we will put the require stock into weighing machine for calculate the
weight, Example one grain weight (g/1000 seeds).1000 grains = 35 grams if
single grains weight is 35mg.

of Seed:

Different grains samples True
density is found  by dividing the weight
(or mass) of the 35.00 ± 0.05 g by using the pycnometer volume (displacement)
of the same grains sample, and is reported in grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3).
Typically range of true densities is from 1.24 to 1.39 g/cm3 and
moistures of about 12 to 15%.

Length and width:

We will measured the length of
wheat grains and the width of grains by the using the Vernier Caliper. Length
and width of 10 seeds will be measured per sample.

of seed:

For this purpose we will took
samples of the same varieties from the stored seed which is harvested and
stored then we will compare these with the samples collected from the field from
PROKA. This comparison is will be done to find the seed shape, seed color and
seed length and width.


 For the comparison of spike the spikes will be
compared on the basis of spike shape, length and color.


 For this study of seed viability these two
experiments will be conducted, 1st one on the sand, we will sow the
seeds on fine sand and give proper environment, 2nd experiment will
be done by using towel paper method. The seeds will germinate and on basis of
germinated seeds we will be able to calculate the seed viability.


 For this purpose wheat plant height will be
simply measured with the use of meter rod/scale from the different wheat
varieties at the site (PAROKA). The
height will be measured in cm.