4.0DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

The
scarcity of water is a worldwide issue and it’s as a result of physical and
economical constraint in certain regions like middle east, Africa, as well as
western states of America (Jimenez 2008). Therefore to conserve our water and
to avoid this scarcity we have to reuse the water again after treatment. The
purpose of wastewater treatment plants are to safeguard the kind of water
entering into the environment and to conserve water resources.

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The
effluent from wastewater treatment plants is either released into receiving
watersheds or reused in the agricultural and industrial sectors, such as
agricultural irrigation, groundwater recharge, etc. Owing to the huge
volumetric amount of treated wastewater, the transport and fate of pathogenic
microorganisms from treated wastewater in subsurface and groundwater have
attracted extensive concern over the past 2 decades (Gruau G, Kryak DD. et  al2005).
However a large number of staphylococci are present in the waste water even
antibiotic resistant staphylococci (Schwartz et al., 2003; Börjessonet al.,
2009; Goldstein et al., 2012; Mogeset al., 2014).

Staphylococcus aureus
is and commonly found in the skin and the nails of humans and various animal
species; however, it may also act as an opportunistic pathogen that causes
minor to severe infections due to the production of different virulence
factors. Nowadays, methicillin-resistant S.
aureus (MRSA) is one of the most important threats to human and animal
health worldwide (Cunyet al. 2015). Since these bacteria
can be aerosolized from water and are capable of colonizing skin and soft
tissues, exposure through inhalation is of concern, particularly among workers
at wastewater treatment plants who come in contact with the reclaimed water. In
Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, wastewater effluent are collected
and passed through various treatment processes before being released for reuse
by the university community.

A
total of 25 isolates of staphylococcus was obtained from collection of 4
wastewater samples but only 18 of isolates were tested with antibiotics. All
the isolates were catalase positive except one and all were also gram positive,
all wereDnase negative(100%). All the isolates were both susceptible to
cefoxitin and Ciprofloxacin(100%), 13 of them were susceptible to
tetracycline(72.2%) while 2 of them were resistant to chloramphenicol (11.1%),
2 and 1 of them were intermediate to clindamycin(11.1%) and rifampin(5.6%)
respectively while 6 of them were resistant to erythromycin(33.3%).

This
results show a slight variance to a similar study by Mogeset al. (2014) carried out in Ethiopia. The slight differences can
be attributed to the differences in the use of various antibiotics in Nigeria
and Ethiopia. The high susceptibility of the organisms to ciprofloxacin may be
as a result of low circulation of the drug. Some of the organisms are resistant
to four antibiotics including tetracycline, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and
erythromycin. As indicated by Abulreesh (2011), multidrug resistant
staphylococci (S. aureus and
coagulase negative staphylococci) have been a common problem and recovered from
diverse environmental sources, such as drinking water supplies, foodstuffs, the
mucosa of humans and farm animals and hospital environments which can be
important public health concern.

Therefore
the presence of antibiotic resistant staphylococci should not be overlooked as
they will pose threat and danger to the students and well being of the workers
of wastewater treatment plant as well as individual who are susceptible to
infections. Therefore, improved wastewater treatment plant practices should be
established and improved sanitary measures should be practiced. Also further
research should be carried out to provide good and enough information to allow
for the assessment of the extent of microbial risk associated with using
reclaimed water