1. Introduction

It is very hard to define the term
globalization. In general, globalization is the process of integration of
industries, economies, markets, culture, world views, policy and technology all
around the world. According the International Monitory Fund (2008),
Globalization is the process of international integration of products,
services, flow of capital and interchanging of world views through the
technological advancement. Many researcher and writer have put their own view
to define the word globalization. Bishop, T., Reinke, J. and Andams, T. (2011)
mention globalization as a result of integration and interconnection of
different nations from the flow of human, trade, finance, ideas, business.
According to them, globalization is the combination of growing economies and
societies around the world.  Similarly, Bilton
et al., (1996:5) treated globalization as an integration of economic, social,
political cultural relation from one country to another country. It is a
process where regional and national economies, societies and cultures are
combined by the global network of industry, communication, immigration, trade
and transportation. In the past year, globalization was focused on the economic
aspects of the world like international flow of capital, foreign direct
investment, trade etc. But in the recent time, globalization has covered broader
range of areas and aspects such as media, cultural factors, social factors,
technological factors, political factors, biological factors as well as
economic factors. Junarsin, (2009) describes the globalization as a process of
capital flows like human. Financial, power and resource capital flows from one
country to another country.

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The least developed countries are
those countries that have categorized in terms of their low gross national
income, high degree of economic vulnerability and weak human resource. The less
developed countries that have estimated gross national income is less than $750
based on a three year average, low education, health, education, adult
literacy. Agriculture is the main occupation of those people who are from the
least developed countries.  Those
countries are characterized by low level of income, technological backwardness,
low infrastructure, dependence on other countries resources and there is no
stability of export of goods and services. There are 48 countries listed in
least developed countries (LDCs) among them 33 countries are from the Africa, 13
countries from Asia and Pacific and 1 country from Latin America and Caribbean
(DESA, 2017). Bhutan, Sudan, Yemen, Ethiopia, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh,
Maldives Cambodia etc. are under the less developed countries.

2. The pros and cons of globalization

The emergence of globalization has
taken positive as well as negative impacts in the world. Adaptation of new
technology, quality education, quality goods and services through the high
level of competition, flow of capital, large markets share are the main
opportunities of globalization in the world (Awuah & Amal, 2011). According
to Agada, (2015) globalization helps to promote the economic welfare in the
country and reduce level of poverty in some extent. Similarly, Oyekanmi, (2009)
mentioned that globalization brings positivism as well as negativism in the
nation. Positivism are related with technological development and adaptation, utilization
and distribution of knowledge, economic growth, infrastructure development,
innovation, flow of communication, transfer of capital, cultural exchange,
create employment opportunities to the ultimate number of people, industrial
development, improve level of education, health, advanced transportation
system, increase life standard of people, easy for export and import of goods
and services etc. And negativism are related with crime, violence in the
society, loss of cultural values, terrorism, increase level of poverty, unequal
economic condition, exploitation of natural resources by developed countries, increase
environmental pollution and increase level of deforestation etc. High level
competition, high level of inequality, environmental damage, industrial
instability, reduction in the domestic employment opportunities and income are
the results of globalization (Awuah & Amal, 2011: Hamdi, 2013). The main
effects of globalization to the less developed countries are discussed in the
following point.

3. Effects of globalization on
economic/trade

Most of the author agree that
globalization makes a markets more efficient in a country, increase competition
and equal distribution of wealth. 
Globalization helps to generate economic growth in the less developed
countries by adopting modern technologies. Globalization has promoted less
developed country to improve markets, issue loan from World Bank for the
infrastructure development, remove business tariff and increase international
level of management in the country (Hamdi, 2013). Improvement of national
income by using advance technology, reduction of poverty, increase foreign
direct investment and creation of employment opportunities are the main
economic benefit arises from the globalization in the less developed countries
(Jaumotte, Lall, et al. 2013). Foreign direct investment is one of the
important economic factors of globalization which helps to develop new
industries and multinational companies to generate economic growth and
employment in the less developed countries (Lall, 2004 cited in lee, E. and
Vivarelli, M., 2006). Developed and less developed countries are related and
dependent with each other for resources like human resource, financial resource
as well as technological resource (Thrilwall, 2003 cited in Hamdi 2013).
According to Ch Akram, (2011) globalization has improved economy of the world
through currency exchange, free flow of capital resource, increase in cross
border business and trade, transfer of human resource from one country to
another country and flow of information as well as communication network. The
total export of goods and services has grown up in the global economy due to
the globalization. The total export of the global economy was $61.81 billion in
1950 and reached to $18,936.41 billion in 2014 (Statista, 2015). It means the
global export of the economy is growing day by day. Likewise, multinational
corporations (MNCs) are also increasing in the world because of globalization.
The initial stage of globalization, United States of America was 48.5% share of
MNCs but in 2002 it reduced to 28% because the involvement of various countries
into the MNCs (Ch Akram, 2011). MNCs helps to increase the growth rate of FDI
in the world by promoting and running business activities. Foreign direct
investment plays an important role for establishing new and existing industry
in the less developed countries. Due to the increase in industry and multinational
corporations in a country, the demand and supply of goods and services also increases
in a country. With the increase in demand and supply of goods and services in a
country, general employment level of a country also increases which helps to
increase the personal income, personal tax level and corporate tax level of a
country and it directly increases the national income of a country. Then,
country can achieve high level of economic growth as well as many development
activities in a country because of globalization.

However, globalization is one of the
main issue to create income inequality, economic interdependence and poverty in
less developed countries. Due to the increase in inequality, economic growth of
a country as well living standard of people are affected adversely (Bishop,
Reinke, et al., 2011). World Bank mentioned that 1.1 billion people are living
in the world under the poverty line and those people are not able to fulfill
their basic needs (Ukpere, and Slabbert, 2007). Most of the African countries
as well as Asian countries are economically controlled, misused and exploited
of natural resources by the developed countries because of globalization
(Oyekanmi, 2009). Less developed countries faces high level of mortality rate
because of poverty. The foreign companies which is established into less
developed countries increases the job opportunities only for skilled workforce.
However due to the technological development in the new business, domestic
companies and adaptation of technology in the agriculture sectors, unskilled
workforce cannot get a job opportunities in the country and it creates and
rises unemployment.

4. Effects of globalization on
environment

The effects on environment from the
globalization is the significant issue in the current world. Environmental
pollution, environmental degradation, depletion of ozone layer are the some
environmental problems from the globalization (O’Brien and Williams 2013).
Effects on environment is the important challenges to the less developed as
well as developed countries. Institutional impacts, technological impacts,
systematic impacts, policy impacts and societal impacts are the five main
impacts of globalization on environment (Panayotou, 2000). The growing rate of
industrial production led to a bigger use of natural resources which leads to
environmental pollution and degradation arises in the world. Biological
problems in the countries arises due to the high level of air pollution causing
from water pollution, industrial emissions, high level of precarious damages
and it caused degradation of landscape in the countries (Sapozhnikova, 2005).
Globalization has impacted on world environment by increasing GHG emissions,
promoting CO2 emissions from transportation, developing industrial activities,
promoting deforestation, impoverishing and damaging biodiversity. Green house
effects and GHG emissions is occurred from the change of climate in the world
which is created due to the industrial revolution, generation electricity,
burning oil and coal and it’s directly and indirectly affect to the
environment. The human activities such as high volume of industrial production
of goods and services, transportation mainly road transport, deforestation and
pollution are the main causes of CO2 emissions in the world.

The increase in industrial production
and manufacturing activities, rises in the level of consumption activities, use
of electricity and energy, high use of natural resources like oil, soil,
mineral, forest, stone, water etc. are resulted from the globalization and it
increases the level of pollution in the environment as well as environmental
degradation and depletion. Due to the continuous use of mineral, oil, sands,
stone for the development industrial and business activities, people will
suffer from the natural disaster like landslides and earthquake in coming year.
Huge improvement of Indian economy due to the globalization and it also affect
and damage the environment of India (Hindustan Time, 2011). Less developed
countries has adopted low level of technology because of low level of resources
and capital which generates high volume of air pollution and noise pollution.
It is harmful and dangerous for the environment. With the increase in pollution
in the environment, many kinds of diseases and health related problems arises
to the people in the world. The increasing number of people in the world may
use high volume natural resources like wood from forest, sand, stone and other
minerals for the development of residential house which has impacted directly on
the environment and increase deforestation, soil erosion, landslides.

The government and non-government
institution should be involved in environmental protection activities to reduce
the environmental pollution, environmental depletion and environmental
degradation. Developing environment protection policy, methods, strict rules
and regulation helps to reduce environmental damage in the word and it leads to
economic growth of the countries. Better thought of people, cultural and social
values, and norms, better information about environment protection and
awareness for people should be considered to protect the environment in the
world. The nations should not use only natural resources for the economic
growth, it shouldn’t go back from the social responsibilities towards the
protection of environment (Kochtcheeva, L.V. 2013). It means every company in
the world should have social responsibilities to protect environment, careful
about rules and regulation and environmental policy to reduce and protect the
environment. Many business organization and industries are also responsible for
the protection of environment in the world. The government of a country and
other national and international level organization should provide the
sufficient knowledge and information to the people about the environment
protection, should make a policy, rules and regulation to reduce the
environmental damage in the world.

5. Impacts of globalization on
culture

The cultures of less developed
countries are mostly impacted positively as well as negatively by
globalization. The cultural values, norms, beliefs, fashion, living standard of
people in less developed countries are influenced by European countries, USA,
Australia etc. Due to the globalization, every country can know about other
countries culture and value and it is easy to change and follow other countries
culture. Every country has their own culture in terms of nationality which is
the identity of citizen, religions, history, social activities that are
different country to country (Mueller, 1994). Culture such as value, beliefs,
morals, art, knowledge, customs, social system, fashion, tradition, history,
religion, habits, is the most important aspects for the people of a country. In
the recent year, sharing and transferring cultural value, norms, fashion and
festivals has been increasing from one country to another country. It means
every country and people are interrelated and interconnected in terms of
culture in the current time. Culture helps to give self-respect and make good
relationship between country and people in the world which changes the mind of
people in a society and nation (Obiora, 2002). Culture are different and unique
for every human, society and nation. Every people has different behavior and
attitude in the world. Due to the mass media and means of communication like
TV, radio, movies, news, cell phone, email and internet, people and country in
the world are interconnected and interrelated to each other. Globalization has
made world more closer, appreciate, recognize and identify needs of each other
in the current world (Yusuf, 2003). There has been seeing some cultural
similarities all around the world which is due to the globalization. People of
less developed countries are adopted same fashion clothes, brands like the
people of developed countries.

However, many less developed
countries are negatively impacted by the globalization such as loosing cultural
value, identity, traditions, customs and languages (Hamdi, 2013). Less developed
countries are influenced by the western culture and society and they adopted
new eating habit, fashion, music, songs, festivals, religions, movies,
language, and brand due to the globalization. The less developed countries
vanished their traditional culture, values, beliefs, customs, festivals,
nationality because of globalization. Modification and adaptation of western
life style is the main problems in the less developed countries for losing their
traditional cultural values, identity, festivals, caste, religions and history.
The cultural values and history of a nation is the main factor to achieve
economic growth in the country. The tourism industry is also based on the
cultural values, festivals and cultural history. Culture of a country helps to improve
the economic condition. So we should preserve our cultural values, festivals
and cultural history for the future development.

6. Impacts of globalization on
political aspects

International politics is also
interconnected and interrelated to each other in the world due to the
globalization. In traditional era, politics was limited within own national
political system. The government of a nation was responsible for providing
safety and security of citizens, environmental protection, economic improvement
and welfare, cultural safety and protection of human rights within the country
border. But due to the globalization, it has been changing. Now a days,
politics, political systems, political activities, global economy, trends and
condition are spreading at the global level because of globalization.
Intergovernmental organization such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF),
the World Trade Organization (WTO), the World Bank and political integration
systems like European Union (EU) has been arising into the state due to the
globalization system in the world. Political systems and activities spreads all
over the world due to the global movement, NGOs and INGOs (Global Policy Forum,
2017). The various impacts arises in the national culture, economy and politics
due to the globalization. For example: historically, Nepal had monarchist
government. But the influence of the countries like, India, European countries
and American countries, Nepal have Constitutional Democracy. Nepalese politics
is multi party structure where different kinds of parties involve into the election.
The elected party from the election will be the government in Nepal. It’s all
about the impacts of globalization in Nepal. Sometimes it effected negatively
in a country. Political instability in less developed countries is the main
problems in a current situation. Due to political instability in a nation,
decreases the economic activities, create employment situation, increases
poverty, no strict rules and regulation, increase the level of crime, citizen
of a country doesn’t feel safety.  Many foreign
and domestic investor can stop their investment in the country because of political
instability. Economy of a country is negatively affected by the political instability.
Due to the increasing level of political power, leadership power, some
countries in the world are involving in the war which is not beneficial for the
country as well as world. In the domestic level, the political parties are also
involving into the war. One party may not be satisfied with the decision of another
party. Then, they involve in the war in the country which is not profitable for
the development of the countries. All of those activities has lost the
development activities in the less developed countries. The employee of less
developed countries are based on employment union and they use political power negatively
to increase the salary level and other facilities. As a result many industries
and companies has closed in the countries which decreases the employment of
people as well as national income of a nation.

7. Impacts of globalization on
employment and education

Globalization is the main factor
which plays the significant role in the areas of employment, education and
health in the less developed countries. High level of competition in
educational institutions, the level of quality education in the world has been
changing dramatically. The people from the less developed countries has
migrated to the developed countries for employment, quality education, better
health, better careers, maintain living standards and for other opportunities.
It’s all are from the impacts of globalization. 
The employment, education and health are essential to develop and
maintain the economic system, economic condition and social system of a
country. The increasing level of technology and communication in the world, the
education system and health are totally changed. Due to the high level of
competition and demand of the people, the multinational higher educational
system has been arising in the world which helps to increase the abilities and
competencies of people in a practical way. The government of a nation,
Non-Government Organization (NGO), International Non-Government Organization
(INGO) and World Health Organization has been trying to increase the literacy as
well as avoid incurable diseases in the less developed countries. The countries
in the world can get many benefits from flow of skilled human resources to
improve economic condition, develop research and innovation. Due to the high
improvement in education system, health and skills human resources, the
economic condition of a country can reach in a high level which is the
beneficial for the country as well as citizens of a country. The development
and success of any country depends on health, education system and employment
level.

However, the less developed countries
has suffered from various problems due to the globalization. The unequal level
of education system, health and employment between developed and less developed
countries are the main problems in the world. Most of the developed as well as
English speaking countries like USA, UK, Canada and Australia are benefited
from the globalization because they have skilled human resource and advanced
technology. Transfer of skilled human resource from less developed countries to
developed countries is the main problems to improve the economic condition of
less developed countries. Only the developed countries like USA, UK, Australia,
and Canada are mostly benefited from the technological development, innovation,
human capital, high level of education and health but less developed countries
has some limitation to get such type of benefit (Altbach, 2004). Domestic company
and small industry cannot compete with the international industry in a nation.
So, many regional people has lost their job due to the globalization. Only skilled
people will get good job with the higher pay in the international companies. Poor
people who don’t have sufficient financial resources cannot go high level of
educational institution and health care center.  High level of education institutions and hospital
are only afforded by the rich people in the world.

 

9. Conclusion

Globalization is an ongoing process
which is related with integration and interconnection, industrialization,
liberalization and internationalization in the world. Globalization has
provided advantages as well as disadvantages in the current world. People as
well as less developed countries are getting more benefit from the
globalization such as improvement of economic condition, higher level of job
opportunities, high level of education system, health system, technological
advancement, and cultural exchange between the countries, reduction of poverty
level, proper utilization of natural resources, quality goods and services. But
globalization has also impacted less developed countries negatively in
different aspects like economical aspects, environmental aspects, political
aspects and cultural aspects. Economic crisis, loss of domestic job, high
competition, cultural loss, poor educational system in less developed
countries, environmental degradation, unequal distribution of income and  increasing level of terrorism are resulted
from th1e globalization. Due to the integration of countries, development of
information and internet, world become closer and smaller. Modernization of
transportation system, modernization of information technology, advanced
research and development related to science are all through the globalization.
Every country are running to make nation beautiful as well as powerful in terms
of leadership, infrastructure, technology, education, health, security, safety,
advanced communication system etc. The branded products like IPhone, MacBook,
Samsung, Nike clothes and shoes, Adidas clothes and shoes, Dior perfume, cream
are using all over the world because of globalization.