1. Define normal microbial flora of the human body.
ANS: The different types of bacteria and fungi that are found at certain sites of our body, which includes the skin and mucous membranes of oral cavity, vagina, upper respiratory tract, lining of gastrointestinal tract, intestines; residing permanently are described as normal microbial flora.
2. Describe the role of normal microbial flora.
ANS: The normal flora plays an important role in causation of disease and in maintaining health of an individual.
• They show a property called colonization resistance, where they serve as a limit for the growth of other pathogens in body.
• They play a nutritional role, since the intestinal flora synthesize essential nutrients that include vitamin B and vitamin K.
• By fighting against the foreign pathogen, it maintains our innate immunity.
• Aids in the absorption and digestion of nutrients.
• In neonates, it is the normal flora that provide immunity to the body.
• In people with impaired immune system, they can be responsible for causing disease.
• If displaced from their usual location, they can act as pathogens, resulting in disease.

3. Enumerate the types of flora in various body sites.
• Staphylococcus aureus
• Staphylococcus epidermidis
• Corynebacterium species
• Streptococcus species
• Fusobacterium species
• Actinomyces species
• Leptotrichia species
• Veillonella species.
• Streptococcus species
• Corynebacterium species
• Branhamella catarrhalis
• Haemophilus species
• Neisseria species.
• Mycoplasma species.
• Staphylococcus epidermidis
• Propionibacterium acnes
• Pityrosporum ovale
• Escherichia coli
• Bacteroides fragilis
• Proteus mirabilis
• Streptococcus species
• Enterococcus species
• Klebsiella species
• Pseudomonas species
• Candida albicans
• Clostridium species
• Lactobacillus species.
• Candida albicans
• Gardnerella vaginalis
• Streptococcus species.
• Streptococcus species
• Mycobacterium species
• Escherichia coli
• Bacteroides species

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1. The chocolate’s smell increases theta waves in the brain that induce relaxation.
2. At some point, Winston Churchill was in danger when Nazi planned assassination for him by exploding chocolate bar.
3. Dark chocolate is believed to help in weight loss.
4. In 1842 ‘Cadbury’ was the first brand to make the first chocolate bar in the world.
5. Chocolate also helps in controlling and preventing cough.
6. Chocolate has antioxidants that keep you young.
7. Approximately 70% of cocoa is produced in Africa.
8. In 1941 M;M was created so that soldiers can also enjoy chocolates without melting.
9. The famous blood shower scene in movie Psycho, chocolate syrup was used.
10. On Thorntons 100th birthday, they created the world’s largest chocolate bar, it weighed about 5,792 kg.
11. For pregnant women chocolates are good, it cheers up the mood and reduces stress.
12. July 7 is celebrated as World Chocolate day.
13. Dark chocolate is considered healthier than other chocolates because it contains less sugar and more cocoa.
14. It is a myth that the chocolate has lots of caffeine.
15. The person who created chocolate chip cookie sold his idea to Nestle in exchange for a lifetime supply of chocolate.
16. Dark chocolate reduces the chances of heart attack.
17. There are many cosmetic products in which chocolate is added because it improves the skin.
18. The cocoa tree can grow for 2 centuries.
19. About 60 million children work in Africa in the plantation of growing cocoa beans.
20. chocolate has a much stronger effect on women than on men.
21. US, Germany, Switzerland, and Belgium are the top four countries in the world for the production of chocolate.
22. The famous Napoleon used to carry chocolate with him all the time, he eats it when he needed an energy boost.
23. There are four different type of chocolates-dark, white, blond and milk.
24. Chocolate produced around $ 83.2 billion every year.
25. Swizz chocolates are the most famous chocolates in the world.
26. 400 cocoa beans are needed to make one-pound chocolate.
27. Cocoa trees are productive for approximately 25 years.
28. In America, the total chocolate consumption per year is 2.8 billion pounds.
29. 3 Musketeers bar actually had three flavors- chocolate, vanilla, and strawberry, but strawberry was dropped out because of the high price.
30. Chocolate milk was invented in the 1700s in Jamaica.
31. Chocolates were so precious and valued so much that in Ancient Mesoamerica it was used as currency.
32. White chocolate is not a chocolate because it does not contain cocoa solids or cocoa liquor.
33. Chocolate can be a painkiller.
34. There is about 50 mg of caffeine in an average chocolate bar.
35. “Theobroma cacao,” is the scientific name for the cocoa tree which means ‘Cocoa, food of Gods’.
36. Europeans consume more than half of the chocolate produced in the world.
37. Chocolate has a compound that can kill dogs.
38. Canadian kids in 1947 went on strike when the price of chocolates was increased from 5 to 8 cents.
39. Women have more craving for chocolate than men.
40. Chocolate milk is good post-workout recovery drink.
41. Cocoa trees were first discovered in Central America, South America and part of Mexico.
42. Chocolate as the central theme is used in many movies like ‘Charlie and the Chocolate Factory’ and others.
43. Hershey’s kisses are called so because the machine makes the sound while manufacturing the chocolate.
44. Chocolate has about 600 different flavor compounds which give different aromas.
45. At the time of Revolutionary War, sometimes the soldiers were paid in the form of chocolate.
46. The famous Hershey’s make about 70 million Hershey’s kisses a day.
47. Overconsumption of chocolate can be fatal for humans.
48. Solid chocolate was invented by two British confectioners in 1847. They made it by mixing cocoa butter, cocoa liquor, and sugar.
49. There are researchers which suggest that chocolate can help to fight against intestinal cancer.
50. Cocoa is rich in copper, potassium, iron, magnesium, calcium.
51. 7 billion chocolate chips are eaten annually.
52. A study in 2013, found out that, chocolate fragrance in the bookstore increases the book sale.
53. 7th July is celebrated as World’s Chocolate Day.
54. Chocolate has high-fat content but surprisingly, it doesn’t raise blood cholesterol level.
55. The world chocolate is believed to be derived from Aztec word xocolatl which means ‘bitter water’.
56. Chocolate has some compounds that help to prevent brain damage at the time of the stroke.
57. Probably chocolate is the only compound that melts at slightly lower temperature than our body temperature.
58. In ancient times, chocolate was served as a drink.
59. German chocolate is called so, not because it is made in Germany but because the inventor name is Sam German.
60. There was a limited edition of Lays chips covered with milk chocolate.


Throughout history, there was two different type of medicine, which are being used until now. These
types are called the ”art of healing” and the” science of healing” (Kayne,2009). First and according to
Steven Kayne (2009), the ”science of healing ”is based on the scientific fact, studies and the
experiments. On the other hand, the art of healing is a way of treatment that is based on beliefs and
studying the patient ‘s health status. However, the art of healing otherwise called complementary and
alternative medicine has been conventional in the UK. According to Vickers and Zollman (1999) (2),
about 1000 doctor in the UK has become homoeopathy therapists. Besides, in the report that has
been made by the lancet in 2007, ”around 13000 patients are treating in five homoeopathic hospitals
per year”. Homoeopathy and acupuncture are examples for complementary and alternative medicine.
So, if we want to define homoeopathy and acupuncture, we can say that: homoeopathy is the uses of
low doses medicines, which have positive effects. Furthermore, acupuncture is ” the stimulation of
special points on the body usually by fine needles” (Vickers, Zollman, 1999) (1). This report will
analyse the risks and effectiveness of both homoeopathy and acupuncture and will form the basis of
recommendations to the government to allocate the budget either homeopathy or acupuncture in

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2.1 effectiveness

Homoeopathy is the most popular way for curing diseases by complementary medicine. It also is used
for many years, and even some people consider it as traditional treatment. Homoeopathy is the
treatment which uses a diluted medicine that gives more significant effects, drugs, biochemical substances or
uses natural substances as medicines such as herbs, onion or snake venom. (Vickers,
Zollman,1999). The effectiveness of homoeopathy is still conventional. Some scientist assumes that
the success of homoeopathy treatment is based on the placebo effect. However, it could cause some
adverse effects on patients, and these effects called the nocebo effects. (Teixeira, Guedes, Barreto,
Martins (2010)). However, homoeopathy therapists believe that the way they use their treatment is
safe and more beneficial than others. Besides, it is highly recommended for children whose parents
feel concerned about the effects of drugs or allopathic medicines (Salatino et al.2016) They also
believe that homoeopathy is good for those who suffer from chronic diseases such as eczema,
rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, etc. (Vickers, Zollman, 1999) (2) .the finding of Goldacre ( 2007)points out
that during the 19th century and in the cholera period the death rates increased in hospitals while they
were lower in homoeopathic hospitals in London.

2.2 Risks

Despite the effectiveness of homoeopathy, scientist tend to believe that these effects have not been
Proved yet. What is more, the homoeopathic says that the allopathic medicines have not proved them
effectiveness yet. In addition to that, they are using a wrong philosophy which is based on beliefs and
anecdotal evidence instead of studies and researches((Kayne,2009).). They are also not qualified to
be practitioners because they only depend on training and they think that the more they work or train,
the better practitioners they will be. Moreover, Ernst (2005) affirmed the risks of homoeopathy and
mentioned that the risks are more likely to occur. He also found that some homoeopaths are advising
mothers against vaccination.


3.1 Effectiveness

Acupuncture is a chinse traditional treatment that the body affects the functioning of a certain organ
(West,1997).to be more specific in acupuncture they use fine needles which are inserted on the
body. On the other hand, all the theory of acupuncture is based on the Daoist concept of ” yin and
yang”. However, the human body is controlled by a vital force called ”QI”. This force or energy is
circulated between the organs along channels called meridians. In our bodies, there are 12 main
meridians; these 12 meridians are connected to 12 major functions or ” organs” of the body
(Vickers, Zollman, 1999) (1). First, acupuncture can improve the induvial exercise capacity.
(Nascimento, Hossri, Berwanger, Carvalho, 2012) found that a patient had a large improvement after having
trials of acupuncture. consequently, they found that acupuncture increase oxygen pulse by 38% and 13% for the
peak ventilation.

2.2 Risks

Although most people prefer using acupuncture and they see it the safe and beneficial, a
lot of studies show that acupuncture has a lot of side effects that influence the patient. A
journal was written by Edzard Ernst (2010) and in this Journal he shows that “acupuncture
causes mild adverse effects such as bleeding and pain at the sites of needling in about 10%
of patients. Additional serious adverse effects have also been noted, including injuries to
vital organs”.

2.3 People demand

Reference list:

1) Kayne, S. (2009). Complementary and alternative medicine. 2nd ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press.

2) (1)Vickers, A. and Zollman, C. (1999). ABC of complementary medicine: Acupuncture. BMJ, 319(7215), pp.973-976.

3) (2) Vickers, A. and Zollman, C. (1999). ABC of complementary medicine: homeopathy. BMJ, 319(7215), pp.1115-1118

4) Teixeira, M.Z., Guedes, C.H.F.F., Barreto, P.V. ; Martins, M.A. 2010, “The placebo effect and homeopathy”, Homeopathy, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 119-129. in

5) Salatino, S., Balgradean, M., Beer, A., Burlaka, I., Buskin, S., Kamenov, B., Pettenazzo, A., Popova, D., Riveros Huckstadt, M., Sakalinskas, V., Seltmann, A., Tischer, B. and Oberbaum, M. (2016). Usage and attitudes towards homeopathy and natural remedies in general paediatrics: a cross-country overview. Homeopathy, online 105(1), p.35. Available at: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2333794X15625409 Accessed 26 Nov. 2018.

6)Goldacre, B. (2007). Benefits and risks of homoeopathy. The Lancet, 370(9600), pp.1672-1673.

7)Ernst, E. (2005). Is homeopathy a clinically valuable approach?. Elsevier Ltd, online Volume 26(Issue 11), pp.547 – 548. Available at: https://www-sciencedirect-com.ezproxy.brighton.ac.uk/science/article/pii/S016561470500218X Accessed 28 Nov. 2018.

8) Nascimento, R., Hossri, C., Berwanger, O. and Carvalho, V. (2012). Acupuncture and exercise capacity: A case report. Clinics, online 67(2), pp.193-194. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3275128/ Accessed 28 Nov. 2018.

1.1 background the banking sector has become one of the most critical sectors in the economy with wide effect on the level and direction of economic growth and transformation and on such economic variables as the rate of unemployment and inflation which directly affect the lives of the people. the significance of the banking sector in any country stems from its role of financial mobilization from surplus to deficit unit provision of a competent payment system and facilitation of the implementation of monetary policies. in intermediation banks mobilize savings from the surplus units of the economy and channel these funds to the deficit unit particularly private business enterprises for the purposes of expanding their productive capacity ogechukwu 2013 today the very integrity and survivability of these laudable functions of banks have been deteriorated in view of continual frauds and accounting scandals ogechukwu 2013 banking fraud has become a topical issue across the globe. banks across the world are losing billions of dollars through fraudulent activities. fraud has led to the downfall of entire organizations massive investment losses and erosion of confidence in capital markets tomb 2013 fraud however has been defined by many scholars fraud as deceit or trick deliberately practiced in order to gain some advantages dishonestly olufidipe 2014 fraud as a deliberate falsification camouflage or exclusion of the truth for the purpose of dishonesty stage management to the financial damage of an individual or an organization. idowu 2013 .it is also described as any premeditated act of criminal deceit trickery or falsification by a person or group of persons with the intention of altering facts in order to obtain undue personal monetary advantage boniface 2014 in general fraud is the intentional misrepresentation concealment or omission of the truth for the purpose of deception or manipulation to the financial loss of an individual or an organization such as a bank which also includes embezzlement theft or any attempt to steal or unlawfully obtain misuse or harm the asset of a bank. adeduro 2013; bostley drover 2012