1. Describe the degree of global ‘interconnection’ after 1500 CE compared to before 1500.in the year 1500, discoveries in Europe allowed them to travel further, connecting them to the Indian Ocean routes as well as to new world. That was a big increase in global ‘interconnectedness,’ as these regions had been previously relatively isolated.2. What were the overall effects of this change in global interconnectedness?The fundamental impact was the association amongst Europe and Asia and between the current world and the Americas. These associations took into account exchange, trades of thoughts, and the arrangement of provinces.3. How did the global trade network after 1500 CE affect the pre-existing regional trade networks? (Indian Ocean,Mediterranean, trans-Saharan, Silk Routes)The European nearness in the Indian Ocean exchange did not enormously impact alternate members.There was very little European involvement compared to the existing trade and the Europeans did not provide any new or valuable products to the trade system.4. What technical developments made transoceanic European travel & trade possible, and where did theyoriginate?Some route advancements incorporated the astrolabe to decide scope and the utilization of the compass to decide bearings. A noteworthy improvement in the boats utilized was the triangular sail. Triangular sails enabled mariners to cruise into the breeze, empowering voyages further and advance from home.5. What were the major notable transoceanic voyages between 1450-1750 CE?A large portion of these advancements began in Asia yet were received and spread by the Muslim Empire, inevitably achieving Europe.6. Where did Zheng He and the Chinese Treasure Fleets travel?Zheng He’s armadas gone all through the whole Indian Ocean exchange arrange. The armada went similar to the Arabian Peninsula, Africa, India and Southeast Asia. A few history specialists hypothesize that Zheng He may have even traversed the Pacific Ocean to parts of America, however this has not been demonstrated.7. Why did Portugal begin longer maritime voyages ca. 1430 CE?Portugal started investigating with long oceanic voyages since they were searching for better exchange courses. Portugal needed to exchange the Indian Ocean exchange organize and their geographic qualities, for example, a long drift line and looking out towards the Atlantic made it perfect for the Portuguese to start longer marine endeavors8. What effect did Columbus’ travels have on Europeans?Columbus’ travels led to the first lasting connection between the Americas and the Eastern World.9. What originally motivated Europeans to travel across the northern Atlantic?They were searching for a speedier method to get to the Indian Ocean exchange arrange.10. How did the new global connections affect the peoples of Oceania and Polynesia?Because of the revelation of these islands by European forces, numerous were liable to royal run the show. With Europeans came malady, and because of the absence of monetary open door in the Polynesian Islands, they were not sought after with incredible intrigue. Christianity and subjection for South American manors was additionally constrained upon the Polynesians.11. What new financial and monetary means made new scale(s) of trade possible?The production of stock organizations made it less hazardous to put resources into investigation and colonization for rich individuals. With less hazard, more individuals were probably going to contribute and accordingly investigation developed at a significantly quicker rate. This implied more assets for Europeans; who could now exchange at a considerably more prominent scale.12. What previously established scale(s) of trade continued?Ocean exchange arrange proceeded as a high rate all through the time of investigation.change all through the Indian13. Describe European merchants overall trade role c. 1450-1750.Since huge numbers of the assets in the Indian Ocean exchange arrange were hard to deliver or couldn’t be found in Europe, European traders needed to pay in bullion to get what they needed. This prompted a surge in real money for European governments and made the economy more unsteady. Europeans, to adjust for this, attempted to colonize parts of the world, as a way to create their own particular assets and have the capacity to contend with nations in the Indian Ocean and Silk Road systems.14. What role did silver play in facilitating a truly global scale of trade?The Spanish discovered silver in Argentina because of their investigation. The Chinese utilized silver to encourage exchange their economy as it was a piece of their money. Since Spain had so considerably silver, and China had items to offer Spain in return, exchange some limit happened through a worldwide system. Along these lines, as Spain found and sold silver completely through to China, silver encouraged a worldwide system. 15. What new mercantilist financial means developed to facilitate global trade?The coming of stock organizations made it workable for littler financial specialists to give more funding to less hazard. This prompted more cash being exchanged and subsequently encouraged worldwide exchange.16. What were the economic and social effects of the Atlantic trading system?Monetarily, the exchange framework gave shoddy work and made new markets in the recently shaped provinces of the New World. In Africa, the loss of populace and slave exchange hindered the long haul financial development of African governments. Socially, bigotry developed as individuals saw a few Africans as not as much as individuals as a way to legitimize oppressing them. 17. What were the unintentional biological effects of the Columbian Exchange?Numerous obtrusive types of plants and creatures came into the New World and thus took out numerous local species on the grounds that in the New World they had no common predators. Likewise, numerous maladies, which the Native Americans were not resistant to, the Europeans brought over. Therefore, numerous Native Americans passed on. Local Americans spread syphilis to Europeans. 18. What foods were transferred to new geographic regions as part of the Columbian Exchange, and what werelabor systems made this transfer possible?The Americas gave potatoes, beans, squash and maize to Europeans. Europeans brought wheat, rice, bananas, and grapes. Espresso from Africa and sugar stick from Asia progressed toward becoming trade edits out the recently colonized Latin America. 19. What plants/animals were deliberately transferred across the Atlantic as part of the Columbian Exchange?Europeans conveyed numerous creatures from their country to the Americas keeping in mind the end goal to make their lives less demanding. Cases of creatures that the Europeans intentionally brought over include: stallions, dairy cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, and chickens. Creatures conveyed to the Old World from America incorporate turkeys, llamas, alpacas, guinea pigs. 20. What effects did American food crops have on the diet of Afro-Eurasians?Since Native Americans did not depend on meat as much as Afro-Eurasians, their plants were significantly more effective regarding calories. Along these lines, when Europeans brought home sustenances, for example, potatoes and maize, there was a populace blast as individuals took in more calories because of the expanded effectiveness of the yields they devoured. 21. How did settlers’ action affect the Americas environmentally?There were numerous things that pilgrims did that constrained Native Americans to change their ways of life. One case of how sttlers changed the earth is that they started to work the land more vivaciously than the Native Americans. This brought about less environmental dependability and disintegration of land. Europeans additionally brought numerous ailments which the Native Americans were not resistant to, and therefore wiped out a lot of the populace. Pioneers additionally constrained the Native Americans in arrive, and subsequently they turned out to be more dependent on a roaming way of life in which they chased buffalo.22. How did the Columbian Exchange affect the spread of religions?23. Where did the “universal” religions of Buddhism, Christianity & Islam spread?Buddhism did not spread considerably after the Silk Road time. Islam kept on spreading to parts of the world, however its primary extension happened amid the post Classical time. Christianity spread for the most part amid the Columbian trade as European governments spread into new domains for exchange and colonialism. 24. How did the Columbian Exchange affect religion(s)?The Columbian trade helped make Christianity a more worldwide religion. Since Europe persuasively spread Christianity to North and South America, Christianity could box out Islam and different religions in the New World.25. How did the arts fare during this period?They did very well and stuck around even in present times.26. How did public literacy as well as literary and artistic forms of expression develop during this period?They did well and proceeded into introduce times. Key Concept 4.2 New Forms of Social Organization and Modes of Production27. How did agriculture’s role change between 1450 -1750?Preceding 1492, there was insignificant contact between the new world and Eurasia and Africa. When Columbus reached North and South America the trading of yields, slaves, and illnesses started, known as the Columbian trade. Farming turned into a method for misusing immature countries. Europe utilized the crude materials of the America’s to make themselves wealthier. Some time recently, agribusiness was principally utilized as a nourishment hotspot for a populace. Thereafter, agribusiness was likewise used to deliver products, for example, tobacco and sugar stick (which means horticulture additionally turned out to be more imperative in worldwide exchange). 28. What pre-requisite conditions made these changes possible?29. How did labor systems develop between 1450 -1750?As government grabbed speed there was a developing requirement for work. Europe started to abuse what they thought of as the “sub-par” races. Constrained work included locals and African Americans. 30. How was peasant labor affected between 1450 -1750?In the Americas, obligated workers started to diminish as more slaves were transported over the Atlantic. Additionally, in Europe here was a move in the control of laborer work. More tightly control and less opportunity for the workers rose. 31. How did slavery within Africa compare to the pre-1450 era?32. How did the Atlantic slave trade affect both African societies and the economy of the Americas?The Americas profited from the slave exchange in light of the fact that the expansion in labor took into consideration an expansion in efficiency. This likewise helped the economies of European countries since they received the rewards of the American settlements.33. How did labor systems develop in the colonial Americas?At first, obligated workers were sent to the New World. These hirelings were guaranteed a head right of 50 sections of land following 7 years of administration. Obligated hirelings turned out to be more unsafe on the grounds that they were inclined to insubordination. As a more prominent requirement for work emerged, slaves additionally were compelled to relocate from Africa to the New World. 34. How did the post-1450 economic order affect the social, economic, and political elites?It specifically profited the shipper class because of the expansion in exchange. The hole between the intense tip top (manor proprietors) and the contracted hirelings and slaves expanded and in addition the rich ended up noticeably wealthier however the lower class did not change in monetary status. 35. How did pre-existing political and economic elites react to these changes?Because of the ascent of gentry, influence moved from the essential individuals from social gatherings to littler families who were affluent and very much associated. In this way, these vital individuals lost their societal position..36. How were gender and family structures affected to these changes?There was an expansion in ladies rulers amid the sixteenth century, For instance Mary Queen of Scots of Catherine de’Medici, Regent of France. These ladies were frequently more regarded s rulers amid these circumstances; in any case, ladies were still observed as their spouses property. Since gentry turned out to be progressively supported by society, the family turned out to be more common. 37. How did societies in the Americas reflect the post-1450 economic order?Because of the insurrection of slaves and migrants, new social orders and social standings created in the Americas as per race. Local American social orders wilted as European elites kept on overcoming their property and endeavor their regular assets. In the meantime, European success empowered new pioneers to emerge in the Americas, for example, intense Native Americans.Key Concept 4.3 State Consolidation and Imperial Expansion38. How did empires attempt to administer the new widespread nature of their territories?European forces had a tendency to introduce authorities in the zones that they led who were of European plunge. For instance the Spanish designated creoles to political workplaces in Latin America and a few sections of South America.39. How did the role of Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe develop in this new world-wide political order?In the seventeenth century Chinese and Japanese subjects took part in the developing open doors as pioneers. Site of European exchanging domains.40. How did the people of various empires react to their government’s methods?These individuals either acknowledged the new rulers and consented to new administration or they opposed the new run the show. A few provinces endeavored to stay unbiased too 41. How did political rulers legitimize and consolidate their rule?They selected authorities that were of their own drop, employed interpreters so as to consult with local people, and endeavored to acclimatize local people into their way of life and religion. 42. What role did religion play in legitimizing political rule?Religion was a piece of a more noteworthy plan of social absorption of the locals. For instance, changing over the Native Americans into Christians mitigated the pressure amongst them and the British Empire, taking into account simpler exchange between them 43. How were ethnic and religious minorities treated in various empires?Local Americans were thought to be savages by the Europeans, which prompted clashes between the two. 44. How did rulers make sure that their governmental were well run?At the point when domains felt that their energy was in risk of being ousted they utilized brutality to demolish the adversaries. For instance, in the Americas the nearby government wrecked the defiant obligated workers in their battle for control, known as Bacon’s resistance. 45. How did rulers finance their territorial expansion?Business entity: the expenses were separated among investors, paid for by government46. What was the relationship between imperialism and military technology?As military innovation expanded colonialism subsequently expanded and furthermore the other way around. For instance assault rifles and fast discharging rifles made colonialism conceivable.47. How did Europeans go about creating new global empires and trade networks?progressions in innovation       48. How did pre-existing land-based empires and new empires during this era compare to previous era’s empires?There was a more prominent association between domains. Innovation, culture, religion, workmanship, and political thoughts were effectively spread and shared crosswise over extraordinary separations. There additionally was greater assorted variety in creature and vegetation over the globe due to the new associations made amid colonialism. 49. What obstacles to empire-building did empires confront, and how did they respond to these challenges?Differing atmospheres, sicknesses, foe domains endeavoring to discover normal