3.3 How water management systems work
This part of the methodology aims to educate the reader on how the water management systems work and they will be integrated to the design of the future proposed development.

3.3.1 Rainwater Catchment systems
Rainwater Catchment is done by harvesting water that falls on the roof of a buildings and then stored up to 18 months for later consumption and for every 1 inch of rainfall on a 2 ft2 of the roof can be transformed into 1.25 gallons of potable water. The first few drops of rainwater is run to clean the debris off of the roof. The collection systems on the roof channels the water into the storage cistern through the gutter and pipes. The gutters are designed to be angled in order to avoid stagnant water. After running through pipes, the water is transferred to a the storage cistern, which is designed to prevent breeding of mosquitoes, contamination, growth of algae, and loss of evaporation. Once the water needs to be distributed, it will be channeled through a series of filters and ultraviolet lights for it to meet the potable water standards. After this, the water is ready for any domestic use, such as flushing, doing the laundry, bathing and showering. Rainwater is often naturally clean and is not in need of any water softening materials. However, like any other building utilities, it needs regular cleaning and maintenance in order to keep things sanitary and highly functional. CITATION Bui13 l 13321 (BuiltSmart Resources, 2013)3.3.2 Wastewater Treatment system

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Opposed to rainwater, reclaimed water has high level of pathogens and sediments and usually needs water softening agents, hence it requires more steps and receives more treatments; but nonetheless, it is reusable. The wastewater treatment system often uses the simplest principles to remove any contaminants. The primary treatment it receives removes about half of the contaminants, through simple physical and mechanical processes like through bar screens and grit chambers. The secondary treatment is the removing of the remaining organic contaminants through biological processes such as aeration basins and final clarifiers. Lastly before it is reused, it will be filtered, disinfected, and dechlorinated to ensure the removal of any pathogens. CITATION San l 13321 (San Antonio Water System, n.d.)

3.9.2 Interview guides
In conducting the interviews, the researcher made use of interview guides. Questions were prepared in advance taking heed of Patton, (2002)’s idea that an interview guide lists the questions or issues that are to be explored in the course of an interview. The use of an interview guide has advantages as it ensures careful use of interview time, makes interviewing systematic and comprehensive by deciding in advance the issues to be explored while maintaining the interactions focused. Cohen et al. (2005) also points that interview guide enable data collection to be systematic.

The interview guides were designed in such a way that they addressed the key issues which needed to be answered as far as an understanding of the recycling industry was concerned. Issues such as companies motives and extent of involvement in recycling, policies and legislation for recycling, recycling products, recycling networks, benefit chains, value addition processes, awareness of recycling, challenges of the industry were covered in the guide.
Data gathered answered the main objectives of the study. Appendix F gives details of the general structure of the interview guides with some omissions or additions in the different guides depending on the areas of focus.
3.9.3 Direct observation
Observation as a research process offers the researcher the opportunity to ‘look directly at what is taking place in situ rather than relying on second-hand accounts'(Cohen, 2005,p. 415). Data is gathered from naturally occurring social situations.Rugg ;Petre (2007, p. 110) remark that ‘one strong point of observation is that it shows you something, without the filtering effect of language’.Observations, according to Morrison (1993 p. 80 as cited by Cohen, 2005, p.397) enable the researcher to gather data on physical, human, interactional and the programme settings. The researcher carried out direct observations during company visits. These were done in order to confirm data collected during interviews and documentation. Through observations, the researcher collected data on activities and processes carried out by the different recycling companies. The researcher was able to observe recovery, preprocessing and manufacturing activities that took place at companies A, B, C, D, E,K,F and N. Manufacturing of plastic packaging and plastic pipes at companies B and D was captured during observations, confirming what was said during interviews.

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While the method is credited for providing first hand information, several limitations have been recorded. Kothari (2004) identified some of the following shortcomings:
1. It is an expensive method.
2. The information provided by this method is very limited.
3. Sometimes unforeseen factors may interfere with the observational task.

3.9.4 Observation checklist
Observations were recorded through the use of an observation checklist. For systematic data collection, the use of checklists is encouraged as noted by Rugg ; Petre (2007). A list of activities to be observed is kept in diaries by the researcher for answers for a specific observation to be recorded. Appendix G shows the checklist used during the research.
3.9.5. Document search
Apart from primary sources of data collection, the researcher also made use of documents from companies and archived on the internet. Documents comprise of written material and other documents from the cases under investigation (Patton, 2002). Document search was important because it gave the researcher a general background and operation issues on the subject that was being studied. The researcher collected official documents in hard and soft copy such as the waste management policies, regulations and reports on waste reduction measures and waste audit plus other related documents from Company (O) while company (M) documents were a report and pamphlet about the recycling industry. Document search gave the researcher an insight into the activities taking place within the organization, for example, company (M) documents helped the researcher to verify what was happening in the recycling industry in Namibia as some of the issues raised like challenges of the industry were well documented. Unlike respondents, who are aware of being studied, documents have the advantage of “unobtrusive and non-reactive measures” (Hoyle et al., 2002, p. 361). However, not all companies provided this information. Therefore some information was obtained from the internet such as general policies and legislation governing the industry. As with other data collection methods, documents have limitations. They may be incomplete and in some instances inaccurate.
3.9.6 Piloting and pre-testing
Pre-tests and pilot studies are different types of mini studies carried out as part of the process of planning and preparing for a study. A pilot study is a “small scale replica and a rehearsal of the main study”(Sarantakos, 1993, p. 277). The purpose of the exercise is to check the effectiveness of the research instruments e.g. checking respondents comprehension of questions or checking on cases of ambiguity. (Bless ;Higson-Bless, 1995; Powell, 1997; Sarantakos, 1993; Yin, 2003). Sarantakos 1993, p. 277) states that with ‘case studies piloting can establish availability of respondents, accessibility of the research environment and effectiveness of the data collection technique, whether it will collect too much or too little information’. Following this argument, the researcher decided to carry out a pilot study. Piloting was carried out in March 2015 with one of the largest recycling companies in the country. It came out during the interview that questions had to be short as long questions ended up with part of them not addressed. Some adjustments were later made to the interview guide. Through piloting, it was possible to clarify as well as identify other issues pertinent to the study, which were then included in the inquiry. Piloting established that the time required to complete the interview guides was too long and that some of the questions were unintentionally repetitive and ambiguous. The interview guides were then adjusted accordingly.
3.10 Data Collection Procedure
This section describes the process the researcher went through to collect data from the different companies e.g. from seeking authority to conduct the study, arrangement for interviews, up to the collection of the data.
3.10.1 Seeking permission from the institutions and individuals
For research conducted on an institution, approval for conducting the research should be obtained from the institution (Bell 1999). At the beginning of the research, the researcher physically visited the City of Windhoek municipal officials since the researcher had no idea of who to talk to. After getting contact numbers, the researcher phoned all companies that were identified in order to seek permission to conduct the research in their organizations. This was a lengthy and frustrating process as very few responded in an amicable way. Having explained the purpose, the researcher then sent a letter to all institutions seeking permission to conduct the research in their companies as per request. Some of the companies did not respond despite endless efforts by the researcher to get feedback. In some instances, the researcher had to wait for a period of three weeks to get response. Of the twenty companies identified, 15 later gave the researcher permission to conduct the research. Data collection started in May 2015.
After getting permission to conduct the research in the organizations, the next step was to arrange interview appointments, another lengthy process. Setting up interviews with the research participants was not an easy task with some of the participants. They would cancel appointments or request to be interviewed at short notice or simply to dodge the interview after giving promises of the date and time of when the interview will take place.
3.10.2 The interview process
The researcher conducted all interviews personally. Before the interview commenced, consent letter had to be signed for agreement to be interviewed and audio tapped. All participants agreed to be interviewed and audio tapped. However, in all instances, the researcher was only able to use the voice recorder on two participants as the voice recorder malfunctioned in some instances and the researcher had no back- up plan except to take down notes as the interview progressed. Information sought from the companies was to do with motives, extent of involvement in recycling activities, policies and legislation governing their operations, value addition, linkages and benefits of the industry as well as constraints they faced in their operations and how they managed with them.Where given permission, photographs were taken during observations. The researcher reviewed notes at the end of each day for any insight on issues relevant to pursue in subsequent interviews. This is what Patton (2002, p. 383) refers to as the “emergent nature of qualitative research”.
3.10.3 Research ethics
Issues of informed concern, confidentiality, and integrity during the research are important as recommended by some authors such as Patton (2009). Ethics considers the good and bad or right and wrong with moral duty and obligations.
Observations of ethics were of great significance to the study. The researcher firstly debriefed the participants before carrying out the interviews. This was done by explaining the whole purpose and process of the study before highlighting the importance of the research. In this research, the participants were given assurance of confidentiality, and by so doing they were assured of no disclosure of information such as names of companies or respondents as such information obtained would be considered personal and private and was going to be used for academic purposes only.
Creswell (2003) advises on the importance of maintaining privacy and confidentiality during a research. The researcher used codes for companies in order to protect their identities and no participants were coerced to take part. During and after the study, the identity of the respondents will remain confidential. Research information from interviews and discussions were coded and kept in a safe place with confidentiality.
3.11 Data Analysis
Data analysis and presentation follows data collection (Cohen, et al. p.458).It involves making sense of data in terms of the participants’ definitions of the situation, noting patterns, themes, categories and regularities (Cohen, et al. p.458). Data analysis is important in order to generate findings from the raw data. It is the process of organizing the mass of collected data (Nichodemus , 2010).The process is not left until to the end as Jacobsen et al. (2006) pointed out. In fact data collection and analysis takes place simultaneously with qualitative research. The study applied content analysis procedure. Content analysis refers to the systematic set of procedures for the rigorous analysis, examination and verification of the contents of written data according to (Flick 1998: 192; Mayring 2004: 266 as cited by Cohen, 2005, p. 475. Desired information from a text is extracted during this procedure. Content was extracted from the interview transcripts, documents and observation notes. As the first step, transcripts of interviews were analyzed through reading them. Information from the transcripts was then broken down into categories resulting in the emergence of different themes. According to Trace (2001), when analyzing the data, themes should be allowed to emerge rather than attempting to impose preconceived set of themes on the data. Using the deductive approach, the researcher thematically analyzed the transcript data first and then analyzed these themes in the light of the research questions.

Data was analyzed manually although there were computer software packages that could be used to analyze qualitative data such as Atlas/it and Hyper Qual. Mayring (2000) & Rourke et al., (2001) reported that these soft wares have proved their worth. Hoyle et al. (2002; p. 399) argued that computerized content analysis can analyze large amounts of data very quickly but cannot handle “verbal subtleties such as sarcasm”. The researcher considered the data collected as not being large enough to warrant the use of software.
3.12 Data Presentation
Data presentation differs depending on the research methods used. Quantitative research method relies on the use of statistical reports to present data. On the other hand, qualitative research relies on the use of narrative reports, with contextual descriptions, direct quotations from research participants, graphs and tables as noted by Hancock(1998).Qualitative presentations were employed in the presentation of research findings of this study. This was in the form of descriptive narrative, illustrative quotes, tables and some few diagrams and graphs.
3.13 Validity and reliability
Cresswell (2009) emphasizes that reliability and validity are of great importance when doing a research. This idea is further supported by Patton (1990) who points that that validity and reliability are two factors which must be of great concern to the researcher in qualitative studies while designing a study, analyzing results and judging the quality of the study. According to Esposito (2002) validity refers to whether the researcher actually measured what he/she wanted to measure. Reliability on the other hand means that responses to the questionnaire were consistent. Qualitative validity means that the researcher checks for the accuracy of the findings by employing certain procedures, while qualitative reliability indicates that the researcher’s approach is consistent across different researchers and different projects according to (Gibbs, 2007 as cited by Creswell(2009).
To ensure validity and reliability of the study findings, Creswell, (2007), Hoyle et al. (2002) and Patton (2002) argue for triangulation as a strategy for improving validity and reliability of research. For this study, observation, document search and interviews were used to ensure validity of the findings.The reliability of interviews for this research was observed through pilot testing. This was done to ensure that no information was missed from the respondents. Questions that were not clear to the respondents were noted and rectified.

3.0 Reasoning and Analysis
3.1 Right Theories and Justice Theory
Right theory means the belief that people have an inherent worth as human beings that must be respected. Every person should respect the rights of others such as freedom of choice, freedom of speech, right to truth, right to what is agreed and others. However, this result an unethical behaviours if the action is violating another person’s rights. Based on the cased that faced by McDonalds, McDonalds is having an unethical behaviour with the workers whose came from Nepal. McDonald’s had violated the contractual rights as well as the right to what is agreed. From the case faced by McDonald’s, the Nepalese were not receiving the salary on time and cause them have difficulty in buying the food and sending the money to their families in Nepal. Not only that, the salary of the Nepalese were also paid less than promised in the contract before. According to the workers, they have a reduction of 25% in their basic salaries compared to the original salary that stated in the contracts.
Besides that, the manager of Human Resources department also keeping the passports of Nepalese workers and do not want to return them although the contracts with the workers have ended. Some of the workers were complaining to headquarters about their situation, however, the headquarters did not response and take any action to correct the action that did by branch of McDonalds. This had forced some of the workers to run away from their job without their passport. The workers have also forced to enter with some illegal work in order to earn some money and send back to their hometown.
Moreover, McDonald’s also having an unethical behaviour by owing the right to life to the workers. Although the workers had provided an accommodation to stay, the condition of the accommodation was worst such as the paint peeling off the damp walls, the trophy of McDonald’s was propped up on the fan switch and others. The workers also forced to fit into a small flat which only contain one small toilet by having 18 workers in a room. This may cause the workers felt uncomfortable and not enough energy to perform their work.
Lastly, McDonald’s unethical behaviours has violated the distributive justice. Distributive justice is meaning that the people should accept the fair share of responsibility and treatment with other people. McDonald’s was treated the Nepalese workers different form the local workers. They cut down the salary of Nepalese workers since they are the foreign workers. McDonalds also delay the time for salary, it is because they thought that the Nepalese workers were cheap and easier to control.
4.0 Expected Ethical Behavior from Industry
4.1 Respect and treat fairly to the workers
Workforce is a very important resources in every company. To become a successful company, the management of the company should treat the workers properly and try to build a good relationship with the workers. There are few ways that McDonald’s should do in order to make a better relationship with workers.
Firstly, McDonald’s should treat every workers equally whether is local workers or foreign workers. They should pay the salary of Nepalese workers according to the contract that has been promised and recorded and should not cut down the salary of workers. The reason of Nepalese workers work in Malaysia is because they want to earn some money and send back to the hometown for their parents. Therefore, the management should pay the correct salary to the workers so that the workers will felt that they were being respected and will not look down by other local workers. Besides, the management should pay the salary of Nepalese workers on time. It is because the salary can help them to solve the problem of daily needs such as buying foods, buying shirt and others. If the management delay the payment of salary, they may have some difficulty in managing the daily needs.
Furthermore, the management should return the passport to the workers once the contract has ended and the workers wish to go back to their hometown. The reason is due to every person has the right to choice. If the workers do not want to continue the job, McDonald’s should not force them to stay and let them to go back to their hometown. The management of McDonald’s can also photocopy the passport of the workers and kept it as a reference and let the workers to keep the original passport. Not only that, the management should also allow the workers to leave if there is any emergency happened in their hometown although the contract with the workers has not ended. By doing this, the workers will felt that the management are respectable and concern on them. As a result, the workers will loyalty to the company and continue to work with them.
Moreover, the management of McDonald’s should provide a better accommodation for the workers. It is because accommodation is a place that allow the workers to relax and comfort after the whole day of working. McDonalds should ensure that the numbers of workers who fit into one room are between four workers to six workers. As there is a relaxing and comforting place for the workers to stay, they will have enough energy to perform their work. Due to this, the performance of the workers will improve and thus the earning of the company will also increase.

3.7.2. Silver recovery
Treatment of X-ray films with protease lead to degradation of gelatin bounded to silver. So, this reaction was done by 20 µl of both forms of protease. We prepared humidify condition for prevention of evaporation. After two hours a clear zone showed gelatin degradation reaction and release of silver from it. Results in Fig. 6 shown that more gelatin hydrolysis was occurred by immobilized form compared to free protease.

3.7.3. De-haring process
Using some chemical materials for leather processing cause environmental pollution and low leather quality whereas enzymatic de-hairing mechanism give certain desired characteristics to the processed leather. Enzymatic dehairing by protease SO24 showed a big clear region derived from immobilized protease activity which demonstrated higher efficiency of immobilized protease activity compare to free enzyme in leather industry.
3.7.4. Applying as additive to detergent
Magnetic properties of nanoparticle help us to design a simple machine for moving this nanoparticle through cloth fibers (Fig. 1). We use a piece of cloth which soaked to blood for finding out clear efficiency of immobilized enzyme as additive in detergent industrial. Nanoparticles movement under electromechanical force were done in 20 second and results demonstrated all the blood stains were removed as shown in Fig. 6.

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4. Discussion
Bacillus SO24 which produced a high potent protease thrive in the alkaline environment among slaughterhouse wastes. It was immobilized on the functionalized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles. Optimal temperature for protease activity was 50 °C for free protease whereas it was maximum in the range of 50-70 °C in the case of immobilized enzyme. It showed that the activity of immobilized enzyme was increased in higher temperatures in comparison with free enzyme. It showed an appreciated activity in the high temperatures in which its activity was retained about 90 % of the initial activity at 80 °C (Fig. 4a). Protease SO24 has the same optimum temperature for protease activity of B. subtilis PE-11. Also it is more thermostable than the Bacillus protease reported in some previous studies (Mukherjee et al., 2008; Sen et al., 2011). Moreover, its stability significantly increased after immobilization reaction (Jin et al., 2010). Results demonstrated that the immobilized enzyme retained 40% of its initial activity after 4 h in 50 °C whereas free form showed about 10 % activity during the same condition (Fig. 4c).
As in Fig. 4b) shown, both forms of protease were active over a wide range of pH (4.0-11.0). The maximum activity of free protease was observed in pH 8.0 which it was agreement with previous study on Bacillus cereus BG1 (Horikoshi, 1990). Many reports demonstrated Bacillus protease with alkaline stability in comparison with this study (Mala & Srividya, 2010; Sareen & Mishra, 2008; Sen et al., 2011). Optimum pH for immobilized form was pH 9.0, it showed immobilization process cause increase enzyme tolerant toward alkaline in comparison with free form. Furthermore, the reusability as a key factor in industry was also tested. Results showed residual activity after an 8th cycle was unchanged but a sharp decline of the activity was observed in 10th (Fig. 4d). Although, Hu et al. 2015, reported that protease immobilized onto amino-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles showed 75% of initial activity retained after 6th cycle (Sinha & Khare, 2015). Furthermore, Atacan et al. 2016 and Hu et al. 2015 reported 79 and 50% remaining activity after 5th and 10th, respectively (Atacan et al., 2016). Among different substrates (albumin, casein, and gelatin) which used as substrate specificity of protease, gelatin was an attractive substrate for protease SO24 in comparison with other protein substrates. It can improve significantly of protease performance in silver recovery. Protease recovery and immobilization capacity were about 84 and 60%, respectively. It showed high efficiency of immobilization reaction and almost, in all case of hydrolysis reaction, immobilized form of enzyme was more efficient than its free form.
In this study we also evaluated application of protease SO24 in protease hydrolysis, leather process, silver recovery and using as additive in detergent industrial. Whey contains high value of soluble proteins which obtains from byproduct of local and industrial dairy waste (about 20 % of the total milk proteins). In addition, it contains high amount of lactose, vitamin B, and essential amino acids (e Silva & Silveira, 2013). Some proteolytic enzyme such as subtilisin, trypsin, and corolase have been used for enzymatic hydrolysis of whey (Silvestre et al., 2014; Wang et al., 2010). It is mentioned that, degree of hydrolysis for Whey was reported in the range of 5 to 23 %. Sinha et al, reported that DH was about 35 % for immobilized halophilic Bacillus sp. EMB9 protease after 30 min of incubation (Sinha & Khare, 2015). Our results showed that degree of hydrolysis for Whey was 44 % for immobilized thermophilic protease after 20 min of incubation at 60 % whereas it was 25 % for free enzyme at the same condition. Maximum DH (44 %) after 20 min of incubation for the immobilized protease indicating the improved process efficiency. It has been previously reported that, protein hydrolysates of whey proteins display some valuable properties such as antihypertensive, antimicrobial, lipid-lowering and antioxidant (Conesa & FitzGerald, 2013).
Merging biological and magnetic science in nanoscale level made a high number of notable advancement in the clinical and sensor technology (Haes et al., 2005; Ivkov, 2013). A simple mechanic system was manifested to use magnetic property of protease coupled nanoparticle. Appling this system for different forms of wash-up methods including protease coupled nanoparticle+ detergent, detergent alone, protease coupled nanoparticle alone and detergent alone. Results showed high potential level of immobilized protease SO24 coupled detergents as additive in detergent industry. Protease recovery showed compatibility of this enzyme in combination with detergent which its performance is also shown in Fig. 6.
5. Conclusion
A facile method to immobilize CLEAs-protease onto amino-coated magnetite nanoparticles was established to attain enhanced activity and stability. Hydrolysis degree for Whey was 44 % for immobilized thermophilic protease after 20 min of incubation at 60 %. In addition, a simple and efficient mechanic system was manifested to use of mCLEA-P-NC in washing performance. mCLEA-P-NC showed appreciated potential for treatment of waste protein of local wwly. Taken to gather, unique properties of this magnetic-CLEAs protease open an attractive way towards commercialize the production of high value product from waste protein and in washing system.

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