2.0 Introduction

A literature review is ordinal process that involves the determination of published and unpublished work from secondary data sources on the topic interest (Sekaran & Bougie, 2009, p.38). Each of the contents of the literature is focused on the specific nature of the relevant literature that relates to this study.

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This chapter contains the reviews of secondary data that researchers have collected from journals, articles and book. The reviews are summarized after some referral from the past studies and are related to the motivation models. The formulation of hypothesis is based on the relationship between independent variables (intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation) and dependent variables (job performance).

2.1 Concept of Motivation to Learn

In general, the word motivation is incredibly powerful nevertheless will generally be tough too. generally it feels that to induce impelled would be straightforward and may even realize ourselves crammed with plenty of pleasure and happiness. However, it also can be the foremost troublesome factor to attain on the way to encourage yourself.

What is motivation to be told anyways? the way to outline it? The phrase motivation to be told will be divided into 2 parts that is motivation and learning. The word motivation solely will be referred to as a persistence, direction or maybe associate quantity of effort that will be dilated into a personal in order that he or she might reach their explicit objectives. (Blanchard & Thacker, 2007). Besides that, leaning will be determined mistreatment 2 part that square measure human psychological feature and behavioral perspective. psychological feature theories have explained learning as comparatively permanent changes in psychological feature occurring as a results of experiences. Behavior theories even have outlined that leaning as comparatively a permanent changes in behavior in response to a stimulant or set of stimuli. (Noe,1986: 736-170). All the on top of, can directly or indirectly have an effect on the individual World Health Organization encompasses a clear goal, high self-efficacy and even World Health Organization puts a high price on outcomes.

Motivation to be told conjointly associated with goal oriented. The manner associate worker try and bring themselves to be told new task or skills among a particular state of affairs could be a terribly sturdy indicator of their performance and engagement. associate worker World Health Organization desires to master in new field, department or maybe new skills can eventually use more practical learning methods compared to a different worker World Health Organization is ego oriented. as an example, associate worker can invest his effort and time to master the 60 minutes department as a result of he or she extremely inquisitive about the 60 minutes field and also the worker can even raise the way to do that ? the way to do that? why ought to do that?. this can create them explore even higher and have a vital thinking.

Besides that, motivation to be told will attempt for goals and also the self-control yet. associate worker wants encouragement and feedback so as for them to develop their self-control. the aim and also the doable answer plans ought to be the most factor before associate worker try and learn the new task or skills. this is often as a result of information is that the main item required to create any effective selections that square measure move goal nisus stage. during this manner, workers will assume and choose that methods are going to be best for them to require and that one are going to be a lot of helpful so as to attain the self-goals and conjointly the organization goals.

2.1.1 Intrinsic motivation

Intrinsic motivation could be a motivation that involves the partaking in an exceedingly person behavior as a result of it’s in person rewardable, they’re going to conjointly perform the task for his or her own satisfaction instead of the external reward. This theory can also be outlined because the internal motivation for the workers or trainees. samples of action for this motivation include: finding a word puzzle as a result of it’s a lot of fun and difficult and even exciting, collaborating in an exceedingly sport as a result of you discover the activity a lot of pleasurable. during this manner, we will say that a person’s behavior will be impelled by their own internal want to participate in any activity for its own sake.

Besides that, through this intrinsic motivation, individuals can try and acquire their motivation in itself for work o.k.. this is often as a result of intrinsic motivation is a lot of on complacence. There square measure 5 aspects of intrinsic motivation that square measure a lot of into difficult instead of any straightforward work, how to satisfy their own interest and curiosity instead of pleasing others, continuously freelance mastery tries than hooked in to others, freelance judgment and continuously like internal criteria for achievement and failure instead of external criteria. Intrinsic motivation is additionally a extremely desired style of incentive that shows up from a person’s complacence or pleasure in activity their explicit task and even will be directly or indirectly have an effect on the worker job performance. this is often as a result of for associate worker to try and do their work or to satisfy their satisfaction, they have some spirit and satisfaction so as to enhance their job performance.

2.1.2 Extrinsic motivation

According to Kendra Cherry (2018), extrinsic motivation happens once someone solely can perform a task in an exceedingly motive of receiving the rewards or avoid social control. Extrinsic motivation is additional to external reward to associate worker. this {can be} referred to as in such means as a result of it can maximize the worker and eventually offers them the spirit for them to be actuated. This motivation typically has been characterized as a pale and impoverished form of motivation. The classical case of extrinsic motivation is that one feels externally propel with the action and it’s going to be mentioned as as self-endorsed. Whenever someone is actuated by the external factors like cash, praise, competition and even threat or social control, it’s completely thought of as extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation is been perform so as to extend the productivity of a corporation or perhaps get to make a stronger learning surroundings for all the staff. This motivation conjointly helps to extend individual edges. However, there’s one disadvantage that is everybody has been payment their whole life by chasing rewards and pride at work so they’ll eventually regret what they didn’t comprehensible in their life.

External rewards that are the extrinsic motivation may also be such a supply of feedback wherever they apprehend till to what extent they need achieved their goals and the way their performance have affected and achieved to a meriting normal. In several cases, if they’re ready to satisfy their wants and satisfaction, the worker ar extrinsically motivation particularly through financial compensation. In such means, we will say that this motivation directly helps to extend the task performance of associate worker as a result of every of the individuals wants the reward for the task that they need done well and done it in an exceedingly bound fundamental quantity.

2.1.3 Theory related to Motivation

The theory that’s associated with motivation is that the Herzberg motivation theory. This theory is been developed by Fredrick Herzberg (1959) who was an American psychologist where he describes the human motivation. The word motivation acts as a reference that guides the novice thinking, feeling and action can become the topic. This Herzberg’s findings have shown that there are some characteristics of job that may result in employment satisfaction and even otherwise too. thus for instance, factors for satisfaction like accomplishment, recognition, responsibility will eventually result in satisfaction which might in conclusion relate to job performance.

In this Herzberg motivation theory, there are two factors concerned that are the inducement factors and hygiene factors. inducement factors were required so as to inspire the worker to perform well and provides their perfect in any work they are doing, however, the hygiene factors additional required to form positive that the staff don’t seem to be disgruntled wherever it’s going to have an effect on the task performance of a corporation. Motivators satisfaction are going to be glad if their self accomplishment is with success achieved. However, the shortage of motivators will virtually lead basis of criticism and concern in anyways if hygiene factors is been focused quite they suppose to be.

2.2 Concept of Supervisory Support

Supervisory support will be outlined to wherever the leaders in a corporation worth and appreciate their employees’ work, contributions and even they conjointly care concerning their well being. in an exceedingly straightforward word, {we can|we can|we are able to} say that the leader with a better higher-up support is that the one United Nations agency will care, hear, and even guide and worth their employees’ wants and well being. Even it’s terribly straightforward to listen to associated see however it eventually becomes the toughest half to be done once an worker is being promoted to a supervisor and he or she need to begin doing all those things so as to extend the employee’s job performance within the organization.

Supervisory support are going to be simpler if the supervisor is incredibly accessory and cared and valued their workers. this type of supervisor can create lots of variations within the employees’ everyday work surroundings. for instance, once associate worker entered work and therefore the supervisor wanted for his or her day to be sensible and support them, the total day the worker mood are going to be sensible even with lots of workloads. Supervisor plays a crucial role the employees’ life. sturdy supervisor support will facilitate to enhance and alter the standard of employment to best and higher ones. This support conjointly related to job satisfaction wherever it results in job performance, perceptions of a stronger match the worker and organization and in conclusion even helps to cut back the worker turnover that is incredibly common in several cases of late.

2.2.1 Theory related in Supervisory Support

The theory that associated with higher-up support is that the organization support theory. The organization objectives, goals, and even intentions are associated with the action of the supervisor. in keeping with Linda Rhoades and Robert Eisenberger (2002), organization support theory conjointly supposes that to see the rise in work effort is have an effect on from the organization’s concentration on reward, worker develop worldwide beliefs regarding the maximization to that their organization cares concerning others’ contributions and conjointly well being (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, ; Sowa, 1986; Shore ; Shore, 1995).
Supervisor roles are vital because the supervisor will facilitate to extend the task performance of associate worker with the assistance of motivation too. Supervisors got to have data and skills within the specific areas like coming up with, budgeting, organizing and even developing and evaluating human resources programs. this is often as a result of the supervisor is that the person that associate worker can notice so as to realize info for that specific space that they work on. Besides that, the supervisor conjointly got to offer encouragement and support to their worker so as for them to create motivation among themselves and it will eventually associated with satisfaction and in conclusion job performance. For an organization to run smoothly and succeed fully, the supervisor needs to use their skills and knowledge to empower their employees. Furthermore, the supervisor will evaluate their employees by giving feedback on what they are doing right, how to improve it to give better results and also can give some suggestions on how to settle the work in a short period of time but with best results as well. Every word by the supervisor is actually a small motivation that has been given to the employees. Supervisor also is there to give negative and positive reinforcement when needs and they even use motivation theories to empower their employees.

2.3 Concept of Job Performance

According to Business Dictionary, the definition of job performance is the activity that related to work and also how it is been done. This job performance has been the most important dependent variables and has been studies for a long decade. Performance is a multidimensional concept.

According to Campbell, performance is known as a behavior. It is something that is been done by employees. Performance and outcomes have some differences between them. Outcomes are more about the individual performance results and it also results from some other influences. Performance is more about making decisions or even giving a good answers for a particular actions. However, performance needed to be under an individual’s control such as the supervisor.

Job performance can be divided into task and contextual performance. Task performance was defined the job effectiveness when perform a certain task (Borman and Motowidlo, 1997). however, contextual performance was defined as part of a job which was not directly related to the work but it can help in making the organization to a better place (Borman and Motowidlo, 1993).

2.3.1 Theory Related to Job Performance

The theory that related to job performance is the Maslow’s hierarchy need theory. This Maslow theory is the most common theory that is being used by all the companies in the world.The hierarchy of needs was introduced by Maslow in 1943. Based on this theory, Maslow believe that people have their own self desire to be what they can be and what to be. A certain number of basic needs such as safety, love, food are needed by a person in order for them to be successfully.

Maslow’s hierarchy is often looked as a pyramid that has the certain level to achieve. In order to achieve the upper level, a person should achieve the bottom level first in order to go to the next level. The lowest level of this Maslow hierarchy is made up of basic needs while the higher level will be most complex and their difficulty to achieve is also high. This theory consists of five levels. First is the physiological needs. These needs are more commonly related to one’s survival and it is very important. This needs consist of food, water, sleep, clothes and even homeostasis.

Next are the security and safety needs. In this level, it starts to be a bit more complex. The primary needs in this level is known as security and safety. In this level, everyone wants to be incharge of their own life. Examples of needs at this level are the financial security, health and wellness and even safety against injury and accidents. This security and safety needs will eventually motivate people in finding a job, moving into a safer neighborhood. or even save money for future needs.

Besides that, is the level of social needs. Social needs at this level such as belonging, acceptance and even love. This level is more about the emotional relationship. Some things needed to be satisfied at this level such as family, friendships, social group, community group and even romantic attachments. This level needed to be achieved in order to avoid loneliness, depression and even anxiety. People need to be loved and cared for their family and friends and even surroundings too.

Furthermore, the fourth level in this Maslow hierarchy is the esteem needs which is also known as respect and appreciation level. After the below three levels are been achieved, this fourth level will begin to play the main role in motivating behavior of a person. Respect and appreciation can be seen when their work and accomplishment is been praised and talked proudly about. In addition, self-esteem and personal worth are very important at this stage. For example, esteem needs will be fulfilled when we participate in professional activities, become an athletic or team participation and even academic accomplishments.

The last level will be the self-actualization needs. This will be the very peak level in this Maslow of hierarchy. This level if more like ” What a man can be, he must be,” where it refers to the need of people to achieve their full potential as human beings. According to Kendra, in Maslow theory, self-actualization definition is more like “it may be loosely described as the full use of talents, capabilities and even potentialities. Such people seem to be fulfilling themselves with the things that they are best at and capable of doing so”. Self actualizing people is very much as self aware where they concern about their personal growth, less concern about others’ opinion and comments and they even take this golden chance to try boost up their potential to the higher level.

2.2 Advantages of Microsoft Project
a) Incorporation with Microsoft software suite
The fact that this software works with Office 365, Skype and SharePoint. This integration with Office 365 is the most important reason for small and medium business project managers wanting to invest in MS Project. Also, MS Project shares a familiar interface with other Microsoft products, such as Excel, brands the program attractively for many customers. This is important for companies that work with client as client fondness or knowledge with a certain tool or operating system can often be the deciding factor in which PM system to invest in.
b) Acceptance in the industry
Many users refer to MS Project as the PM tool that every project manager should be familiar with.” The product’s prestige is due in large part to its international distribution, the similarity to and integration with other Microsoft products and again, the fact that it has been on the market for over a decade. This is a positive for users in another way as well. The availability of tutorials and guidance videos online is amazing. When searching for videos on YouTube, other popular PM products, such as Workfront or Wrike, have roughly 11K and 6K results respectively, while MS Project has over 4.6 million.

1.1 Disadvantages of Microsoft Project
a. Not ideal for collaboration and sharing data
Its inability to collaborate and share data is among reasons users are looking for a replacement to Ms Project
• It does not update in real-time as work is complete or positions change, something like google docs.
• It is hard and time consuming to share data with stakeholders and the process to share data requires a significant degree of manual effort
• Are purchased and installed on a desktop (and in the case of Microsoft software, on Windows PCs), which makes working remotely very challenging

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SMBs needing to collaborate in real time can purchase Project Online Professional or Premium for project managers and then purchase the scaled-down Project Online Essentials package for team members.
b. High learning curve
Current users report that MS Project requires significant training and experience with the tool to use it effectively. The high learning curve makes it difficult for the layman, people new to the program or non-technical users, often resulting in poor user adoption.

Additionally, several SMBs report difficulties with custom reporting, resource planning and portfolio management. Whether this is the result of a lack of training on how to perform these functions or a lack of depth/advanced capability within the tool itself, is unclear.
It’s possible that SMBs experiencing frustration with these applications have not upgraded to the most recent version of MS Project. As new features are rolled out in new versions, organizations that do not upgrade will not have the full capabilities of the tool available to them.
c. Price
The high cost of MS Project is a recurring complaint we see in both user reviews as well as hear from SMBs looking to replace the system.
The cost for the desktop plans (Project Standard, Project Professional and Project Server) is such that SMBs can only reasonably expect to purchase a handful of licenses. This in turn causes issues with collaboration and sharing information in real time with both the project team, executive stakeholders and external clients.

While there are cloud-based versions of MS Project (Project Online Professional or Project Online Premium), as stated above, they are not exact copies of the desktop tools, i.e., functionality is not the same across the deployment options. Meaning the capabilities are not the same across platforms. This discrepancy causes many businesses to stay with the desktop versions.

2.2.4. Integrated solid waste management
UN EPA, (2002) states that waste is obstruction, recycling, burning, composting, and removal in properly intended, constructed, and managed landfills. Each of these activities requires careful planning, financing, collection, and transport. An effective system considers how to stop, recycle, and direct solid waste in ways that most effectively protect human health and the atmosphere .The priorities of good supply management are uttered by the ‘3Rs’ – reduce, reuse, recycle. The waste pecking regulate refers to the “3 Rs”, which classify waste administration strategies according to their attractiveness in terms of waste minimization. The plan of the waste pecking order is to remove the utmost practical benefits from products and to produce the least amount of waste (ANRs Environmental 2007).
Re-use (Pongalacz, 2002) stated that second favorite option after waste minimization. Re-use for the same purpose is included in the waste minimization options, but re-use for another purpose is planed as waste management option. However, re-use for another purpose is not included in mending options of the Waste instruction Operations which may lead to remove in many directions.
Recycle, is a process that involves collecting, reprocessing, and recovering certain waste to the original product (United States EPA, 2002). Recycling conserves natural resources by reducing the need for new material and it helps to conserve energy, reduce pollution, conserve land, and to save money. Recycling in the short term is not always economically profitable, but the economic consequences are positive in the long term. Recycling will save money if potential landfill sites are used for more productive purposes and by reducing pollution-related illnesses (Encarta, 2009).
Reduce plummeting waste by not producing it. It is planned create and get back of materials so as to decrease the extent toxicity of waste produced. Reduce the quantities of waste being generated, is significant to bring waste expansion rates under control (Conserve Energy Future, NA).