a) Beliefs…as to what amounts to acceptable conduct…constitute the “value system” of a society… and this value system will inevitably be reflected in the law…However what may be termed “value trends” appear from time to time and these can make themselves felt in the law”.
Mulholland J
Mulholland J is suggesting that a society’s beliefs are not static but change over time and that the law will inevitably reflect these changes.

List two Acts of Parliament that support Mulholland’s view that the law must be seen in its “societal context”. Briefly explain why you have chosen the two Acts you have listed.
– Human Right Act 1993: this Act deals with discrimination on a wide area including sex, religious beliefs, ethical belief, ethnic or national origin in comparison to Mulholland. J suggestion somehow the law must be seen in its societal context or society beliefs.
– New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990: the act discovers the atmosphere change in New Zealand Law which it provides judges the means to interpret around different act to ensure interest.

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b) Evaluate the following sentences, state whether you agree or disagree with reasoning

(i) Ethics is about doing the right thing.
– Agree, ethics is about doing the right thing or right decision in real life.
(ii) Law is a set of rules enforced by the State against the people of the State.
– Agree, laws are those rules required to obey in a particular State or Country.
(iii) Morality are written rules about how to behave in a business context.
– Disagree, morality represent the community views of the majority of society on certain forms of behavior in social matters.

c) (i) The law is often subdivided into civil law and criminal law. Briefly explain why this distinction is made.
– legal terminology this concern about to keep a very clear distinction between criminal and civil court cases as they have different purposes, outcomes and names of parties. In a Civil Law, it deals with disputes between individuals or between businesses in which compensation is awarded to the victim and Criminal law is a body of law that deals with crime scene and legal punishment of criminal offenses with case filed by the government and Civil law by private parties. For example, civil law is when a divorce proceeding or child custody proceeding and criminal law concern of theft and robbery, murder.
(ii) Sometimes the law is subdivided another way, private law and public law.
How does this subdivision differ from the civil/criminal distinction?
– Private law is concerned with matters that affects the rights and duties of individuals among themselves which civil law is made up of different areas of private law, however, Public law is concerned with matters that affects the State as a community within New Zealand’s Internal law which criminal law is part of public law.

d) (i) What is Parliamentary Supremacy and where does the Judiciary sit in the relationship between Parliament/Legislature and the Judiciary?
– Parliamentary Supremacy as Parliament, the legislature, has unlimited lawmaking powers. It may, by statute, overrule laws made by the Judiciary and the Executives, but at the same time, its laws cannot be inspected or declared invalid by either of other government branches and presides the court judges.
ii) Explain how the introduction of MMP (Mixed Member Proportional) has helped to restore a greater balance of power between the executive and legislative branches of government.
– The Electoral System- Mixed Member Proportional in fact is a “mixed member”, in terms, the House of Representatives is made up of 121 M. P’s, which the system is “proportional” because each party gets the number of seats in the House that is in proportion to its share of the party vote throughout New Zealand. Every voter gets 2 votes; the party vote is counted on a New Zealand wide basis & electorate vote which selects M. P’s on an electorate basis.

e) Although the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 forms part of New Zealand’s constitution, nevertheless, section 4 of the Act makes it clear the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty remains in place. In this respect at least New Zealand’s constitution is fundamentally different to that of (for instance) the United States.

Do you consider this statement is an accurate summing up of a major difference between the constitutions of New Zealand and the United States?
– Yes, in terms of New Zealand having an Unwritten Constitution, the constitution is not found in a single written documents as compared to the United States but is comprised of law from a number of diverse sources including New Zealand Acts, Court cases and Treaty of Waitangi.

f) Why is the New Zealand Maori Council V Attorney-General (1987) regarded as important landmarks in the law relating to the Treaty?
– Because New Zealand Maori Council V Attorney-General (1987) is one of the leading cases that make up part of New Zealand’s Constitution and the very important decision of the Court of Appeal.

A) Marginal Analysis refers to an examination of the effects of additions to or subtraction’s from a current situation. (Layton, Robinson ; Tucker, 2016, p. 35) The term marginal is classified as extra. It therefore helps in deciding between options. In this situation the value of the crops is $80 without the addition of 1 kilogram of fertiliser and value rises to $100 if the farmer decides to add 1 kilogram of fertiliser per hectare. For example if the cost of fertiliser is less than $20, let’s say its $15 per hectare the farmer should add fertiliser as per the marginal analysis because the profit will increase by $5 with the addition of the fertilisers and therefore the marginal cost will increase every $20 if the fertiliser cost is set up at $15. Therefore according to marginal analysis the farmer should add fertiliser as long as the cost is less than $20 per kilogram. (Layton, Robinson & Tucker, 2016, p. 35).
B) Opportunity cost is the best alternative that is sacrificed for a chosen alternative. (Layton, Robinson & Tucker, 2016, p. 33) The opportunity cost is classified as an option that is given up as best alternative and is therefore not where Bill spends $10 to buy the action figure. As opportunity cost is the best alternative sacrificed for a chosen alternative. So therefore, in this case the opportunity cost of buying the action figure is the Batman Graphic Novel because the graphic novel is the best alternative which has been sacrificed and the action figure is a chosen alternative by Bill. It cannot be an X Men T-Shirt because the graphic novel was Bill’s close second choice. (next best alternative)

C) P

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Price D

0 D
Quantity of wheat
It can be said that the demand curve is perfectly elastic which means that the individual farmer’s quantity of cheese sold is limitless in relation to the price which does not vary.
Answer 2
A) In a perfectly competitive market a firm would not innovate because they will not get a higher price for their products from the buyers because there exists to be lot of firms but they can innovate by reducing their cost and expenses in order to increase their profit.
Monopoly Competition
The market structure is represented by only a single seller which means there are high barriers as which makes it even difficult for new firms to enter the market (Layton, Robinson & Tucker, 2016, p. 188) The market structure is represented by a lot of firms which means there are no barriers for a firm to enter the market (Layton, Robinson & Tucker, 2016, p. 160)

The type of product is unique which means that close substitutes don’t exist. (Layton, Robinson ; Tucker, 2016. p. 189) All the firms are seen as producing a homogenous (similar) product. The products and services produced by the firms are identical. (Layton, Robinson ; Tucker, 2016, p. 159)

C) Revenue in basic terminology is defined as the sum of money a firm receives. Total Revenue is calculated as price x quantity. If a firm in a competitive market doubles the amount of output it sells or in other words it can be said if the firm doubles the quantity then the revenue will then be calculated as price x quantity*2. Therefore, this is only going to double the total revenue if the firm doubles the amount of output/ quantity and the price therefore doesn’t change it remains constant.
Answer 3
A) The proportionate change in quantity demanded when the price falls from $16 to $14 is:
%change in quantity demanded = New-Old = 35-25 = 10/25 = 0.4
Old 25
B) The proportionate change in price when the price falls from $16 to $14 is:
%change in price = New-Old = 14-16 = 2/16 = 0.125
Old 16
C) The price elasticity of demand between $16 and $14 = %change in quantity demanded
%change in price
Therefore Ped = 0.4 = 3.2
In other words it can be said that it is price elastic because the price elasticity of demand is greater than 1 which is 3.2, therefore demand changes by a greater% than the price% change.
D) Mid-Point Formula = New – Old
Price elasticity of demand = %change in quantity demanded/%change in price
%change in quantity demanded = New-Old
35-25 = 10 = 10 = 0.33
(35+25)/2 60/2 30
%change in price= New-Old
14-16 = 2 = 2 = 0.13
(14+16)/2 30/2 15

Price Elasticity of Demand = 0.33 = 2.53 (Price Elastic), therefore demand changes by a greater% than the price% change. 0.13
Answer 4
i) Point H
ii) Point F
iii) Point E
iv) Point A
2) i)
S of cheese
Minimum Price of cheese surplus
Price Floor
Equilibrium Price
D of cheese
Figure A Quantity of cheese

The term price floor is defined as a legally established minimum price a seller can be paid. (Layton, Robinson & Tucker, 2016, p. 89) Price floors are most commonly used in agriculture industry in order to protect the farmers. Therefore in order to be effective the binding price floor which has been set by the government should be on top of the price of equilibrium not below the equilibrium price because the producers will not sell the cheese below the equilibrium price.
ii) Therefore in this situation there is a surplus because the quantity demanded of cheese is less as compared to the quantity supplied of cheese. (QD