A Study of English Writing Problems Faced by Students of Public Sector Schools at Elementary Level in Punjab
Naveed Ahmad Taseer
Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of
the requirements for degree of
MASTER OF PHILOSOPHY
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LINGUISTIC
UNIVERSITY OF SARGHODA (LAHORE CAMPUS)
The work reported in the thesis was carried out by me under the supervision of Professor Madam Shumaila Ashraf.
I hear by declare “A Study of English Writing Problems Faced by Students of Public Sector Schools at Elementary Level in Punjab” and the content of thesis is the product of my own research, and no part has been copied from any already published document (except the references standard mathematical formulas etc.) I further assure that this work has not been submitted for getting any other degree/diploma. The university may take action if the information provided is found inaccurate at any stage.
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I certified that the contents and form of thesis submitted by Naveed Ahmad Taseer, Registration No. 13-US-L-Eng-86 has been found satisfactory and in accordance with the prescribed format. I recommended it to be processed for the evaluation by the External Examiner for the award of degree.
Name: Prof. Shumaila Ashraf.
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Institute of English and Modern Languages
Name: Prof. Shumaila Ashraf
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All praise is due to ALLAH, the lord of the worlds, beneficent, merciful and to his Prophet Muhammad (SAAW) whose blessings made this venture successful.
I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my advisor, Professor Shumaila Ashraf, without whose patient, direct, and exacting criticism, valuable guidance, scholarly inputs, unconditional support and consistent encouragement this dissertation could not have been completed.
Gratitude also goes to Prof. Dr. Muhammad ShahbazArif, Doctor Muhammad Akbar and all faculty members for their co-operation and providing a supportive academic environment for this research.
I am thankful to all ELLs and ELTs of public elementary schools in district Okara who cooperated and filled the questionnaires. This thesis would not have been possible without the help and support of Ghulam Ahmad Akash (DEO Literacy Division Rawalpindi) who always encourages me to achieve my goal. I would like to thank Professor Kamran AbasIsmaeel, Aziz Nizami (PhD Scholar) , Dr. Muhammad Asghar (M.Phil Scholar) and Muhammad IrfanAshiq(Lecturer in Education) who as good friendand teacher always willing to help and give his best suggestions. Many thanks to Mr. Imtiaz Ahmad, MuhammadYounis, Umar Farooq and Muhammad Sajaadfor helping me in collection of data from the field. My research would not have been possible without their help.
Finally, I am grateful to my parents for their prayers and support; they provide a carefree environment for me, so that I can concentrate on my study. I would also like to thank my brother, Muhammad Ahmad Rehmani (SST Science), who isa beacon light for me. He was always supporting and encouraging me with his best wishes, for which my mere expression of thanks likewise does not suffice.
Naveed Ahmad Taseer
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter No. Topics Page No.
I Introduction 1
Research Questions 21
Statement of the Problem 21
Significance of the Study 21
II Review of Literature 22
Socio-Cultural Issues 24
Psychological Factors 28
Schooling Issues 30
Linguistics Issues 40
III Research Methodology 51
Research Design 51
Procedure of the Study 53
Data Analysis Technique 54
Ethical Consideration 54
IV Data Analysis and Interpretation 55
V Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations 75
Findings, Conclusions and Discussion 75
Recommendations of the Study 80
LIST OF TABLES
Table # Title Page No.
3.1 Demographic characteristics’ of the sample 53
4.1 Demographic Profile of Respondents (students ; teachers) 56
4.2 Descriptive Statistics for ‘Exercise one’ related to writing names of different vocabulary items 57
4.3 Descriptive Statistics for ‘Exercise two’ about encircling the correctly spelled word 59
4.4 Descriptive Statistics for ‘Exercise three’ asking about definitions of different society member 60
4.5 Descriptive Statistics for ‘Exercise four’ about antonym or match a word that means the opposite of another word 61
4.6 Descriptive Statistics for ‘Exercise five’ about making meaningful sentences of given words 62
4.7 Descriptive Statistics for ‘Exercise six’ about writing a range of words about things in students classroom 63
4.8 Descriptive Statistics for ‘Exercise seven’ about filling an incomplete word with a letter in dotted space to complete the words 64
4.9 Results of t-test and Descriptive Statistics for students overall vocabulary performance’ by gender 65
4.10 Results of t-test and Descriptive Statistics for students overall vocabulary performance’ by locale 66
4.11 Descriptive Statistics for the Factor ‘Economic Condition’ 67
4.12 Descriptive Statistics for the Factor ‘Social Status’ 68
4.13 Descriptive Statistics for the Factor ‘Methods of Teaching’ 69
4.14 Descriptive Statistics for the Factor ‘Motivation’ 70
4.15 Descriptive Statistics for the Factor ‘Proper Learning Environment’ 71
4.16 Descriptive Statistics and means for the study five constructs related to causes’ 72
4.17 Results of t-test and Descriptive Statistics for overall teachers’ views’ by gender 73
4.18 Results of t-test and Descriptive Statistics for Overall Teachers’ Views’ by Locale 74
LIST OF FIGURES
Table # Title Page No.
3.1 Graphical representation of the sample is as follows. 52
English is not only the medium of communication but also a medium of instruction in schools in Pakistan but it is observed that the students of public sector schools are poor in writing correct vocabulary due to many factors like overcrowded classes, insufficient English communication at home as well as at school and weak pronunciation of teachers and students etc. Present study aims at identifying problem faced by students of elementary level in writing correct vocabulary in English and the study is quantitative in nature. Data is collected by using cluster Random sampling model from grade 5 and 8 students of public sectorschools. A questionnaire was constructed dealing major English vocabulary problems being faced by elementary students. Seven different exercises of vocabulary testing were administered from elementary students. The second part of questionnaire was related to teachers that identified the main causes behind writing incorrect vocabulary issues. The data generated by instrument was tabulated and analyzed through statistical package of social sciences (SPSS). The study provided suggestions for improving writing skills of students.
Key words: Elementary students, L1 (first language learners), L2 (Second language learners).
The present study is about the writing problems related to vocabulary in English language in Pakistan. English is not only the medium of communication but also a medium of instruction in schools in Pakistan but it is observed that the students of public sector schools are poor in writing correct vocabulary due to many factors like overcrowded classes, insufficient English communication at home and school and weak pronunciation of teachers and students etc. The students of different Government schools of Pakistan have many problems in writing English words due to some factors in English writing as Second language learners. Basic error which they commit is the wrong utilization of vocabulary. As an English educator, researcher is much interested in investigating this Basic English composition issue of the elementary students of Public sector schools in Okara, Punjab Pakistan. Before discussing these problems it is necessary to throw light on the perspective and history of English language and its development. The origins of the English language in popular discussion, modern European languages are often treated as entirely separate entities, so that English is quite separate from French, German or Italian.
As we go back in time, we have to take account of the relationships among languages, and these relationships are broadly of two kinds. First, we find that some groups of languages were formerly much more like each other than they are today, to the extent that they could at one time be regarded as varieties of the same language. Second, languages which are culturally in contact are likely having influence at each other. Migrations into the early period brought about many different kinds of contacts among languages in Europe, and Roman Empire and Christian religion have among them ensured contact among languages has continued. Linguistic geography in Europe before examining language situation into Britain itself, this is as well toconsider wider European context into which English language first came into being. On beginning the Christian era, Western Europe was broadly speaking divided in Celtic-speaking south and Germanic-speaking north. It is the pattern which was overlaid through spread of Latin out of Italian peninsula over Celtic-speaking territory. Picture is further complicated according to patterns of migration, particularly through Germanic speakers moving across frontier in Roman territory.
Language groups Celtic languages spread over southern and Western Europe which includes modem France, northern Italy and Spain, into first millennium BC. Celtic tribes’ names survive into modern names were cause the advancement of English language into different origins and times. Similarly the linguistic geography of Europe 19th name of Belgi survives into name of Belgium. Name Gaul survives into the adjective Gallic used the French. Cimbri is first found at continent, and their name possibly survives into Cymru, Welsh for Wales, and thence in Cambrian, Cumberland and so on Cumbria. Britain and’ Ireland were attacked and colonized through various groups of Celtic speakers, with result, there were significant differences among kind of Celtic spoken into Britain and Ireland into following centuries. Irish Celtic is referred as Gaelic, while British Celtic was spoken into Britain. Latm’ was originally language of Latium, but the dialect of Rome.
The use of Latin spread with growth the Roman Empire that included Italy, Spain and Portugal, most Britain, France, and Germany south of Rhine and Danube. Beyond Europe this included North Africa as well Palestine. Following decline the empire from around about fifth century, Latin eventually disappeared as spoken language on periphery of empire, including Africa, south Germany and Britain. It survived into central areas of continental Europe, where this gradually replaced in different varieties that in turn became modern Romance languages. Even the places where Latin did not survive as spoken medium, this remained as international medium for scholarship. It is a role that was to retain through whole Europe forover thousand years. Resultantly, all major languages of Europe have been influenced through Latin, not only into vocabulary, but too their grammar. When it is considering role of Latin into Europe, we are supposed to make clear distinction among spoken Latin of empire, and later written language that affected standard languages of Europe over many years later. On beginning of the Christian era, Germanic people lived into northern Europe. Modern Germanic languages are derived from dialects of the different tribal groups (Frings, 1950).
German is mixture of dialect spoken south of Denmark. Dutch and Flemish derive from dialects spoken at North Sea coast and further inland into area of Weser and Rhine, while Frisian dialects come exclusively from coastal dialects. English derives from coastal dialects, but along with substantial contribution from dialects of Denmark and Nor-way, and maybe influence from Weser-Rhine dialects. Language contact in Europe it maybe without experienced to imagine in first-century Europe Germanic was spoken through the ethnic Germans, Celtic through Celts, and Latin through Romans. Tribes were genetically mixed, and language spoken through a particular tribe could change as result of contact as well conquest. When native populations in Europe adopted Celtic, those people did not become ethnic Celts.
According to language narrative of history and development another, important aspect of Latin literacy is as that this was controlled through church. As powerful international organization, church had complex relation to political states, working in the existing format but retaining freedom. By beginning, written English reflects power show of church. Overall the purpose of description of origin and history of language development was to find out the writing skills of English language in crossed colonial area like India and Africa. Here the focus is on the significance of writing English Vocabulary as second language in area of the world. Tension among the wider church and narrower political view gives the context into which written Englishat first hand developed. By the beginning, the concept of an English language as opposed to Kentish or Northumbrian and it could at that spot only be a church view. Political states put their own stamp at the written form. First at hand English texts were produced into North Umbria.
Dominant power into ninth century that was Wessex, and similarly dialect of Wessex, West Saxon, that was adopted as official written language within as well beyond boundaries of Wessex. After the 954 southerners were appointed to sea of York (Whitelock, 1952), and this is likewise that they may willingly use any variety form of English language other than the West Saxon. People into status of power could speak English; as well there would be powerful incentives for the Celtic speakers to learn new languages of communication. In course of the time the whole local level population would have adopted the English language, and as well would have absorbed its newcomers easily. English speakers would be into contact and relationship to the native population, and resultantly, the native population learned English language. This pattern and format would be repeated as the Anglo-Saxons prevailed to west.
The English language was allied to English political and economic power as well control. Welsh language users and speakers were not permitted to acquire the land inside boroughs or keep municipal office (Williams, 1950). Finally William stated that Wales was included inside political borders of England through Act of Union of 1536. Acts of 1536 and 1543 started to establish balance among the English as well the Welsh, through using the English language field of communication. The 1563 Act that is for the translation of the preaching’s of Bible and the Prayer Book in Welsh was planned to destroy the Welsh language medium. English and Welsh translations those were available into churches so that by conferring both languages together the sooner to achieve to the knowledge of the English language (Williams, 1950). As into England, courts used English, and use of English was condition of official usage (Williams, 1950). Welshspeakers were barred from status of influence, and the process of barring reached below social scale from town type corporations toward street traders. Guilds into Welsh towns controlled right to keep on trade by restricting connection towards English speakers, and barring the Welsh. The point of story is clear that this supports of the belief that the English race is unpolluted and clean.
The belief that the medium of English language that people speak at present was first brought to their shores through the Angles, the Saxons and as well the Jutes is eventually not linguistic image at all, but as political one.
So, the earliest form and concept of the English is known as Old English or it is called Anglo-Saxon (c. 550 – 1066 CE). So by summarizing and synthesizing the previous lines it would be said that Old English language developed and produced from a set of North Sea Germanic dialects initially spoken with the coasts ofFreesia, Lower Saxony, Jutland, and Southern Sweden through Germanic tribes which are known as the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes. According to the following context, the history of the English language has traditionally been divided in three periods: Old English (450-1100 AD), Middle English (1100-circa 1500 AD) and Modem English (since 1500). Over centuries, the English language has been influenced through number of other languages. In all the eras English written form has equal significance.
Here is short history about English language. Unlike languages that were developed inside boundaries of one country, English, since this beginnings 1,600 or similarly so years ago, evolved through crossing boundary lines and through foreign attacks, picking up pieces of other languages and changing with spread of the language crosswise the sphere and glob. Old English (450-1.100) is initiated along with arrival of the three Germanic tribes who attacked Britain during 5th century AD. These tribes, like the Angles, the Saxons and similarly the Jutes, and so on crossed the North Sea from what at present that is Denmark and the northern Germany. Atthat time the people of Britain spoke Celtic language. Most of Celtic speakers that were pushed west and north through invaders those are mainly in what is at current Wales, Scotland so on Ireland. As we know that the Angles who came from “Englaland” sic and so on their language of communication was called “Englisc” – from that words “England” and “English” are derivate. There language of people, at present known as “Old English”, was soon adopted as common and general language of this remote place of Europe. Although people would find this hard to percept Old English, this provided solid base for language people speak at present and gave them essential and significant words like “be”, “strong” and so on “water”.
Middle English (1.100 -1.500) initiated with The Viking foreign attack: By the Viking invasions (Vikings were the tribe of Nordic people and persons who ransacked their path by Northern and Northwestern Europe 1,000-1,200 years ago), Old English got mixed to Old Norse, language of the Viking tribes. Old Norse who ended up give the English more than 2,000 new and latest words, which includes “give” and “take”, “egg”, “knife”, “husband”, “run” and relatively “viking”. French people came in such system. Although the English language was spoken widely at the British Isles by 1,000 AD, the Norman foreign attack established French as the language of communication of royals and of the power. Old English was left for the peasants, and as well despite its less attractive social status, this continued to develop and produce as well grow through adopting whole host of the Latin and French language words, including everyday words like “beer”,”city”, “fruit” and “people”, as well as half of the months of the year. By adopting and adapting French store house of words, the English language communication became further sophisticated by the addition of concepts and words like “liberty” and “justice”. Modern English (1500 – 1800) – the uproar ends into a tempest: Into 14th-15th century, following Hundred Years War and battle with the France which ended the French rule of British Isles, theEnglish became language of power and it influence again.
This got further boost by development of English themes of literature and English culture, headed with coordination of the William Shakespeare. Shakespeare’s influence at development of the English language medium and so on its unique and rich culture is tough to grip; man is said to have made up at least 1,700 the words, which includes “alligator”, “puppy dog”, and so on “fashionable”, further penning classics unlike Romeo ; Juliet and Hamlet! To end of the Middle English, sudden and distinct change or replacement into pronunciation (Great Vowel Shift) initiated, with the vowels which were being pronounced to some extent shorter and shorter. From 16th century British had the contact to many people from the world. This, and so as it is the Renaissance of Classical learning and development, meant that there are new words and common phrases entered the language. Invention of printing had meaning that there was at present a common language are into print.
The Books became the cheaper and more the people known to read and finally write this vocabulary for own communication. Printing brought standardization into the English. Spelling of words and grammar of sentences became the fixed, and similarly the dialect of the Eondon, where the most publishing houses were, became standard. In 1604 first English dictionary had been published. Now here is the discussion about Modern English (1800 – Present): Main difference among Early and initial Modern English and the Eate Modern English that is vocabulary. It has many issues and problems in writing and speaking communication. Eate Modern English which has many more words is affective arising from the two principal and main factors: first one is the Industrial Revolution and the technology created need for new communicated words; second one is the English-speaking communicated world was on center of lot of scientific progress, many the scientific advances went hand-in-hand along with growth of languages.
English rises worldwide from around about 1600, the English colonization system ofthe North America which resulted into the creation of distinct American variety of the English. Some of the English pronunciations and the words “froze” when these people reached America. According to some ways, American English is the more like the English of Shakespeare than the modem British English is. Some of the expressions that the British often call “Americanisms” are in fact real British expressions that were saved in colonies while as these lost for a time in the Britain (as for a example trash for rubbish, loan word as verb rather lend, and word fall for the autumn; further instance, word. frame-up, was re-imported in the Britain by Hollywood gangster movies and clips). The Spanish had influence at American English (and similarly British English), with the words unlike words canyon, ranch, stampede and vigilante which are examples of the Spanish words that become part of English by the adjustment of the west American. The French words and West African words (slave trade) has also influenced American English (similar way, to extent, British English).
At present, American English is influential, owing to the USA’s powerful and dominance of cinema, television, trade and technology. But in same way there are other varieties of English around about this beautiful world, for example Australian English, New Zealand English, similarly Canadian English, the South African English language, the Indian English and so on Caribbean English. 21st century English is the most amazing thing regarding English is its evolving. From development of local level dialects and the slang into countries apart as the US, South Africa and so on New Zealand, and into the cities as different as the New York, Oxford and so on Singapore, onto incorporation of the tech vocabulary into everyday English. English is in a constant state of instability.
Vocabulary is increasing on a velocity of almost 1,000 new and approved accepted words per year; and so on those are the words which are to be considered significant to get added to the online version of English Dictionary! This dramatic development into new words is on largescale due to the best technology, and how the people invent new words into their email and so on texts transmissions which spread fast and via social media. Large percentage of the new words are the portmanteau words, which also called the blended words — word which combines meaning of the two discrete words; for example, the word cineplex which is formed from the word of cinema and complex, word bromance is formed from the brother and romance, word staycation is formed from the word stay and vacation. We get the idea. So these words of different languages become the part of English and automatically these became the complex process of learning and writing for the second language learners and writers.
Similarly there is the history of English language in Subcontinent. There are three sections of English Development in India. The first section is between 1579 and 1834 and four European languages introduced in India which were English, French, Dutch and Portuguese and these were introduced due to trading relationship. The East India Company introduced the English language to the Indian subcontinent. The East India Company had felt need to make interaction easy between English merchants and the innate people. Moreover army and Christianization have to spread English language for business concerns. After the battle ofPlassey importance of English language was massive. English teaching schools were opened in big cities. The next section is between 1834 and 1947. Hereby English became the official language. At that time there were three types of English users between Indians.
The higher educated community spoke the so called Sahib variety. The language of the middle class which was called Babu English and the lowest community spoke Pidgin English. From that time many Indian words were borrowed and marked them in English Language. Today people of subcontinent still use these words like bamboo, curry or veranda. The third section was marked by the Indian independence as well as distribution of Pak-India. After the independence in 1947 it was necessary to learn Englishlanguage due to two factors. First was suppression and slavery and second factor was that it was a necessary evil for education and administration in subcontinent. So as a result English language remained official language and it had become a necessary evil for interaction and administration. The present situation for the English language in Pakistan is still a necessary evil for different purposes.
Almost all other countries make best use of English communication by using English language with Pakistan. English language is playing an important role in bighting the future of youth and Pakistan. Other countries are using English as Progress tool so Pakistan is also trying its best to use English language as progress tool so that it can stand along with the Whole world. Although Urdu is the official language of Pakistan but English is also used as official language. It helps students in seeking good quality jobs. The common language of business is also the English. On whole English is backbone of progress and communication now for Pakistan. The history of English language in Pakistan had played a vital role in the development of country. Besides its importance as an international language, it plays the role of official language of Pakistan along with Urdu. Pakistan is a country where scores of languages are in use. The Punjabi is spoken in major areas of Pakistan. Almost 45 percent people speak and write Punjabi. English language has got a status of second language in Pakistan and it is also used in many departments of the country and taught as compulsory subject in educational institutes of Pakistan. English is going from strength to strength with the passage of time in Pakistan. In spite of the fact that English Language is used in Pakistani institutes of education but its written form is getting much significance than spoken. Still in Pakistan students do not have opportunity for making focus on English writing and English vocabulary this is the reason that most of Pakistani students are not willing in writing English words. Even the students of elementary; who are senior students at elementary school, hesitate in writing of English words.
English is compulsory subject in all public and private academic institutions but writing is paid least attention. That’s what our students usually cannot understand native English writings in different English print Medias.
English is being exercised as a second language into Pakistan as Baumguardner (1993) elaborates and explains, English into Pakistan which is used as official and second language. It is written through small other than the influential section of population into Pakistan into the domain of the government administration, law, military, higher education, similarly commerce and the mass media. English is the language of higher education which guarantees successful future unlike we know the English into Pakistan serves the gateway to successful outdoor of communication, to the further education and to the white collar jobs all around Pakistan. An upper stratum of the society uses it as a status symbol. According to learning environment we know that the educational process is built around the transfer of knowledge from the head of teacher to heads of the young learners the most. It ignores innate abilities of the learners to build their understandings into form of the written words for communication. The purpose of learning English language is to be smart to make positive communication through writing with both the native and non-native learners of language.
However, Pakistani English writers have issues with written communication. One of the possible causes is English lexical writing issue. Native language learners of English may be face difficulties into comprehending and understanding written or spoken words with vocabulary issues. Students of English should have recognition of written and spoken words to understand what they listen and write comprehendible spoken words. To be able to write an English word with correct spells, Students of English as second or foreign speakers need to have correct understanding of the words with different angles like pronunciation of words as well as spelling adjustment of silent voices orvowel and consonants voices. These are the reasons, that researcher is enthusiastic in examining the difficulties in writing English vocabulary an. The researcher hopes to have better understanding of students’ incorrect writing vocabulary.
Here in this research that contains thematic concern in its topic about the writing problems of English language especially incorrect writing English vocabulary of Govt. school students of Pakistan at elementary level. Major part of this research deals with the educational setup and its various ingredients like English teaching methodology, environment and strategies of teaching English and English vocabulary writing issues. In short the focus of the research is on the Educational setup regarding teaching English which is related to teachers’ methodology and as well as other demographic factors which play significant role this learning process. So according to related narrative of concerned research here is the introduction and discussion teaching English language as second language. Learning other language separately from mother tongue has important and significant role for the people, due to reasons like knowing the other cultures, trade, religion and need of being a secret agent into the other countries. If someone notes where and when this second language education initiated, as a whole we cannot give precise argument;however, this is the fact that the bilingualism has the stander instead of the monolinguals. Another point is that this second language education has changed through languages.
The Romans were trying and struggling to learn and write Greek, and then Latin also became famous. So overall, English has the significance and importance at present. So, we all know why the people want to write and learn the other languages, excluding it the question is that. How many and can people learn the languages of world? This is the question which has always got notice of pedagogues, linguists as well as the scientists. The argument based answer to this question has replaced according to reasons and causes why these people want to learn and write languages forcommunication. According to this narrative of language learning the process of learning and writing English vocabulary is with same equal importance for Pakistani Language learners. When someone talks about the English language teaching then there is the answer about it in the light of English teaching methodologies. So the discussion about English teaching methods and strategies is necessary here.
The teaching of the English language convention has the tremendous change and innovation in this field, especially by and throughout the 20th century. More than other field and discipline, such tradition and convention have been exercised, into various adaptations, in the language classrooms around world for the centuries. For the teaching of the subject Maths or Physics, that thing is the methodology of the teaching of Maths or Physics, has, to a greater or lesser extent, remained the same, this is hardly the case with English and the language teaching as common. It will show and present evident into this research, that there are significant milestones in development of such tradition and convention, which researcher will shortly touch here in this document about language learning and language writing especially English Vocabulary writing, in a try to show and demonstrate the significance of research in the usage and selection of the useful methodologies and strategies for language teaching as well as learning and writing.
In the Western world reverse in the recent and 19th centuries, the foreign language learning was about the learning of the Latin language and the Greek language, both of the supposed to advance the speakers’ intellectual ability. On the time, this was of importance to focus at the grammatical rules, similarly syntactic structures, along with the rote and verbal memorization of vocabulary and its process of writing vocabulary and translation of the texts. There was not the provision for oral usage of these languages which are under study; after all and overall, both the Latin language and the Greek language were not taught for verbal and oral communications butthese were for the sake of speakers’ becoming the “scholarly?” Late in the 19th century, Classical Method which came and to be this is known as Grammar Translation Method, which presented and offered very much little away from an approaching in grammatical rules which attending process of the translating from second to the native language. So this method was not effective for teaching English vocabulary because its focus was only the translation of second language. There are some questionnaires about this methodology in this research project. This is realized that Grammar Translation Method overall is at present to some extent one of the most famous models of English language teaching, which is strong to educational reforms, researcher could comment that its contribution to the language learning is limited, since this has shifted major focus from real languages to “dissected body” of different grammatical categories like nouns, adjectives, as well as prepositions, resultantly which doing nothing for students to enhance and prove student’s communicative skills and abilities in the foreign language. Overall, GTM is not playing vital role in English vocabulary learning and writing.
In his The Art of Learning and Studying Foreign Languages (1880), Francois Gouin described his “harrowing” experiences of learning German, which helped him gain insights into the intricacies of language teaching and learning. Living in Hamburg for one year, he attempted to master the German language by dint of memorizing German grammar book and a list of the 248 irregular German verbs, instead of conversing with the natives. Exulting in the security that the grounding in German grammar offered him, he hastened to go to the University to test his knowledge. He could not understand a word! After his failure, he decided to memorize the German roots, but with no success. He went so far as to memories books, translate Goethe and Schiller, and learn by heart 30,000 words in a dictionary, only to meet with failure. Upon returning to France, Gouin discovered that his three-year-old nephew had managed to become achatterbox of French – a fact that made him think that the child held the secret to learning a language. Thus, he began observing his nephew and came to the conclusion (arrived at by another researcher a century before him!) that language learning is a matter of transforming perceptions into conceptions and then using language to represent these conceptions. Equipped with this knowledge, he devised a teaching method premised upon these insights. It was against this background that the Series Method was created, which taught learners directly a “series” of connected sentences that are easy to understand. For example, “I stretch out my arm. I take hold of the handle. I turn the handle. I open the door. I pull the door”. Nevertheless, this approach to language learning was short-lived and, only a generation later, gave place to the Direct Method, posited by Charles Berlitz. The basic tenet of Berlitz’s method was that second language learning is similar to first language learning. In this light, there should be lots of oral interaction, spontaneous use of the language, no translation, and little if any analysis of grammatical rules and syntactic structures. In short, the principles of the Direct Method were as follows:
• Classroom instruction was conducted in the target language.
• There was an inductive approach to grammar.
• Only everyday vocabulary was taught.
• Concrete vocabulary was taught through pictures and objects, while abstract vocabulary was taught by association of ideas.
The Direct Method enjoyed great popularity at the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth but it was difficult to use, mainly because of the constraints of budget, time, and classroom size. Yet, after a period of decline, this method has been revived, leading to the emergence of the Audio-lingual Method. Overall this method to some extent is better for English vocabulary learning and writing.
The Audiolingual Method has the function to enhance the proficiency of the language learners in the field of verbal and oral learning. So oral learning is important for the writing of different words. If a student has no store of words by listening, then he is unable to speak and write these listened words. So this method in teaching is also significant in writing and learning English vocabulary. This was introduced in 1950s.
According to the title of the thesis, major section of the research deals with the school education department and automatically it deals with the teaching and learning of the English language as second language. Overall, grammar translation method is not much effective for teaching, learning and writing English vocabulary but direct method is effective for teaching and learning English vocabulary. At elementary level in Public schools in Pakistan there is the shortage of English competent teachers which is a problem in teaching and writing English vocabulary as second language. The teachers who are teaching English these schools they belong to general arts subjects’ rather pure English subject. So as a result of conclusion, such type of teachers did not know these methodologies for English teaching which as a result become hindrance in English learning and writing.
English language plays an important role in Pakistan as a successful correspondence medium and it is a medium of direction in schools as well as in universities and colleges. In Pakistan, English is utilized as second language. The students of different Government schools of Pakistan have many difficulties due to some factors in English writing as Second language learners. Basic error which they commit is the wrong utilization of vocabulary. As an English educator, researcher is much interested in investigating this Basic English composition issue of the elementary students of Public sector schools in Okara, Punjab, Pakistan. Okara is an important district of Pakistan, especially for agricultural point of view. It lies in the east Kasur, in the west of Pakpatan and Sahiwal, in the north district Faisalabad and in the south of Bahawalnagar. The total area of Okara is 4377 Square K.M. and Comprises three tehsils. The rural population is almost 80% and urban population is 25% (Census of Pakistan 2017).According to census 2017, Okara district stands 13th into the Punjab province and it stands 1st into Sahiwal division according to facts and figures of population, according to the work and results of the current census which is conducted under the Election Reforms Act. The Results of this census show that Lahore district overall stands 1st, Faisalabad district stands 2nd, Multan stands 3rd, Rawalpindi stands 4th, Gujranwala stands 5th, Rahim Yar Khan 6th, Muzaffargarh 7th, similarly Sialkot 8th, onward Sargodha 9th, Bahawalpur 10th, Sheikhupura 11th, Kasur 12th and the finely Okara district stands 13th in the Punjab province. As we know in Sahiwal division, the census results shows that Okara is at 1st which contains the population of 3039,139 individuals of the society, now here are the individuals of the different cities as well as towns of the Okara district according to population census 2017 such as:-Okara City is the largest city of the district and it has population 357935 individuals. The Depalpur city has population of 99858 persons. Haveli LakhaWasawewala City has population of 78277 persons. Similarly Hujra Shah Muqeem has population of 76462 persons. Okara Cantonment has population of 57622 persons. Basirpur City has population 48326 persons. Ahmadabad has population 39447 persons. SaddarGogera has population of 19766 persons.
In the country like Pakistan where different languages are used, students face different problems, difficulties and issues in writing English as a second language. In the rural areas of district Okara, teachers mostly use grammar translation method to teach English as second language which is not sufficient to cover all the language skills like reading, writing, listening and speaking. The students learn basic grammar at school level for the purpose of passing only in the test and examination and do not face real life situations. There are many factors which contribute to enhance the problem, difficulties and issues of writing English vocabulary.
• Teachers are not well qualified in the rural areas of district Okara.
• The methodology adopted by teachers is not sufficient to teach English as secondlanguage.
• Mother tongue interference is major issue learning English as second language.
• Social setting: the students learn and write English language in the institution, butthey have to speak in Punjabi language at home, markets and the other places.
• Economic factors: the students of rural areas are not economically strong to affordtuition fee to learn English language.
• The students are scared to communicate in English for fear of mistakes duringconversation.
• The students lack in vocabulary; they do not have adequate vocabulary of secondlanguage due to native language usage.
• They feel fear to write English vocabulary because of lack of confidence.
• Teachers teach English in traditional ways.
English language has four basic skills for whole communication: Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing. In real life, it is not so easy to separate these four skills, as most language skills are followed by a different skill. This integration is constant for language learners. Similarly this integration play vital role in writing and learning English vocabulary. The four language skills are related and connected to each other in two ways; which is the direction of communication (in or out) and the method of communication (spoken or written). This four language skills or sometime called the “macro-skills” are very important and necessity in towards learning and writing second language.
From the four skills writing is the most important for students because they use English medium at various spots in real life situation. They use it to communicate ideas and information, recall experiences, and entertain and to explore feelings. English is used for writing Essays, Reports Notes, Poems, Letters (business & personal), Plays, Diaries, and Instructions etc. “Writing” is the process of using symbols (letters of the alphabet, punctuation and spaces) to communicate thoughts and ideas in a readable form. Writing is the productive skill in the written mode. Writing also has been instrumental in keeping history, dissemination of knowledge through the media and the formation of legal systems. It too is more complicated and often seems to be the hardest of the skills, even for native speakers of a language. It involves presentation of thoughts in a structured way. Students face different difficulties in English writing. For example difficulties of syntax, Semantic and vocabulary in English writing are major fields. To write clearly, In English, this includes knowledge of grammar, punctuation and sentence structure. Here in this study focus is on investigating the major factors involve inwriting incorrect English vocabulary. Vocabulary is essential part of the English writing, as is correct spelling and formatting.
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person’s language. A vocabulary usually developed with age. In other words “all the words known and used by a particular person” is known as Vocabulary. There are four ways of vocabulary usage which usually use by a learner are reading, listening, speaking and writing vocabulary. Here in this study writing vocabulary is very important in English language because without vocabulary students cannot communicate their thoughts and knowledge. Wilkns (1972) wrote “.. .While without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed” (PP.111-112). So effective English writing of vocabulary is very important for the students of Public sector schools. According to the topic study, these are the main objectives.
The objectives of the present study are:
i. to investigate the major problems faced by elementary students while dealing withvocabulary in writing English.
ii. identify the most frequent causes of writing incorrect vocabulary in English languagefaced by Pakistani students at elementary level.
Through this study, the researcher has tried to find out the answer of these questions:
• Which are the main problems involved in writing incorrect vocabulary at elementary level in public sector schools in Punjab?
• What are the causes of writing incorrect vocabulary in English writing at elementary level in Pakistan?
• Are vocabulary issues similar while considering the background information of gender and location of the school?
• Are major causes or reasons behind vocabulary issues different while considering the background information of gender and location of the school?
Statement of the Problem
Students of elementary schools of Punjab face many problems in writing correct vocabulary in English language. Low quality in writing of English is causing numerous scholarly issues in higher level examinations.
Significance of the Study
The researcher has investigated the writing problems of vocabulary faced by elementary students and found out the factors which affect their English writing. Hence this study surely will be helpful for English educators to tackle this problem by focusing on their method of teaching and it will make students to be aware of their weaknesses in English writing.
The present study has investigated incorrect use of vocabulary of male and female students of grade 5 and 8 of public schools in English language writing.
Review of Literature
This section gives review to research literature connected through difficulties of English vocabulary composition through Pakistani learners into English through different aspects. There are many shapes of difficulties which persist while composition English vocabulary. Different types of errors, problems, issues, causes and similarly many other issues are difficulties and problematic areas of composition correct English vocabulary of learners at elementary level into Pakistan. English is very important medium of interaction (Crystal, 2003). Many websites and textbooks of higher education are written into English. English works for interaction at international level (Komin, 1998). This argument: clears that the medium of English is necessary evil for effective communication at every level of activities. People into international markets are required both English listening and composition to develop interaction through foreigner for business purpose. English is widely taught as foreign language into more than 100 countries (Crystal, 2003); similarly, Pakistani people also use English as second language like such countries. So, in Pakistan it is also a necessary evil to understand English language. So it is significantly necessary for learners to learn writing the English language for better communication in shape of written codes.
Owing to its importance, English was being taught into Pakistan for more than hundred years (Sudsawat, 1990). Before 1978, methods of English teaching focused grammar and translation abilities (Ministry of Education, 2002). Main motive of English language learning during the era was to enable learners to read, and understand language only. Composition ability of people was not emphasized (Butier-Pascoe ;Wiburg, 2003). Resultantly, learners could not get composition proficiency into English due to these pedagogical methods of English learningbecause these methods does not focused vocabulary writing purpose . As same way due to such issues which have been discussed into pervious lines, most of Pakistani learners of English language into public sector institutions of rural areas are nervous about composition correct English vocabulary.
Now here is argument about those issues which play its role into language learning process. During language learning process a number of issues play significant role. Mainly there are two types of language learning issues which are known as direct issues. Direct issues are of two kinds: Intralingua and Interlingua: word order, overgeneralization etc. Direct issues are those issues which are related to connection among different languages for example FIRST LANGUAGE and second language effects among themselves. Indirect issues are those which play a vital role as socio cultural, economic, cognitive and psychological backgrounds of learners as English language learners as role of schooling system. For example low motivation, lack of parents support, lack of media usage, lose control of learners learning, teachers poor methodology and lack of classroom activities. A learner do not learnt something and consistently gets this wrong due to such issues (James, 1998: 77). So, direct and indirect factor play a vital role into language learning process which consequently affects process of English vocabulary composition into different ways to second language learning learners. Similarly here are some other researchers who have given their argument about direct and indirect issues which play role into English vocabulary composition. “In Pakistan, learner composers encounter psychological, cognitive, social and linguistic problems while converting ideas into text” (Bilal, Tariq, Din, Latif, ;Anjum, 2013; Dar ; Khan, 2015; Haider, 2012; Mahboob;Talaat, 2008).
Now here all issues and problems of incorrect English vocabulary composition are being divided into different categories through detailed literature review. Such are main categories ofissues which are reviewed from different research works likewise Socio-cultural, psychological, schooling and linguistic level issues. Socio-cultural issues have narrative of learners’ background. Similarly parents background, learners final environment of learning into shape of non-formal education which is a major mode of education about English learning. Next are psychological issues like learners’ cognition level, cognitive abilities, shyness and confidence etc. As same way next point is schooling system issues like teachers methodology, feedback, shortage of English teachers at institutions, competency of English teachers, freedom and control of teachers, activities about language learning and learner teacher trust etc. Next part is Linguistic issues like First Language hindrance, phonological and linguistic interdependence and monolingual barriers etc. Basically such issues are main stream of difficulties into Second language composition English vocabulary. For example the word knowledge is a phonological issue in writing English vocabulary. Because in thus word the letter “K” is silent and second language learner will pronounce it with the sound k at initial level. So such issues are phonological issues like other linguistic issues.
Such discussions concluded that there are various issues which have bad impact at learning. Previous discussions (Issues which affect Language learning and Language learning process through SaptawulanHeningNariswariatmoj 0-2011) classified two significant issues named as internal and external issues that affect learning process. According to M.S.Farooq, A.H. Chaudhry and M. Shafique (2011): Issues Affecting Learners’ Academic Performance: A case of Secondary Institution Level (University of Punjab) such issues may be termed as learner’s issues, family issues, institution issues and peer issues. It is a research which is a littleeffort to probe into family issues affecting learning of English as a second language to learners belonging to rural areas of Pakistan. SaptawulanHeningNariswariatmojo (2011 Surabaya, Indonesia) into his research discussed internal and external issues into Indonesia into perspective of Language Learning and Language Learning Process. According to him family background, social relations and institution factor play an important role into learning English as ENGLISH SECOND LANGUAGE. This argument is about the culture, society and educational elements which play important role in language writing system. Anees and Raazia (2007) point out some social and psychological issues which affect SECOND LANGUAGE composition abilities. Social issues include social status; family background etc and psychological issues include motivational level, age etc. Hanson (2009) describes that teaching becomes more productive if learners are provided stress free environment. Dr. Robert Sylwester (1995) supporting issue also says that mind works at its best when environment is secure, and disciplined (as cited into Hanson, 2009). These arguments about socio-cultural factors clear that these all socio cultural issues are a type of hindrance in second language learning process which resultantly affects the writing system of English codes. These are the socio-cultural issues.
Lack of Motivation and pleasure are reasons of different composition barriers for composition vocabulary into English writing system. Learners’ composition aptitude can be enhanced through promoting their curiosity, motivation and enjoyment for composition, through technology (Graham &Perin, 2007). Similarly, some Meta cognitive, cognitive and socio-affective strategies could also be used for enabling learners to know composition process (O’Malley ;Chamot, 1990). This argument is about the strategies of encouragement forlanguage learners so that they can compose good vocabulary and it automatically enhances their cognitive abilities through the motivational process.
Complex learning process
Imran (2011) highlights that most of ENGLISH SECOND LANGUAGE learners do not feel at ease when they go through different phases of development of English composition abilities especially when they work through grammatical structures, English language learning, punctuation and lexical items. This was due to ‘traditional approach’ of teaching and learning that such learners commit a lot of mistakes and errors into their written works especially composition vocabulary. Learning a language is a complex phenomenon because a language has set of roles which are not easy for second language learners. There for it is a complex code system which is not easy to learn.
Harmer (2001, 2007) portrays traditional issues identified through English composition abilities. Such issues are identified through utilization of lexical things, content arrangement and English language learning. Vocabulary is partitioned into two sections: Active vocabulary and Passive vocabulary. Dynamic vocabulary is found out for generation and easy vocabulary is utilized just for acknowledgment. Most of second language learns feel problem into using such vocabulary (Miller, 1984). This argument is about the direct learning system of vocabulary. Vocabulary is not learnt by role and regulation but it is a phenomenon of direct learning which is traditional way that is not effective for learning the codes of second language especially for English language. There for students have weak writing process including vocabulary and grammar etc.
Underwood (1989) explains that sometimes teachers require learners to understand and recognize every word while listening, which might lead to learner failure when they fail to recognize meaning of a particular word. Finally, Second Language learners may have a lack of contextual knowledge and background which can increase comprehension problems. Listeners through different cultural backgrounds can also misunderstand and misinterpret nonverbal things such as facial expressions, gestures, and tone of voice differently. So the background information of words of any language plays a role for effective writing system.
Social class and Second Language
NarendraRathod (on 5th November, 2012 into an international conference at Global English) narrates into his article, social issues into second language acquisition, that there is a relationship among social class and SECOND LANGUAGE achievement. Most of discussions show that learners from lower socio-economic groups are less successful into SECOND LANGUAGE learning than learners from higher groups. This argument is about socioeconomic issues of second language learners affect the writing system of second language especially vocabulary system of codes.
M.S. Farooq, A.H. Chaudhry, M. Shafiq (Journal of Quality and Technology Management Volume VII, Issue II, December, 2011, Page 01 14) discussed that home environment also affects academic performance of learners. Educated parents can provide such an environment that suits best for academic success of their learners. Muhammad Arshad, Zafar Hayat Attari and EhsanElahi (Published: February 13, 2012 International Journal of Learning ;Development ISSN 2164-4063 2012, Vol. 2, No. 1) argued into their article that parents’ socio-economic status has direct impact at their learner’s learning (Jerrim, 2009) into shape of providing educational chances of funds. According to a Report to Department of Education and Training Australia into 2010 gap of scores attained through learners whose parents were poor and prosperous was observed. Parents pass their advantages or disadvantages to the learners that affect their learners’ educational perception. Into her research, Lucinda Soltero-Gonzalez finds that Latino new settler learners are most successful when they apply their home language as a resource to educational learning (Soltero-Gonzalez, 2009). She argues that it practice provides a source of support for English language development and learning. So educated parents, good educational home environment, rich language environment and effective economic environment play significant role in language learning system which finally gives positive output for good writing of English language including vocabulary.
Such issues may be many different types. This may include cognitive as English language learners as attitudinal issues. Many types of errors are committed during composition. Learners have problem at base of errors into doing composition which is evidence of difficulties (Hadler, 2005). Errors are shapes of composition difficulties that can be seen at paper. Thus, error can be one of another shape of difficulties into composition at bases of psychological issues. This is carried out to obtain in shape at common difficulties faced through someone into composition English sentences which contain an amount of rich vocabulary. Language impairment, cognitive abilities, innate abilities, rapid disappearance and stress type issues are psychological factors. These factors treat language learning system as psychological barriers. For example feelinghesitation while learning and writing a long word is a psychological barrier. In same way feeling toughness due to innate lack of ability is also psychological barrier.
Difficulties into using and understanding language is known as Language impairment and this is tried to find out a learner’s representation at a language assessment about what is hopefully expected of learner’s language betterment at different ages. Syntax (word order), semantics (vocabulary and meaning), morphology similarly phonology and Pragmatics aspects are part of language impairment. Researcher’s focus is at semantics or vocabulary impairment into a language into written shape. Usually developing learners derive meanings from context and incidental learning situation but learners through language impairments may not learn words efficiently and may need repeated process to truly learn a word. Further, learners through language impairments may not learn words incidentally through book reading2. So language impairment is big issue.
Researches” conducted at learning difficulties of learners through Westwood (2006), Farkota (2005), Kershner (2000), reported that learning difficulties of learners were due to lack of innate and cognitive abilities, perceptual and conceptual impairment, and learning disability, deficiencies into memory and poor motivation. Most of researches focused at such fixed characteristics of learners which are least controllable. So innate and cognitive weakness of abilities is a other psychological issue.
A further problem is what listeners are to be often addressed is resulted that it resultantly rapid disappearance of content of what they listen to. Many language learners claim that as they listen, they can follow speakers through some ease, but when this comes to remembering speech sometime later, they find themselves falling behind (Hayati&Jalilifar, 2009). Simply this argument means that the listened material is disappeared due to weak memory and comprehension ability.
Control over learners
According to (Reid, 1994), “shared knowledge” (p.2) helps interaction. Native language speaking learners should enhance an understanding of the basic necessity (knowledge that there must be common understanding among composer and reader) during effort composition into English. Telugu- speaking High Institution learners lack control over their composition into English because they are into process of gaining data as much as possible from teacher into early stages of learning a foreign language. Even teachers of English need direction at same time as composition. This argument means that the learners do not pay attention to the basic strategies of learning language instead they focus on the heavy amount of learning. So according to need and capacity there should be the learning control of language words. Language learning is chronological system of words for written expression like other skills,
Freedom and Control
According to Brumfit (1984), through free composition learners can express their ideas through guideline from teacher. Through direction from teachers, learners will create correctshapes even through problems of English language learning, punctuation and organization which give learners’ ability to state freely what they want to state. This is also indicated through Bmmfit& Johnson (1991, p. 13 6) that “Learners can express themselves into a natural way into response to a real need.” Learners’ need to correspond into English second language circumstances will assist them to carry out a combination of many distinct grammatical and lexical elements into a shape of logical masterwork of their own. So problem is lack of alignment of “freedom and control” (Brumfit& Johnson, 1991, p.136). Enough control to warranty that learners’ composition does not end into a cluster of mistakes, and freedom for learners give them chance to compose freely into second language. Local language- speaking learners need that freedom and control through teacher into order to be firm that written vocabulary is proper and acceptable into English composition. So this argument shows that the freedom in writing play vital role because students may choose the words of their choice from material which creates in them the thought of language learning at easy ways. Similarly the guidance of teacher is necessary in writing and selection of words that which words are appropriate for positive expression.
Trust and confidence
According to (Shouman, 2002), teacher’s role is to convince learners to express what he or she wants to say. Encouragement gives learners sense of trusted for what they written at papers. Also encouragement gives learners hope that they can learn to monitor and self-correct own errors to get better their general accuracy. Teachers feel unconfident of themselves while giving hint at learners’ composition (Digest, 1996, p.3). These ideas brief those teachers who do not practice for composition approaches will not be able to give any lecture to learners to get better composition of vocabulary. Pinsent (1992, p.99) states we “Encourage learners to composedown and gaze at what they create.” It will help learners to discussion about what they have written while speaking leads composition. Learners’ lack of confidence is also caused through a teaching strategy which does not shape to learners’ learning styles and cultural backgrounds (Ahmad et al., 2013). This is argued that poor composition abilities originate from two issues:teacher and learner. Teachers lack appropriate pedagogic approach to teach composition, including providing prompt and effective feedback to learners, and most crucially, teachers’ lack of ability to motivate learners. At other hand, learners face numerous challenges: effects of FIRST LANGUAGE transfer lack of reading, motivation, and practice. This is caused through delayed essay composition lecture, large classes, learners’ negative attitude towards their academic English course, FIRST LANGUAGE transfer, and lack of dialogue among learners and teachers about constructive steps that need to be taken to address such problems, into Pakistan, insufficient time for teaching composition, improper A/V aids, overcrowded classrooms, traditional pedagogy and learners’ weak academic backgrounds have been reported to be some of issues affecting learners’ composition abilities (Bilal et al., 2013; Butt &Rasul, 2012). These arguments show that the lack of trust from teachers for students create least confidence in them which is not good sign for English writings. So confidence of students can be enhancing by the teachers’ trust and freedom for students. So role of teacher is to encourage learners’ work and allow them to composition, no issue how harvest is. “What learner needs is to be capable to compose suitably so that he and she are not fearful to place words at paper because of anxiety that text may be contained into non-literary language,”(Neville, 1988, p.43). This argument shows that the anxiety and worry of placing words creates deficiency in trust and confidence of language learners which results problems in English writing especially vocabulary writing.
Depression and dissatisfaction
Teachers should support learners for presenting piece of composition. But it does not for all time work when learners present inappropriate English. What teachers can do is to courteously not accept work through some remarks at flaw. They should not express hundred percent total dissatisfaction but, into a not direct way, tip to problems to be disallowed into future so that no hard thoughts toward learners articulated, making them depressed. An English language learners-in shaped teacher always finds ways to keep learners enthusiastic to compose through given that topics of attention and yet associated to institution course. “Topics to be given to learners to compose about are pre-selected through teacher and should have some connection to their English course. Learners will be able to compose more, and more efficiently, at topics that narrate to their linguistic and social surroundings and are within their semantic stock,” (Smadi, 1986, p.35). This argument shows that the depression and dissatisfaction can be removed by the teachers. They can dissolve it by their teaching techniques and methodologies.
Teachers are not confident
Recent research points out that teaching vocabulary may be difficult because a lot of teachers are not confident about best practice into vocabulary lecture and at times don’t know where to start to shape and lecture importance at word knowledge (Berne &Blachowicz, 2008). This argument shows that teachers himself or herself are with low confidence create disturbance for their students in writing English words.
Class room communicative oriented activities
One feature of afterward discussion through Sato and Kleinsasser (2004) was behaviors towards use of textbooks. They make a note of that “even though teachers had opportunities touse resources rather textbooks” (p. 16), “majority . . . continued to teach according to lessons into textbook . . . avoiding -24- interaction-oriented activities” (p. 13). This argument shows that the most of the teachers are not habitual to conduct different activities about English writing because they are habitual to use textbooks directly. This practice from teachers create bad environment for the students in improving their writing expressions.
English Teachers’ shortage
Numerous of institutions that were then introducing English at Grade 5 announced that they would without delay progress towards preface of English at Grade 3. It explored an already serious problem of under deliver of competent teachers of English at primary institution stage. Taiwanese Ministry of Education responded through recruiting teachers from new sources, through growing lecture opportunities, and through organizing language expertise testing of primary institution English teachers (Ministry of Education (Taiwan), 2004, August 23), This argument shows that there is heavy shortage of English teachers and competent teachers which is a barrier for better English writing expressions like vocabulary composition.
Teachers require permitting learners to take different roles each time composing a written structure. Role that is experienced through learners will give them an opportunity of imagination and limitless extra thoughts for composition (Runkle, 1988, p.55). This argument shows that the imagination of language learners is also significant because it plays an important role in learning or writing English words.
Improper feedback from English teachers is barrier into composition vocabulary for learners. Learners need optimistic useful feedback from their foreign language teachers as a mental treatment to arouse them to continue their motivation to expand their composition proficiency. Teachers have to look for positives as English language learners as negatives into text. They should not pass judgments at its English language learners unless they are examiners and not teachers because good composition aptitude is highly wanted through examiners. (Chastain:1988: 259). So, positive and strong feedback from teachers is necessary in effective enhancement in writing correct vocabulary.
Many researchers like Bateman and Zidonis (1996),Barham, Lamb and Wyllie (1976) have worked at influence of grammar teaching at English composition ability. They all conclude that classes where English grammar is taught, learners lose their interest and they take English composition abilities as a very hard task and such classes become ‘boring, useless and repetitive’. So such elements of diversity create hurdle for composition vocabulary into English composition. Most of the teachers like to teach just grammar rather other aspect of language like Vocabulary writing issue is ignored in classes. Finally such choices creates disturbance in classrooms in learning and writing English vocabulary.
Diverse reading material
In addition, Rabab’ah (2003) pointed out that learners often have lack necessary vocabulary when they are engaged into authentic communicative situations such as composition and speaking. As a result, learners will be unable to express their ideas freely and accuratelybecause of their limited vocabulary. Such difficulties can be solved through offering more discipline-specific reading courses into order to get better learners’ vocabulary size and depth to help them into their academic composition. Also, learners become aware of what to expect into their academic disciplines. It is into line through Kasper’s (2000) view that through providing materials that concentrate at content, learners can be aware of concepts, audience, and purpose of their academic disciplines. So, appropriate reading and writing materials help in learning diverse vocabulary. Diverse types of reading materials are supportive in learning vocabulary at institutions for each grade especially grade 5 and grade 8.
Ahmed (2007) explored overfilled classes and lack of timing for English period creates problems for second language learners to purify their English composition. It means that the majority of students in classes issue because single teacher over such class size cannot give satisfy results about writing of English. Similarly lack of timing for especial subjects creates problems in composition. By summarizing, this is concluded that common mistake of incorrect use of vocabulary are due to overcrowded classrooms and short time during classroom lectures at institutions into Pakistan.
In addition to difficulties created because of a wrong pedagogic approach selected through teachers, learners face difficulties into composition English language, due to a number of issues involved into act of interaction. English language itself has a lot of irregularities which create a number of difficulties into composition especially for second language learners. An example is English language learning. A word that is incorrectly English language learning is notonly a-deviation from standard, but adversely affects intended meaning. English languagelearning is an ability of identifying a word into spoken or written mode. English language learning and decoding abilities are closely linked; learners who suffer from English language learning problems need to memorize South Asian Discussions 27 (1) 186 English language learning of heavily used, irregular words, such as “right”, “government”, etc. Due to irregularities into English language learning, learners have to memorize each word as a separate entity; hence there is no logical relation among sound and symbol. To convey message properly this is necessary that learners correctly use punctuation marks. Learners usually commit mistakes into using commas, full stops, semicolons and colons which affects interaction process. Misuse of capital letters is most common composition problem, which is not derived from FIRST LANGUAGE hindrance. Capitalization problems are part of punctuation problem which may be result of inadequate learning or inefficient teaching. Punctuation helps others to understand what you intend to say (Davidson, 2005). This argument justifies that these linguistic factors are necessary which should be taught by teachers and these elements should be cleared by teachers at institution so that students can be capable of writing these concepts easily. This process affects the writing system also while writing vocabulary domain of language. For example teachers teach the roles of sound and object relationship in language development which gives easy cues for remembering and learning the English language learners according to sound of the object which consequently becomes the complete word.
Another possible reason is that, unlike syntax and phonology, vocabulary does not have Rules learners may follow to acquire and develop their knowledge. Into other words, this is notclear into Second Language vocabulary learning what rules apply or which vocabularyitems should be learned first. Oxford (1990) also claims that vocabulary is “by far most sizeableand unmanageable component into learning of any language, whether a foreign or one’s mother tongue, because of tens of thousands of different meanings” Despite such difficulties that language learners face into SECOND LANGUAGE vocabulary, they still have to deal with this in their examinations as “vocabulary has traditionally been one of language components measured into language tests” (Schmitt, 1999, 189). Regardless whether instructor speaks through an accent or not, learners might be able to follow lecture, but if they are unable to take efficient notes and revise them afterward, they won’t be able to succeed. This argument justifies that the multiple meanings confused the learners to which meaning of the word is appropriate or to which word is appropriate in any sentence during composition. Multiple meaning system of language is a complex system.
Small amount of listening
As comprehension ability, listening provides people through greatest amount of input during process of language acquisition and development. This means other aspect is that some learners have no listening comprehension which is a hindrance into composition vocabulary (Hunsaker as cited into Gur, Dilci, Coskun, ;Delican, 2013). This argument justifies that the small amount of listening words is a problem for second language learners. Similarly weak listening is also a problem in improving and enhancing vocabulary in texts.
Weak Listening and note taking
Nevertheless, listening as English language learners as note taking are areas most often reported through English language learners as being difficult (Hayati;Jalilifar, 2009). Activities involving listening carried out through learners at institution are intended meant to expand learners’ knowledge; such activities are based at a principle that involves storing inthrough ‘using mental listening comprehension mechanisms and recalling stored material laterAs a way to prevent forgetting almost eighty percent of content of a listening material, this is recommended that learners take notes while listening. Into final sense, note-taking helps learners not only into learning, but also into their composition abilities development (Gur et al., 2013). This argument shows that the process of listening is also complex because after listening a child is able to compose that expression which he has listened. But most of the students are weak in listening especially in second language learning process. So weak listening creates weak note taking habit which results damage learning of writing of vocabulary.
Direct notes taking
On other hand, Stefanou; Hoffman (2008) argue that more learners copied directly from teacher’s PowerPoint and overhead presentation, poorer their presentation at factual recall questions (though more they added to such notes, better their presentation at application questions). This is possible that relieving cognitive strain of taking notes while listening to lecture may enable learners to think more deeply about material. So, direct copy system of students creates dangerous habit of writing expressions.
Little experience of practices
Leki (1992) points out, most second language composers probably have little experience through composition besides grammar exercises, composition answers to questions, and producing occasional paragraphs. Little experience of composition different exercise of English lessons is a reason of shortens vocabulary. So, the attention at other activities rather vocabulary writing activities creates the flaw of vocabulary writing.
Early grades deficiency
Deficiency of English Learning at early grades becomes problem into upper grades 5th and 8th lecture that is clear, systematic and focused at phonological awareness and decoding is most effective into early grades, into upper grades, necessary abilities become more complex and so it is where real gaps into achievement become most apparent among English language learners and English dominant learners and among high- SES English language learners and low-SES English language learners (August et al 2009). This study argues that the lecture at base level grades play vital role in learning at higher level classes or grades. Because students with good amount of vocabulary at initial grades will automatically represents good at elementary and secondary level grades. So, early grades deficiency affects significantly and it plays a vital role in learning and writing second language especially English vocabulary.
Literacy based lectures
Many researchers and educational theorists feel that when possible, learners should be taught literacy abilities into their native language. Oral language development through quality and meaningful literacy-based lecture, interactive approaches, and direct lecture designed to help learners into understanding how to draw at all of their linguistic resources are suggested effective methods for teaching literacy to English language learners (August & Shanahan, 2006; Genesee & Riches, 2006; Slavin& Cheung, 2003). It means literacy based lectures affects significantly and it plays a vital role in learning and writing second language especially English vocabulary.
While literacy abilities are important for achievement, other issues like learning related behaviors can be even more crucial to future success into some cases. It is true for English dominant and ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS. Into a longitudinal discussion, researchers investigated associations among learners’ learning-related behaviors and literacy achievementamong low-income learners into elementary institution (Stipek, Newton ;Chudgar, 2010). So, literacy based lectures affects significantly and it plays a vital role in learning and writing second language especially English vocabulary.
This section gives review about literature of difficulties of English vocabulary composition through different aspects of linguistics issues. There are many shapes of factors related to linguistics about these difficulties which creates problem during composition of English vocabulary. Different types of issues regarding linguistics are problematic areas of composition correct English vocabulary for learners at elementary level into Pakistan. Bryne (1988) separated problems that make composition not easy into three categories. First is Linguistic level of difficulty. Linguistics part like grammar, vocabulary, language use and selection of sentence into composition must have fully monitoring. Second is composition level part, which more focuses at composer’s difficulty because there aren’t direct interaction and reaction from reader when they are composition which focuses at problem into develop written stuff. Third is cognitive difficulty level. Composition has to be attention from beginning to end proper education like English language learning, punctuation, and capitalization and paragraphing. Here linguistic part vocabulary is main topic of argument of this section.
First language hindrance
It is fair to say that language has been considered challenging problem for Second Language composers due to their imperfect linguistic knowledge. Silva (1993) argues that not enough language knowledge leads to unproductive Second Language composition at account of differences among first and second language. So, small amount of first languageknowledge leads to weakness of second language knowledge in writing. Olsen (1999) notes thatsome ENGLISH Foreign Language composers cannot create an efficient written work due to insufficiency of syntactic and lexical proficiency, which at times makes them puzzled through systems of target language they are learning. So, little amount of syntax and vocabulary also disturb the second language learners in writing expressions related to vocabulary. Weigle (2002), “because of constraints of limited second-language knowledge, composition into a second language may be into a weak position because of need to focus at language rather than content” (p. 35). She also claims that this is not possible for Second Language learners to compose into a second language properly without linguistic knowledge concerning grammar and vocabulary. It means the knowledge of grammar and words is necessary for better writing system of English vocabulary. According to Wang and Wen (2002), Second Language composers feel good when composition into target language (TL) because their mother tongue affects second language; as a result, they may at times mingle systems of two languages into their Second Language composition, which is called “language transfer or syntactic transfer”. It is considered a harsh problem of Second Language composition. So, language transfer is hindrance in learning and writing second language.
Bennui (2008) conduct his research at First Language obstruction set up into Thai university learners’ paragraphs. He engaged theories for Contrastive Analysis as well as for Error Analysis to identify First Language obstruction types. According to discussion results, he classified First Language hindrance into three main categories: 1. First Language lexical hindrance: it sorts of obstruction occurs for reason that of lack of lexical proficiency. Into addition, vocabulary levels of two languages are dissimilar; for that reason, when composition into English, Thai learners usually employs a shape of direct transformation, which leads to errors into vocabulary of word choice. Sub-categories of FIRST LANGUAGE lexical hindrance are 1) Literal translation of vocabulary use, and 2) use of Thai words. Into consistence through Jenwitheesuk and Weijen et al., Mojica (2010) explored composition problems reported through SECOND LANGUAGE learners from Korea, Turkey, Philippines, Thailand and China. Results exposed that two problems that crate problem second language composers most were grammar and vocabulary. Grammar and vocabulary are perceived to be principal problems obstructing effective composition of ENGLISH SECOND LANGUAGE/ENGLISH FOREIGN LANGUAGE learners. What causes such problem can be from different systems among mother tongue and target language. Due to this, Second language composers are dominated through rules of their first language, which, eventually, leads to committing errors into their written works. Many researchers have thus conducted discussions at problems found into learners’ composition. Anyhow, most of them have regarded hindrance of mother tongue as crucial factor that should not be ignored. Jenwitheesuk, T. (2009).A discussion of persisted syntactic errors into composition of 3rd year learners of English for international interaction program. Paper presented at Role of Universities into Hands-on Education. Bhela (1999) explored errors into second language learner composers. Participants from four different contexts, including Cambodian, Italian, Spanish and Vietnamese, were assigned to compose stories according to pictures given. Then first language hindrance types found into each written story were classified. Errors caused through mother tongue were as follows: 1) Apostrophe, 2) Punctuation, 3) English language learning, 4) Prepositions, 5) Capital letters, 6) Present ; past continuous tenses, 7) Subject pronouns, 8) vocabulary, and 9) Passive ; active voice.
First Language taking into is not same as Second Language learning, as individual definitely thinks about importance and utilization of one language. To begin throughlanguage helps learners when this has components into same manner as Second Language, however upsets learning procedure when both language frameworks vary (Cook, 2001). A man who uses two languages needs to experience procedure of syntactic structures of two languages First Language and Second Language, yet Second Language shows much problem (Cook, 1993). So, these studies argues that the frameworks of two languages are differ there for the rules are also differ which are hindrance in second language learning and writing.
Ability to transfer literacy abilities from native language is crucial into learning of English. Bilingual educator Cummins (1979, 1984) developed linguistic interdependence hypothesis into which he posited that proficiency into a second language is partially dependent at proficiency into native language at time of exposure to second language. Cummins speculated that if a learner’s competence into his/her native language is low, his/her competence into second language will also be low. Cummins’ hyposuchs have received empirical support from a number of researchers (e.g., see Droop ;Verhoeven, 2003; Proctor, August Carlo, ; Snow, 2006; Verhoeven, 1994). These studies argue that the native language quality affects the second language proficiency automatically. If student is good at native language then he is must good at second language learning and writing.
When both monolinguals and bilinguals perform a course to learn a new language, through end of course, bilinguals score higher than monolinguals at measures of final fluency (Ramsay, 1980; Cenoz; Valencia, 1994; Sanz, 2000) and vocabulary meaning and usage (Keshavarz;Astaneh, 2002). This study argues that the students who have two languages atgood competency they are also good at second language learning and writing as well as.
Multicultural, and Multilingual
Lantolf(1999) mentions effects of multicultural and multilingual background at learners’ composition abilities. Lave and Wenger (1991) also emphasize that entire teaching process must be compatible through social set up and cultural background, which they termed as ‘situated cognition’ (as cited into Hyland, 2003). This study argues that the culture and language enhance the cognition of learners for language writing.
Appropriateness to speak into second language makes speaker an effective communicator” (Sarwar et al. 2012:27). Pronunciation plays very significant role to help learners to become good communicator (Morley, 1998). So resultantly, correct pronunciation helps into composition exact English language learners of words which make composition effective. Correct pronunciation has important relationship through English words of composition. We are aware that English has 26 letters used to per shape forty four sounds, 24 consonants, 20 vowel sounds and diphthongs. There is less connection among English sounds and English language learners. Some of letters perhaps multiple sounds as c represents /s/ and /k/, g represents /g/ and /d3/ and X represents /s/ and /z/. Therefore English alphabet system is very poor sound value. So such sounds shows disturbance while composition English vocabulary correctly.
Daniel Jones argues about articulation of words as “Gymnastics of vocal organs” (1977:46). Pakistani learners have many issues of English pronunciation due to system of English language learning because it system creates complex. Lack of /9/ sound causes connection of “th” to show it sound and additional alphabet as into psychology results problem of English vocabulary composition. English is only language that is used as a language of international significant purposes. For English pronunciation, second language learners have toface numerous problems. Good pronunciation is beauty of language. Macdonald (2002) tried to make a research into Australia and indicated already completed questionnaire that they were no happy into teaching pronunciation system to English second language learners. Quality of speaking English shows correctness of intonation and pronunciation which creates ease into composition English words into correct shape because this has direct effects at proper interaction into their discussions (Zhang& Yin, 2009). So, correct pronunciation helps into composition correct English vocabulary.
English has 24 consonant, 20 vowel and diphthong sounds (O’Connors, 1980). Received English Pronunciation almost is used as an evidence to provide a contrast without suggestion of being ‘more correct’. “Pronunciation is very important ability into spoken English” (Gilkjani, 2011, p.34).this is not surprising that pronunciation education plays an important role into English teaching as a second language (Jahan, 2011). Many English Second Language learners try to speak native-like English” (Derwing, 2003:77).this is imperative that teachers help learners of English to develop quality for needs of interaction, and ability to be understood easily (Morley,1991). “” Many English language learners face problems into learning English pronunciation” (Jilkjani,2011:89). Problems into pronunciation make their communicative competence weaker (Hinofotis, 1981).
“It is important that English Second Language learner is trying to use a sub standard English variety may be effects into wrong sense during process of acquisition of English if learners are not attached through standard English” (Charity ; Malinson,2011:97). Particularly, English Second Language learners’ “pronunciation conventions are differing from such of English speakers” (Benjamin, 2002). Consonant sounds help to understand English than vowel sounds. Consonant sounds are pronounced through vocal folds through air stream, and such are easy to pronounce and understand. Consonant sounds areskeleton structure of English words and such sounds provide them appropriate shape. So, consonant system of language play important role into composition English vocabulary at good height of correctness as second language. Native English speakers who are from different areas of it world have different accents, but no match into accent is output of variety of vowel sounds;consonant sounds are written into same style where English is spoken. So if vowel sounds a learner use are incorrect, this shall not create incorrect sense into understanding, and if consonant sounds are not correct there will be high risk of incorrect composition of English vocabulary. To conclude researcher may say that learners through good pronunciation system have least problems into composition English vocabulary. Similarly all four language abilities are deeply connected to English composition and further English composition depends at correct English vocabulary composition. So, appropriate acquisition of English vocabulary depends upon such language abilities as into above lines pronunciation has great role into learning and composition vocabulary. Phonological interdependence is a necessary evil for good vocabulary composition system into English which is based at native and second language interaction system.
Likewise, special educators Sparks and Ganschow developed linguistic coding differences hypothesis into which they speculated that both native language and second language learning depend at basic language learning mechanisms that are similar to both languages and that problems through one component of language, for example, phonology would have a negative effect at learning into both languages (Sparks, 1995; Sparks &Ganschow, 1993, 1995). Their discussions have shown consistently that English language learners through significantly stronger native language abilities exhibit stronger English language aptitude, proficiency and achievement. Learners who struggle through phonological processing often exhibit problems intoboth written (decoding, English language learning, composition) and oral (listening, speaking) aspects of second language learning. Their findings have been supported through other researchers who have investigated impact of native language abilities at second language learning (e.g., see Holm & Dodd, 1999; Humes-BartIo, 1989; Service &Kohonen, 1995).
These Results show that learners who shaped better at Spanish literacy measures into kindergarten were also better at maintaining grade-level Spanish reading (as assessed through yearly tests). They were also earliest to transition to English reading lecture and they achieved a higher level of English reading into middle institution. Researchers concluded that there is interdependence among native and second language oral language proficiencies which helps in writing different aspect of language like English vocabulary.
Every foreign language has some problems and causes of writing correct English vocabulary. Similarly above synthesized data of review of literature shows that there are many issues, problems and causes into Pakistan which learners of Elementary institutions of public sector are facing. At other hand, vocabulary has been recognized as Second Language learners’ greatest single source of problems (Meara, 1980). It remarks that vocabulary itself is a complex phenomenon for learners. Similarly there are many other aspects which are main factors in writing second language. Now here is argument about those issues which play its role into language learning process. During language learning process a number of issues play significant role. Mainly there are two types of language learning issues which are known as direct issues. Direct issues are of two kinds: Intralingua and Interlingua: word order, overgeneralization etc. these issues may be sometime between two languages interaction and sometime among more than two languages. So, these direct issues are those issues which are related to connection among different languages for example First Language and second language effects among themselves. Indirect issues are those which play a vital role as socio cultural, economic, cognitive and psychological backgrounds of learners as English language learners as role of schooling system. For example low motivation, lack of parents support, lack of media usage, lose control of learners learning, teachers poor methodology and lack of classroom activities. A learner do not learnt something and consistently gets this wrong due to such issues (James, 1998:77). So, direct and indirect factor play a vital role into language learning process which consequently affects process of English vocabulary composition into different ways for second language learning learners. Similarly here are some other researchers who have given their argument about direct and indirect issues which play role into English vocabulary composition. “In Pakistan, learner composers encounter psychological, cognitive, social and linguistic problems while converting ideas into text” (Bilal, Tariq, Din, Latif, ;Anjum, 2013; Dar ; Khan, 2015; Haider, 2012; Mahboob;Talaat, 2008).
Moreover these issues are also known as internal and external issues as previous discussions (Issues which affect Language learning and Language learning process through SaptawulanHeningNariswariatmoj 0-2011) classified two significant issues named as internal and external issues that affect learning and writing process of second language. According to M.S.Farooq, A.H. Chaudhry and M. Shafique (2011): Issues Affecting Learners’ Academic Performance: A case of Secondary Institution Level (University of Punjab) such issues may be termed as learner’s issues, family issues, institution issues and peer issues. So, this research is a little effort to investigate family issues affecting learning of English as a second language to learners belonging to rural areas of Pakistan. So, these internal issues play affective role in writing of expressions of second language. Syntax (word order), semantics (vocabulary andmeaning), morphology, phonology and Pragmatics aspects are part of language impairment and linguistics. Researcher’s focus is at semantics or vocabulary impairment into a language into written shape. Usually developing learners derive meanings from context and incidental learning situation but learners through language impairments may not learn words efficiently and may need repeated process to truly learn a word. Moreover there is challenging problem for Second Language composers due to their imperfect linguistic knowledge.
It was found that learners attributed their problems into English to their weak foundation, environment, and methods of teaching English into their countries. Weak foundation is related to status of English, learners’ motivation to learn English, and teachers’ lack of interest. Environmental reasons include use of mother tongue, few opportunities to practice English, and isolated culture. At other hand, methods of teaching English included medium of lecture, using native language into English classes, composition done into native language, teachers’ low proficiency into English and lack of composition practice into educational institutions are all the language learning and vocabulary writing causes due to which students are unable to write vocabulary appropriately. Similarly there are some other external factors like pedagogy, cognitive or psychological factors. Researches” conducted at learning difficulties of learners through Westwood (2006), Farkota (2005), Kershner (2000), reported that learning difficulties of learners were due to lack of innate or cognitive abilities, perceptual impairment, and learning disability, deficiencies into memory or poor motivation.
So, according to upper studies it is proved that there are mainly socio-cultural, psychological, schooling, and linguistics level factors which have deep connection with language learning and language writing. These all factors play significant role in writing English vocabulary for second language learners in the world.
This part of the thesis deals with the details of research methodology of the research. Specifically, this section includes information related research design, population, sample, development of instruments, data collection procedures and data analysis techniques.
The study was carried out through cross sectional survey research design as the study has collected all the data at one point of time from different students and teachers. Moreover, the study is positioned within a quantitative research orientation.
All male and female students of grade 5 and 8 of public schools of Punjab were population of this study.
Data was collected from students of grade 5 and 8 from district Okara by using cluster Random sampling model as clustering is mentioned below. First of all, Tehsil Depalpur is selected, and then two centers (Marakiz) are selected. Next, three clusters, two clusters from each centre are selected randomly. Lastly six schools (three male and three female) were selected and two classes (grade 5 and 8) were selected randomly from each school. Total two hundred and thirty three (233) students’ respondents participated in the study. A total of around 54% male students and nearly 37% females make up the students profile of the study. Location wise, around 49% of the participants’ students belonged to urban area, while 51% belonged to rural location. In terms of teachers, a total of two hundred and nineteen (219) teachers provide responses in the study. In terms of gender, around 50% were male teachers and almost 48% were female teachers who participated in the study. Overall sample size was 452 respondents. As for ‘Education or qualification of teachers is concerned, around 9% were having BA/BSc degrees, nearly 73% having MA/MSC degrees and around 16% possessed the M.PHIL degrees.
Graphical representation of the sample is as follows.
Demographic characteristics’ of the sample
Gender Male Students
Female Students 125
Urban students 115 49.4 233
Rural students 118 50..6
Male teachers 111 49.8 219
Female teachers 108 48.4
BA/BSC 20 9.0 219
MA/MSC 164 73.5
MPHIL 35 15.7
Location Urban 108 48.4 219
Rural 111 49.8
A questionnaire was constructed dealing with first of all, major English vocabulary problems being faced by elementary students. In this regard, seven different exercises of vocabulary testing were administered from elementary students. The second part of questionnaire was related to teachers that indentified the main causes behind writing incorrect vocabulary issues.
Procedure of the Study
In this study, the data was collected from male and female students of public sector schoolsofOkara District of Punjab, Pakistan. Quantitative Method was used for this study. Data was collected by using cluster Random sampling model from grade 5 and 8 students of public schools. Questionnaires was constructed dealing with first of all, major English vocabulary problems being faced by elementary students and second part of questionnaire for teachers was related to identifying the main causes behind writing incorrect vocabulary issues. Moreover, responses in form of tests were taken from students of public sector schools and teachers were also contacted to find out the different causes behind vocabulary issues of students.
Data Analysis Technique
The data generated by instrument was tabulated and analyzed through statistical package of social sciences (SPSS). Prior to applying main statistical analysis procedures, data set was checked for any code violation, missing values and assumption violations. Afterwards, to answer the research questions and test hypothesis, descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were applied.
Prior to data collection, an informed consent was sought from participants. Consent form includes the intent of the study, and asked respondents about voluntary participation and ensured the confidentiality of personal information. Moreover, during the administration of each questionnaire, participants were asked to raise any questions in order to clarify any issue. Further to ensure confidentiality, all the materials related to the questionnaires were stored safely during the course of the study and all the information provided by the participants was used only current research.
This study was limited only to public sector elementary schools of Tehsil Depalpur of district Okara for time and money constraints.
Data Analysis and Interpretation
This section presents the analysis and interpretation of study data. The analysis and information in this portion are sequenced in response the subsequent research questions;
I. Which are the main problems involved in writing incorrect vocabulary at elementary level in public sector schools in Pakistan; ii. What are the causes of writing incorrect vocabulary in English writing at elementary level in Pakistan? iii. Are vocabulary issues are similar wile considering the background information of gender and location of the school; iv. Are major causes or reasons behind vocabulary issues are different while considering the background information of gender and location of the school.
The analysis commences with the description of the demographic characteristics of the data, followed by quantitative analysis of vocabulary issues or vocabulary exercises to identify the major issues being faced by class 5th and class 8th elementary students. Afterwards, mean analysis was carried out to examine the various causes of writing incorrect vocabulary in English writing at elementary level as reported by elementary school teachers. Finally, various comparisons have been made to examine the difference in vocabulary issues and various possible causes by locale and gender. Prior to actual data analysis, all of the variables were screened before proceeding with main data analysis. Variables were screened in order to ensure that data do not contain code and assumption violations. Further, data was also checked for missing values and outliers with SPSS frequencies, explore and descriptive options.
Demographic Profile of Respondents (students & teachers)
Gender Male Students
Female Students 125
Urban students 115 49.4% 233
Rural students 118 50..6%
Male teachers 111 49.8% 219
Female teachers 108 48.4%
BA/BSC 20 9.0% 219
MA/MSC 164 73.5%
MPHIL 35 15.7%
Teachers locale Urban 108 48.4% 219
Rural 111 49.8%
Table 4.1 shows the demographic statistics of sample. Five categories of demographic information were taken into account in data collection process, namely students’ gender, and location, teachers’ gender, qualification and locale of the respondents. Total two hundred and thirty tree (233) students respondents participated in the study. A total of around 54% males students and nearly 37% females make up the students profile of the study. Location wise, around 49% of the participants’ students belonged to urban area, while 51% belonged to rural location. In terms of teachers, a total of two hundred and nineteen (219) teachers provide responses in the study. In terms of gender, around 50% were male teachers and almost 48% were female teachers who participated in the study. As for ‘Education or qualification of teachers is concerned, around 9% were having BA/BSc degrees, nearly 73% having MA/MSC degrees and around 16% possessed the MPHIL degrees.
Overall, the subcategories are seemed to be balanced and realistic in terms of number of cases and there is no unusual bifurcation or distribution in any category.
Descriptive Statistics for ‘Exercise one’ related to writing names of different vocabulary items
Items correct incorrect
Counts Percentage Count
1. Fruit names 894 76.7% 271 23.2%
2. Vegetable names 828 71.1% 336 28.8%
3. Color names 934 80.2% 230 19.7%
4. Months names 867 74.4% 298 25.5%
5. Animal names
6. Parts of body 863
Table 4.2 contains participants’ responses regarding the ‘Exercise one’ which asked studentstowrite as much names as you could remember or recall of different items. The aim was to ascertain the basic vocabulary range or level of elementary school students. Analysis suggested that nearly 78% of responses were correct in providing five names of different fruits wile around 23% of students provided the incorrect answers to this exercise. In terms of vegetable names, almost 71% of students provided the correct responses wile nearly 28% gave the incorrect responses or were not able to write different vegetable names in correct fashion. In te color names category, approximately 80% of responses were considered to be correct and around 19% were considered incorrect. Moreover, approximately 74% of students were able to write down te names of months correctly wile around 25% were not able to write names. Further, in terms of animal names, similar pattern were observed as almost 74% of responses of students were found correct and nearly 26% of responses were found incorrect. Finally, about 76% of responses were considered correct in the parts of body vocabulary writing and around 23% of students were not able to produce correct names.
In conclusion, approximately similar pattern were observed in all the categories of vocabulary listed above. There was an overwhelming majority of students provided the correct responses in writing a range of names of fruits, vegetables, color, months, animals and parts of body. Conversely, on the whole, approximately 25% of students were not able to write the range of names and a few among tem provided the names only in incorrect spelled word.
Descriptive Statistics for ‘Exercise two’ about encircling the correctly spelled word
Items correct incorrect
Counts Percentage Count
1. FLOWER 201 86.3% 32 13.7%
2. BANANA 198 85.0% 35 15.0%
3. GARDEN 198 85.0% 35 15.0%
4. NIGHT 186 79.8% 47 20.2%
5. BEAUTIFUL 187 80.3% 45 19.3%
Table 4.3 contains participants’ responses regarding the ‘Exercise two’ which asked studentstoidentify the correctly spelled word from four given choices and encircle the correctly spelled word. The aim was to gauge elementary students’ judgment of vocabulary words. Analysis suggested that nearly 86% of students were successful in identifying the correct spelled word ‘flower’, while just 13% of students provided the incorrect answers to this exercise. Similarly, almost 85% of students provided the correct responses wile nearly 15% gave the incorrect responses in identifying the word ‘Banana’. Furthermore, exactly the same responses were observed in the next word ‘Garden’. Moreover, approximately 80% of responses were considered to be correct and around 19% were considered incorrect in the case of a word ‘Night’. Finally, approximately 80% of students were able to identify the correctly spelled word ‘Beautiful’ and around 19% were not successful in attempting this exercise.
In conclusion, approximately similar pattern were observed in all the categories of vocabulary listed above. A vast majority of students (approx. 83%) provided the correct responses in the identification process of correctly spelled words. Conversely, on the whole, approximately 17% of students were not successful in identifying the correctly spelled words. On the whole, analysis suggested that students have good identification skills in terms of Basic English words as a great number of respondents in the sample have provided the correct responses.
Descriptive Statistics for ‘Exercise three’ asking about definitions of different society member
Items correct incorrect
Counts Percentage Count
1. Definition of a teacher 169 72.5% 64 27.5%
2. Definition of a player 181 77.7% 51 21.9%
3. Definition of a operator 124 53.2% 109 46.8%
4. Definition of a singer 174 74.7% 59 25.3%
5. Definition of a writer 160 68.7% 73 31.3%
Table 4.4 contains participants’ responses regarding the ‘Exercise three’ which asked students towrite a specific word whom the definition statement referring to. The aim was to gauge to what extent elementary students are able to correct definitions. Analysis suggested that nearly 72% of students were successful in providing the definition of teacher, while just 27% of students failed in producing the definition of a teacher. Similarly, almost 78% of students were successful in remembering the correct response in the case of a player definition while nearly 30% were regarded failed in this attempt. Moreover, approximately 53% of responses were considered to be correct in giving the definition of an operator and around 46% were considered incorrect in this regard’. Further, approximately 75% of students were able to provide the definition of a singer and around 25% were not successful in attempting this exercise. Finally, in definition of a writer, around 69% were able to provide the correct response and 31% were failed in this attempt.
In conclusion, approximately similar pattern were observed in all the definitions exercise except for the definition of an operator in which almost equal number of students were successful and failed. Overall, majority of students (approx. 74%) provided the correct responses in the providing the different definitions. Conversely, on the whole, approximately 26% of students were not successful in yielding the correct word for which the definitions is meant for. In summary, analysis suggested that to a large extent students provided the correct responses.
Descriptive Statistics for ‘Exercise four’ about antonym or match a word that means the opposite of another word
Items correct incorrect
Counts Percentage Count
1. Wife 179 76.8% 54 23.2%
2. Poor 181 77.7% 52 22.3%
3. Old 152 65.2% 81 34.8%
4. Small 188 80.7% 44 18.9%
5. Stand 200 85.8% 32 13.7%
Table 4.5 contains participants’ responses regarding the ‘Exercise four’ which asked students tomatch a word in list B with the list in A and write the word in column three which is opposite in meaning. The aim was to gauge the vocabulary range of elementary students. Analysis suggested that nearly 76% of students were successful in providing the antonym of a word wife, while around 23% of students failed in producing the antonym word. Similarly, almost 77% of students were successful in remembering the correct antonym of a word poor while nearly 22% were regarded failed in this attempt. Moreover, approximately 65% of responses were considered to be correct for the antonym word ‘old’ and around 35% were considered incorrect in this regard’. Further, approximately 81% of students were able to provide te correct antonym word for ‘small’ and around 19% were not successful in attempting this exercise. Finally, for the word ‘stand’, a vast majority (86%) were able to provide the correct response and around 14% were failed in this attempt.
In conclusion, approximately similar pattern were observed for all the given words. Overall, an overwhelming majority of students (approx. 78%) provided the correct responses in the providing the correct antonyms words. Conversely, on the whole, approximately 22% of students were not successful in yielding the correct antonym words. On the whole, analysis suggested that to a large extent students provided the correct responses.
Descriptive Statistics for ‘Exercise five’ about making meaningful sentences of given words
Items correct incorrect
Counts Percentage Count
1. Invention 90 38.6% 143 61.4%
2. Which 91 39.1% 142 60.9%
3. Good 162 69.5% 71 30.5%
4. Play 135 57.9% 98 42.1%
5. Slowly 107 45.9% 126 54.1%
Table 4.6 contains participants’ responses regarding the ‘Exercise five’ which asked students tomake meaningful sentences with the help of given set of words. The aim was to gauge the vocabulary issues in process of constructing meaningful sentences of English language. Data analysis suggested that nearly 38% of students were successful in making the sentence with a word ‘invention’ while around 61% of students failed in producing the sentence. Similarly, almost 39% of students were considered successful for making te sentence with word ‘which’ while nearly 61% were regarded failed in this attempt. Moreover, approximately 69% of responses were able to construct a sentence with a word ‘good’ and 30% were failed in making this sentence. Further, approximately 58% of students were able to provide the correct sentence with a word ‘play’ and around 42% were not successful in attempting this exercise. Finally, for the word ‘slowly’, nearly 46% were able to provide the correct response and around 54% were failed in constructing the sentence.
In conclusion, a good number of students were not able to construct meaning sentences with the help of a given set of words. Specifically, for the word “good’ and ‘play’, comparatively more students were successful in constructing the meaningful sentences, while for the words namely ‘invention’, ‘which’, and ‘lowly’, a good number of students were not quite successful in making the sentences with these words. So, it seems to appear that students have vocabulary issues when it comes to constructing meaningful sentences in English language.
Descriptive Statistics for ‘Exercise six’ about writing a range of words about things in students classroom
Items correct incorrect
Counts Percentage Count
1. One 205 88.0% 28 12.0%
2. Two 174 74.7% 59 25.3%
3. Three 166 71.2% 67 28.8%
4. Four 162 69.5% 71 30.5%
5. Five 162 69.5% 71 30.5%
Table 4.7 contains participants’ responses regarding the ‘Exercise six’ which asked studentstowrite about a range of words about things in students’ classroom. The aim was to assess the basic vocabulary collection related to students’ surroundings. Data analysis suggested that nearly 88% of students provided the one name of things of their class room, followed by two names (74.7%), tree names (71.2%), four names (69.5%) and five names (69.5%).
In conclusion, a good number of students were able to write down full five names. Nearly one third of students were not able to provide four or five names of different things in tier classroom. So, it seems to appear that students have a healthy level of basic vocabulary collection to some extent and at the same time a considerable amount of students also require improvement and teachers need to give extra time on these weak students to improve tier vocabulary.
Descriptive Statistics for ‘Exercise seven’ about filling an incomplete word with a letter in dotted space to complete the words
Items correct incorrect
Counts Percentage Count
1. Friend 201 86.3% 32 13.7%
2. Task 115 49.4% 118 50.6%
3. Music 139 59.7% 94 40.3%
4. History 139 59.7% 94 40.3%
5. Knowledge 150 64.4% 83 35.6%
Table 4.8 contains participants’ responses regarding the ‘Exercise seven’ which asked studentstofill an incomplete word with a letter in dotted space to complete the words. The purpose was to assess the basic vocabulary level from a slightly different angle. Data analysis suggested that nearly 86%, 49%, 58%, 58% and 64% of students were regarded as successful in filling up the words namely ‘friend’, ‘task’, ‘music’, ‘history’, and ‘knowledge’ respectively. overall, around 64% of students were successful in attempting this exercise in general wile approximately 36% of students were not quite successful in attempting this filling up exercise.
In conclusion, a good number of students (64%) were able succeed with the filling up all the words with appropriate words and above one third of students (36%) were not able to succeed wit tis exercise on a whole. So, it seems to appear that students have a healthy level of basic vocabulary words to some extent and at the same time a considerable amount of students also require improvement and teachers need to give extra time on these weak students to improve tier vocabulary.
Results of t-test and Descriptive Statistics for students overall vocabulary performance’ by gender
Gender 95% CI
Male students Female students
M SD n M SD n df p
Physical learning environment 37.76 12.7 125 51.26 5.8 108 -.16.0 -10.9 10.62 178 .000
Independent sample t-test was applied to compare male and female elementary upper grade students overall vocabulary performance. T-test results indicated that there is statistical difference exist between, male students (M=37.76, SD=12.7) and female students (M=51.26, SD=5.8) in terms of overall vocabulary performance (t (178)=10.62, p