2.3.4. Cloud Computing Deployment Model
(NIST, 2011) explained four cloud deployment models which are commonly adopted by the cloud providers and government agencies. These are Public cloud services, Private cloud service, Community cloud service and Hybrid Cloud service.
In the public cloud infrastructure is provisioned for open use by the general public. It may be owned, managed, and operated by a business, academic, or government organization, or some combination of them. It exists on the premises of the cloud provider. Public cloud users are typically residential users and connect to the public internet through an internet service provider’s network. Google, Amazon, and Microsoft are examples of public cloud vendors who offer their services to the general public. Facebook and Gmail are also examples of services where data is stored in a public cloud. 15 Lists some of the advantages and drawbacks of the public cloud.
The advantages of public cloud computing include:
? Data availability and continuous uptime
? 24/7 technical expertise
? On-demand scalability
? Easy and inexpensive setup
? No wasted resources
Drawbacks of the public cloud:
? Data security
? Privacy
Private cloud service is a cloud deployment model in which the cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a single organization comprising multiple consumers. It may be owned, managed, and operated by the organization, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off premises. A private cloud is hosted in the data center of a company and provides its services only to users inside that company or its partners.
A private cloud provides more security than public clouds because in public cloud the user may not know where their data is stored or how it is backed up and whether unauthorized users can get access to it.
The major drawback of private cloud is its higher cost. When comparisons are made with a public cloud; the cost of purchasing equipment, software and staffing often results in higher costs to an organization having their own private cloud.
A community cloud falls between public and private clouds with respect to the target set of consumers. It is somewhat similar to a private cloud, but the infrastructure and computational resources are exclusive to two or more organizations 15. The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive used by a specific community of consumers from organizations that have shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be owned, managed, and operated by one or more of the organizations in the community, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off premises.

The advantages 15 of community cloud include:
? The cost of setting up a communal cloud versus individual private cloud can be cheaper due to the division of costs among all participants.
? Management of the community cloud can be outsourced to a cloud provider. The advantage here is that the provider would be an impartial third party that is bound by contract and that has no preference to any of the clients involved other than what is contractually mandated.
? Tools residing in the community cloud can be used to leverage the information stored to serve consumers and the supply chain, such as return tracking and just-in-time production and distribution.
? Since it is managed by contract with an impartial third party or by one of or the combined expert of the whole community, it has the advantage of security and privacy over the public cloud.
Drawbacks of community cloud:
? Costs higher than public cloud.

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Another cloud deployment model hybrid Cloud the infrastructure is a composition of two or more distinct cloud infrastructures (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities, but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting for load-balancing between clouds). A hybrid cloud is typically offered in one of two ways: a vendor has a private cloud and forms a partnership with a public cloud provider, or a public cloud provider forms a partnership with a vendor that provides private cloud platforms. In a hybrid cloud, an organization provides and manages some resources in-house and some out-house. For example, organizations that have their human resource (HR) and customer relationship management (CRM) data in a public cloud like Saleforces.com but have confidential data in their own private cloud 15. Hybrid clouds 15 offer the cost and scale benefits of public clouds, while also offering the security and control of private clouds. The advantages of the hybrid cloud include:
? Reduces capital expenses as part of the organization’s infrastructure, needs are outsourced to public cloud providers.
? Improves resource allocation for temporary projects at a vastly reduced cost because the use of public cloud removes the need for investments to carry out these projects.
? Helps optimize the infrastructure spending during different stages of the application lifecycle. Public clouds can be tapped for development and testing while private clouds can be used for production. More importantly, public clouds can be used to retire applications, which may be no longer needed because of the move to SaaS, at much lower costs than dedicated on-premise infrastructure.
? Offers both the controls available in a private cloud deployment along with the ability to rapidly scale using the public cloud.
? Supplies support for cloud-bursting.
? Provides drastic improvements in the overall organizational agility, because of the ability to leverage public clouds, leading to increased opportunities.

Drawbacks of the hybrid cloud are:
? As a hybrid cloud extends the IT perimeter outside the organizational boundaries, it opens up a larger surface area for attacks with a section of the hybrid cloud infrastructure under the control of the service provider.
? An easier approach to solving the identity, needs of hybrid clouds is to extend the existing enterprise identity and access management to the public clouds. This opens up concerns about how this approach will affect the enterprise identity and its impact on the organization’s security.
? When organizations manage complex hybrid cloud environments using a management tool, either as a part of the cloud platform or as a third-party tool, organizations should consider the security implications of using such a tool. For example, the management tool should be able to handle the identity and enforce security uniformly across hybrid cloud environments.
? A hybrid cloud makes the data flow from a private environment to a public cloud much easier. There are privacy and integrity concerns associated with such data movement because the privacy controls in the public cloud environment vary significantly from the private cloud.
? There are risks associated with the security policies spanning the hybrid cloud environment such as issues with how encryption keys are managed in a public cloud compared to a pure private cloud environment.

2.1 Introduction
This chapter explores studies that have been done on the rampant forced marriages, either in Kenya, Africa and globally especially in the rural areas. A literature review is a reproducible, systematic and explicit means for identifying evaluating and synthesizing the existing body of completed and recorded work produced by researchers, scholars, and practitioners (Burns & Grove, 2010). The purpose is to provide an overview by viewing literature relevant to the topic. Identify areas of study, agreement, and disagreements. It also helps define your problem, justify the research question and analyze the strength and weakness of previous researchers. It helps in highlighting the gaps in research. Sources of literature review for this study is mainly from search engines such as Google Scholar, hinari, journals, articles, newspapers, and books. The review was done guided by the study objectives.
2.2 Major causes of early forced marriages

Adults hold a believe that they are entitled to impose children to marriage, girls are robbed off their dignity and chances to decide for themselves concerning who to get hitched to and the right time for it. We are defined by assortments and they also lead us towards realization of potentials. Girls should be given this golden chance (UNICEF, 2015).

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Key significant identified causalities include destitution and economic needs, innocence, cultural and social norms, battles and conflicts in the society. Ignorance comes about when parents perceive it better and safer to marry off their daughters and avoid shame of conception out of wedlock. It also makes societies believe that marriage at tender age is a way of defense against ferocity and sexual attacks (UNPA, 2018) .Social and cultural norms still remain top in persisting early forced marriages. Some beliefs and traditions call for maids to be driven away under laid down accordance with other kins. Girls have no choice other than to comply. Pressure exists within the populace and girls are married off because their parents don’t want them to be left out by their age mates.
Discreteness between lads and girls also is a key contributor; this is in issues involved with education with boys allowed to school and girls to marry.
Existence of social and religious stigma pertaining age of girl marriage forces guardians to allow female children to get married in order to overcome it. Girls are also betrothed to develop relationships pertaining to politics (Worldatlas, 2017)
Countries go through various occurrences of girls kidnapping and they are married or held captives while others are marketed for marriage. This is during periods of instability following conflicts and war. This wars and conflicts’ also lead to increased poverty and subsequently girls married off or choosing to marry at early age (Presse, 2013)
Early marriages also occur because damsels are contemplated to be more obedient compared to the older ones and also due to poor children protection law enforcement (international p. , 2018)
Girls are married off by their fathers in Kisumu County due to poverty. Daughters are viewed as assets and are married off in exchange for wealth in the form of dowry. Girls are the chief source of income for debts payment out of their parents’ ignorance (oliech, 2016).
The beading tradition practiced in Turkana is a temporary way of getting young girls in to a relationship with old men. The adult male buys the beads per the girls’ family consent as an engagement mark. This happens at 2-4 years of age when the girls are booked for marriage since this marks the first bride price. With subsequent years cattle are brought as the girl continue to grow. This is the chief source of wealth acquisition in this region for poor families. The girls are forever labeled and prized asset which is adored from birth. Full dowry is paid by the age of 12-15 years. Since poverty is severe in this region girls are even forced to look for their own food, desperation leads them to look for men who can provide for them regardless of age differences. (njanja, 2017)
Socioeconomic and cultural differences vary from region to region which also promote child marriages. The living and growing area determines at what age those from the region will marry. In India half of the maids are married before 18 years and highest rates are recorded only in five states. Similarly the same pattern was observed in Ethiopia where half of the early marriages were concentrated in only four regions in the north. (icrw, 2012)
A common reason for a large number of child marriages among the Maasai community is because the woman is viewed as a communal asset, men knowingly attack and rape them without the elders stopping them. Girls here are robbed of their education and youth as early as eight years. Female parents have no powers to talk about this issue because it’s the fathers who are involved; this leaves the girls and their mothers with no choice than to obey. This is so strict that the mothers don’t even get a chance to advice the girls on marital matters before they are driven off following cattle payment as dowry. They learn the hard way in the course of their marriage. (Action!aid, n.d). The girls don’t speak up for themselves since this is not taught to them and don’t know how to work towards future for managerial purposes. They only grow up knowing their future is being wives and mothers. The few privileged to attend school receive no attention from tutors as boys do, back at home they rarely study but are involved in house work.

2. The total area of Africa is around 30 million kilometers square.
3. Africa is second driest continent in the world.
4. Africa is the hottest continent in the world.
5. There are 54 countries in Africa.
6. The largest country in Africa is Sudan and the smallest country is Seychelles.
7. Africa’s most populated city is Cairo, capital of Egypt.
8. Africa is world’s largest diamond producer, approximately more than 50 %of world production.
9. Africa has the largest hot desert in the world called, Sahara desert.
10. The Sahara desert covers as many as 10 countries of Africa.
11. The richest country in Africa is Equatorial Guinea.
12. At the starting of the 20th century, the almost entire territory of Africa was colonized but Ethiopia and Liberia were independent.
13. During second Congo War, more than 5.4 million people died- second highest causalities after World War II.
14. Between 15th and 19th centuries, around 7-12 millions of Africans were kidnapped and sold into slavery in America.
15. Many countries of Africa are on the list of top 25 poorest countries in the world.
16. The people of Africa follow Islamic or Christianity religion.
17. Nigeria is the fourth largest oil exporter in the world and the largest oil producer in Africa.
18. Africa has more than 30% of total earth’s mineral resources.
19. The world’s longest river, Nile flows in Africa.
20. The biggest African island is Madagascar.
21. Africa’s largest lake is Victoria Lake and is also second largest freshwater lake in the world.
22. Africa population is more than 1 billion and is second most populated continent.
23. According to researchers, the human civilization started in Africa.
24. The total population of Africa is about 16% of total earth’s population.
25. In African countries, half of the population has not passed the age of 25 years.
26. There are more than 25 million HIV positive people in Africa and nearly 17 million people have already died from it.
27. Around 90% malaria cases occur in Africa and about 3,000 children die from it every day.
28. Approximately 40% of the population of Africa lacks secondary education.
29. The people of continent speak approximately 2000 languages.
30. Africa has the lowest life expectancy rate, men- 50 years and female- 48 years.
31. There are many rare species of plants and animals found in Africa like hippos, giraffes, and many others.
32. Hydnora Africana is an insectivorous plant grows only in Africa. The local people consume fruits of this plant.
33. More than 25% of bird species are in Africa.
34. The world’s largest land animal – an African elephant lives in Africa. It can weigh from 6 to 7 tons.
35. Lake Malawi, located in East Africa, contains the largest number of species of fish.
36. The world’s fastest animal, cheetah lives in Africa.
37. Some African tribes hunt hippos and serve it as food.
38. Africa is crossed by the equator and Prime Meridian, so it is most centrally located continent in the world.
39. Africa and Europe are separated by only 8.9 miles of ocean.
40. Arabic is the most common and spoken language, other languages like English, Swahili, French, and Hausa are second most popular languages.
41. The sand dunes of Sahara Desert can be as high as Eiffel Tower.
42. More than 90% of African soil is not suitable for agriculture.
43. Malnutrition is the main problem in Africa, around 240 million of Africans suffers from it.
44. The highest mountain in Africa is Kilimanjaro.
45. Africa’s most deadly animal is a hippopotamus.
46. A country of Africa, Tanzania has the highest albinism rate. Albino children are attacked by the witchdoctors and cut their body parts to make tonics that they believe can heal diseases.
47. Egypt is Africa’s most famous tourist destination.
48. Soccer and cricket are Africa’s most popular sports.
49. Females of an African tribe, Mursi wears plates on their lips.
50. Africa has the world’s oldest university; the University of Karaouine, it is in Morocco.
51. Around 40% of the population of Africa is illiterate.
52. There is a tribe in Africa called “Kalenjins”; most of the fast runners come from there.
53. Wangari Maathai was the first African woman who was rewarded Noble Prize for peace.
54. Sudan has the highest number of pyramids in the world.
55. Experts say that there are at least 3,000 distinct ethnic groups in Africa.
56. There are more than 1 million Chinese citizens in Africa.
57. South Africa is the second largest fruit exporter in the world.
58. 40% of African children between the ages of 5 and 14 are forced to work.
59. People have to walk on an average 4 kilometers daily to get water.
60. Every day around 96 elephants are killed on the continent.

2.3. Identify the policies and procedures in your own work setting that contribute towards safeguarding and the prevention of abuse

In relation to safeguarding vulnerable adults we have a clear policies and procedures that ensure the protection of vulnerable adults from any kind of abuse. The principle of this policy is to develop and implement procedures and strategies, which are designed to protect vulnerable adults from abuse. These strategies will identify who is at risk, determine the types of abuse that occurs and specify the procedures to be followed in the event have alleged or suspected abuse. It also promotes staff awareness of the common types of abuse. Our policy is supported by specialised staff training programmes as an on-going process.
Home Procedural Requirements
Preventive Measures

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St Mary’s procedure for recruiting care staff includes rigorous checks on job candidates. As part of a wider Vetting ; Barring Scheme to assess the risk of harm that a person may present to vulnerable persons, Independent Safeguarding Authority (ISA) checks through the Criminal Records Bureau are undertaken to ensure satisfactory registration of the candidate with ISA. These checks will ensure that the candidate is not recorded on the following lists held by ISA.

Children’s Barred List
Vulnerable Adult’s List

In accordance with statutory requirements, the home will not recruit any individual who is listed on the children’s barred list or vulnerable adult’s list.

Each staff member will receive training in Awareness of Vulnerable Adult Abuse, and the measures to be taken if abuse is suspected.

Action to be taken in the event of alleged/suspected Abuse

The Matron is designated as the key contact person within the home with direct responsibility for investigating any alleged or suspected incidences of abuse. Any staff member with concerns regarding possible abuse of a vulnerable adult will report the matter directly to the Matron. Where it is suspected that such abuse may be caused by another staff member then reporting the matter will be done in accordance with the Whistle Blowing policy.

Reporting such matters will take into account the balance which needs to be maintained for the confidentiality of the resident’s affairs and the duty of care to report suspected abuse.

The manager will assess the allegations /suspicions and decide upon appropriate action to be taken. If the incident is considered to be very minor then the Matron can deal with the situation directly. If the incident is of a more serious nature the Matron will contact the local office of the Registration Authority and if necessary the Police, according to individual circumstances.

In all cases, the Matron is responsible for maintaining complete case records of the suspicions raised, or allegations made, including dates, times and persons involved, and action taken. This action may be two types:
Corrective Action – action to be taken against perpetrators involved in confirmed incidents of abuse, and the discreet and sensitive handling of the abused person.
Preventive Action – strategies to be implemented with the objective of halting further abuse. Where such cases have involved the Home’s staff, with resulting disciplinary measures taken, this will trigger a robust review of current practices and procedures to determine what additional protective measures if any, need to be incorporated into the management systems.