A living thing is something that exhibits life. A nonliving thing is something that doesn’t exhibit life. Life is an organismic state characterized by capacity for the characteristics of living organisms. These characteristics include:
• Reproduction
• Respiration
• Growth
• Movement
• Reacting to stimulus
• Excretion
• Nutrition

Reproduction is the ability to produce offspring. Respiration is the ability of an organism to take in oxygen from the atmosphere to convert energy to feed the cells to break down sugars. As a result of this, carbon dioxide and some water vapors are expelled during exhalation. Not all organisms have the same form of respiration. Growth is the ability of an organism to divide cells in an orderly way to create new cells. Movement is the ability of an organism to move. Reacting to stimulus is the ability of an organism to respond to stimuli around it. Excretion is the ability of an organism to get rid of waste products that might poison the cells. Nutrition is the ability of an organism to provide energy or growth for itself using materials from their surroundings.

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Are viruses living or nonliving?

Viruses are not living and not nonliving organisms. They are in the area between the two because they are not made up of cells but of a central core of either DNA or RNA surrounded by a coating of protein. Another reason, viruses depend on other cells for the raw materials and energy that are necessary for all the biochemical activities that allow viruses to reproduce. Also, viruses don’t reproduce like cells, instead, they ‘assemble’ themselves by taking control of the host cell, which manufactures and assembles the viral components.