1) If I get a chance to be the Aladin and ask genie for my first wish, I wish for your present and future to shine always. Happy birthday to you my dear friend.
2) I’ll write your age with sun and moon, celebrate your birthday with flowers, take every beauty of the world and decorate your house on this special occasion, Happy birthday homie.
3) friend your my best friend, your my love, I wish you a very joyous birthday. Don’t ever be sad, don’t ever let the shadow of darkness, sorrowness fell on your life. May I’ll always be able to shed your tears. Happy birthday to my dear friend.
4) May God gives you a new hope to you in every direction, may every moment give you some special moments, everyday you feel freshness like the rising sun, there never be a shortage of anything in your life, whatever you ask let God give you all. Happy birthday.
5) hello my friend see this rising sun of this bright day has brought you rays of light, see the birds are singing the melodious songs for you saying Happy birthday to you.
6) may every problem of your life becomes easy, every moment be joyful and everyday be beautiful, this is my wish everyday, happy birthday.
7) I thank God that I have a true friend like you in my life, may your life be filled with thousands laughter, happiness and success , I pray from the core of my heart. Happy birthday.
8) on the auspicious day of your birthday, I wish for your good health, more and more progress, long life and your every desire gets fulfilled.
9) may your condition be like that of one who lives a million times, may all the gods that are , aid you, may God gladden your heart on one who live long. Happy birthday.
10) celebrate this day to the fullest and celebrate this gift of life which is so much important to me. Happy birthday friend.
11) this is a new day, may new opportunities come to you so don’t waste your moments living with regrets and always be blessed. Happy birthday.
12) I regret this day only comes once a year but hey look on the bright side at least this day comes once a year. Happy birthday to you my dear friend.
13) God has created you this day so that we will all rejoice and be glad. Happy birthday.
14) May God smoothens the path ahead of you and brings you joy, strength and peace to your heart. Happy birthday to you.
15) hey sleepyhead, rise and shine, put a smile on your face and welcome this morning sunshine with all the love in your heart because it’s your birthday.
16) may God always walk besides you, awakens the faith in your heart and supplies all your needs and opens the door of opportunities for you. God bless you my friend. Happy birthday.
17) even if your time is bad, I’ll be with you at all times, our friendship will always remain unchanged forever. A very happy birthday to you.
18) I have a treasure that’s more than every world’s wealth that’s you my friend. I give you a happy birthday with a fold hearted heart.
19) may you get the life full of love, full of moments of love, may you never have to face any sorrows, may joyful tomorrow come on your way always. A joyous birthday to you my dear friend.
20) I bow down to God, pray you achieve your goals, if any dark shadows ever comes your way, may God lights me to show you the way. Happy birthday to you.
21) today is not only for you but also special for me because today my most dear friend came in this world. If this day hadn’t come, half of my happiness wouldn’t have existed. I’m very grateful to you my friend. Happy birthday.
22) just like moon shines among millions of stats, you keep laughing, keep blooming ang keep shining among thousands and millions my friend. Happy birthday.
23) once we meet we will never be separated, together this will be the promise of life, wish you long and lasting life. Happy birthday to you.
24) there comes a time once in a life when true friend is needed, when that time came in my life I found you near me now I never want to loose you, always be with me forever, happy birthday my friend.
25) burn the candles, cut the cake, drink so much that your feet doesn’t stay on the floor, today is your day , enjoy yourself, happy birthday.
26) congratulations to stay alive for another year. Happy birthday.
27) you are beautiful, intelligent, mature and sensible just like me. Lots of hugs and lots of love, happy birthday.
28) may all your obstacles get cleared, happiness comes everyway, may your each day becomes beautiful, may everyday be your birthday. Happy birthday.
29) friendship is like a sponge which sucks everything in itself and doesn’t allow anything out of it. My friend is the biggest sponge of my life . Happy birthday.
30) on the day u came in this world the heaven cried too, after all how could he not shed his tears , he lost his most beloved star. Happy birthday.
31) happy birthday to the most magnificent and beautiful person of my life, your one smile just makes my day. Happy birthday.
32) aot of love to you wholeheartedly, you always get along with everyone, every moment you may have your own people, this is my wish for your birthday.
33) May you touch the peak of success in this new year of your life. Happy birthday.
34) the most important thing of your birthday is that we could eat delicious food with delicious cakes, so may everyday be the day of your birthday. Happy birthday to you.
35) there’s no spirit like us, your the holy Spirit that I need constantly in my life. Congratulations to youon this best day. Happy birthday.
36) your birthday weather reports that there won’t be any clouds in the sky, but there will be refreshing air and fragrance of your birthday cake. Happy birthday.
37) let’s make a deal on this special day, you give me a treat of your birthday cake, I’ll give you a lot of blessings. Happy birthday.
38) May all your obstacles get cleared, your life keeps smiling, I hope your special day is full of fun and happiness. Happy birthday.
39) May God help you forget about all bad things, your troubles and tragedies that others have brought in your life. Enjoy this special day and look forward to a year full of smiles. Happy birthday.
40) I wish you a peaceful life filled with joy of the Lord. Happy birthday.
41) I wish for you a full 365 days of joy. Happy birthday.
42) it’s your birthday, be greatly blessed, highly favored and deeply loved. Happy birthday.
43) hey wake up to this beautiful day, conquer the world and happy birthday.
44) may God always help you to look on the bright side of life and be thankful and happy. Happy birthday.
45) May God always give you the strength to deal with what you think is unattainable. Happy birthday.
46) may the fragrance of happiness, blossoms of hope and glow of peace always be with you. Happy birthday.
47) you made my life happy you taught me to live , you inspire me to move forward everyday, I give you all the blessings from the core of my heart. Happy birthday.
48) it doesn’t matter where you are or what your doing you were always there when I needed you, though we are not bound by blood but we are always tied by the strong thread of friendship. Happy birthday to you.
49) even if your time is bad I’ll be with you at all times. Our friendship will remain the same forever. Happy birthday.
50) if possible I would have dedicated you a day in the calendar and all the world would have been celebrating your day. May be now you have realized that I am your life friend. Happy birthday.

1.0. Introduction
This chapter of the concept paper presents the background of the study, problem statement, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, research questions, scope of the study, significance of the study and the conceptual framework
1.1. Background to the study
Education is a gadget used to effect countrywide progress. Educational aims stand fixed out in the National Plan on Education in relations of their application to the requirements of the individual and society. The National Strategy is established with aims and objectives, to facilitate educational growth in the country. These goals and intents invite the school head to provide vital roles include enhancing real administrative skills and styles to manage colleges, improve job performance among teachers so students’ academic performance is boosted (Fika, I. Ibi, M. and Aji, B., 2015).
It is not astonishing that there is massive demand for operative administration of secondary schools. A good number of school heads haven’t considered the different administrative techniques which determine students’ academic performance in the country. Hence, some of them seem to find it tremendously problematic to successfully lead their schools (Akinnibagbe , 2002).
With the fast changing world, it is impossible for people of preferred managerial technique or type to embrace all knowledge, awareness or power to realise success (Muthondu G.W., 2007). These longstanding forms of management provide power and are a heading to one or few individuals involved in administrative positions. Leadership being gender requires that prospective leaders be trained to adapt to the fluctuating society and make an effort to teach and model different management techniques which will most effectually lead various institutions to achieve set goals.
Students’ performance in examinations is because of different factors; which include provision of physical facilities, classroom size, effective school discipline policies, administrative support and effective leadership. As several studies in Botswana, Nigeria, and Papua New Guinea concur to this (Muli, M.M , 2005). Good administration brings about necessary guidance in the school, clarity of direction and rewards to ensure effective performance of students.
1.2. Problem statement
Administration at work in educational institutions is a dynamic process where an individual is not only accountable for the group’s errands, but also actively seeks the cooperation and assurance of all the group members in achieving group goals in a particular perspective (Aji, B.M, 2014). Administration ensures that students perform to the maximum, since it ensures that tasks are accomplished and the responsible parties assigned for greater strengthening of the institution with emphasis put on recognition, service provision and motivation (Balunywa, W.S. , 2000). However, of all the above contributions of school administration towards academic performance, performance tends to be alarming and wanting in schools as a result of managerial techniques used which influences the organisational culture. Such managerial techniques are made of a set of attitudes, traits, and skills in the principals formed based on four factors: values, trusting employees, leadership orientation, and a sense of security shaped in important situations
1.3. Purpose of the study
The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of school administration on students’ academic performance in Isingiro District.
1.4. Objective of the study
i. To establish the different factors that affect students’ academic performance.
ii. To investigate the contribution of school administrators towards students’ academic performance
iii. To determine the possible measures to the challenges faced by students in Isingiro District.
1.5. Research questions
i. What are the different factors that affect students’ academic performance?
ii. What is the contribution of school administrators towards students’ academic performance?
iii. What are the possible measures to the challenges faced by students in Isingiro District?
1.6. Scope of the study
The study will focus on effect of school administrators on students’ academic performance The study is limited to school administrators as the independent variable and students’ academic performance as the dependent variable. The study will be carried out in Isingiro District. This so because of the limited finances and with government aided schools in place within the district whose academic performance tends to fluctuate each and every year.
1.7. Significance of the study
The results of this study will be valuable to researchers and scholars, as it would form a basis for further research. Scholars will use this study as a basis for discussions on school administration and students’ academic performance as it will provide the scholars with empirical studies that they will use in their studies. The study will also add to the body of knowledge in the education discipline by bridging the existing gap. This study will make several contributions to both knowledge building and practice improvement with several policies recommendation put forward
1.8. Conceptual framework
Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Mediating/intervening variable

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Source: Researcher 2018
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2.0. Literature review
Principalship is a critical management skill involving the ability to encourage group of people towards common goal. Leadership focuses on the development of followers and their needs. Managers exercising transformational administrative style focusing on the development of value system of employees, their motivational level and moralities with the development of their skills, (Sashkin, M. ;Sashkin, M. , 2003). Different administrative styles of a school principal which include initiative, consideration and participatory structure of management (Omolayo B., 2009)
Initiative structure of administration is the extent to which a principal defines managers and group member roles, initiates actions, organizes group activities and defines how task are to be accomplished by the group. A leader in this structure defines his goals and facilitates group movement toward them. This administrative style decides everything and tries to manipulate the followers into approving his ideas on how the school should function. A leader in this group does not give trust to any member of the group.
Lee (1995) reported that, the Initiative structure of management leadership style results in the group members reacting aggressively and apathetically in the work environment. This often results in unending industrial disputes in an organization hence affecting the overall achievement of the organizational goals and objectives. Mwalala, (2008) observed that Initiative structure and harsh climate leads to poor performance of students. Initiative structure of management, also known as autocratic leaders, provide clear expectations for what needs to be done, when it should be done, and how it should be done. There is also a clear division between the leader and the followers.
In their study, Lewin and Caillords (2001) found that participative administrator, also known as democratic leadership, is generally the most effective administrative style. Participatory structure leadership not only offers guidance to group members, but they are allowed to participate in the group and allow input from other group members. Hence, children in this group were less productive than the members of the Initiative structure group, but their contributions were of a much higher quality. Participative administrator encourages group members to participate, but retain the final say over the decision-making process. Group members feel engaged in the process and are more motivated and creative who in turn improve their performance as well as the performance of the organization.
3.0. Methodology
The researcher will adopt a descriptive research survey for this study it is suitable for the study as it gives the researcher the opportunity of obtaining respondents’ opinion from the entire population sampled. The total population of the study is made up of 5 Secondary Schools in Isingiro district during the 2015/2017 academic session. The population is chosen for investigation due to the researcher’s interest. Simple Random Sampling method will be used. The Schools in the Zone are grouped according the three divisions in the district. Simple Random Sampling method will be used to select the Schools under study. The sample size will comprise of 60 teachers from the secondary schools being studied which will constitute the number of questionnaires obtained after distribution.
A Structured Questionnaire will be used for data collection process. The questionnaire items will be validated to ascertain its suitability for use in data collection. The whole content of the questionnaire and its structure will critically be examined and corrections made where required and its reliability determined using a test –retest method.
Data collected will be edited upon the receipt of the questionnaires to ensure accuracy and consistency of the information given by the respondents. Data will be entered in the computer using a SPSS version 20, descriptive, principal component, correlation and regression analysis will be used to establish the relationship between the study variables. Responses from the questionnaire will be analysed using the descriptive statistics of frequency counts, percentage, and inferential statistics and descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages will also be used in analysing demographic variables and research questions.
For data analysis and presentation, the data collected will be edited and checked to ensure uniformity, accuracy, consistency and comprehensiveness. The structured questionnaires will be coded, questions grouped, tabulated and frequencies run according to the objectives of the study, the data will be analysed and the information presented using statistical frequency tables, graphs and pie – charts.
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4.0. References
Aji, B.M. (2014). Leadership styles of head of department and academic staff performance: Unpublished Master Dissertation, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.
Akinnibagbe . (2002). The relationship between leadership and follower in-role performance and satisfaction with the leader: The mediating effects of empowerment and trust in the leader. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 28,(1), 4-19.
Balunywa, W.S. . (2000). A hand Book of Business Management. Kampala: Ugandan Press. .
Fika, I. Ibi, M. and Aji, B. (2015). Leadership styles of head of department and academic staff performance in the University of Maiduguri: Maiduguri Journal of Education Studies, 8(1) 83-94.
Lee D. (1995). Leadership theory, application and skill development: USA: South- West College Publishing.
Lewin, K ; Caillords, f. (2001). Financing secondary education in development: strategic for sustainable growth: Paris International Institute for Education Planning. UNESCO.
Muli, M.M . (2005). Effects of Head Teachers Management Styles on Performance in Physics at K.S.C.E. Examination in Mutomo Division, Kitui District: Unpublished M. ed. Project, University of Nairobi.
Muthondu G.W. (2007). “Teachers’ Perception of Female Head Teachers’ Leadership Styles in Public Secondary School in Nairobi Province: Unpublished Master Dissertation, University of Nairobi. .
Mwalala D.B. . (2008). Influences of Head Teachers’ Leadership Styles on K.C.S.E Performance in Public Secondary School in Taita District: Unpublished Master Dissertation, University of Nairobi. .
Okumbe, J. A. (1998). Educational Management: Theory and Practice. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press.
Omolayo B. (2009). Effects of leadership styles on job related tension and psychological sense of community in work organization: case study of four organization in Lagos State, Nigeria: Bangladesh. E.J Social. 4,(2)133-157.
Sashkin, M. &Sashkin, M. . (2003). Leadership That Matters. San Francisco: BarrettKoehler Publishers Inc.

1. Bargaining power of Suppliers (high)
SIA has two major suppliers of aircraft which are Airbus and Boeing which are able to maintain. Currently, SIA has 11 planes on order and should be extended to add extra plane to minimize the aircraft leased cost. Fuel cost is gradually 27% of the airline expenditure between 2016-2018 because of the fuel hedging achieved in FYE 2017/2018. Staff cost was 16.2% in 2017/18 and 15.6% in 2016/17, increased by 5.4%.
SIA Engineering Co., Ltd is a Division of SIA for aircraft safety and servicing and productivity, efficiency, pleasant and more value-added services to create a strong stage of Airline Industry’s dealer power since 1992.

2. Bargaining power of Customers (high)
Consumers bargaining strength is very strong because they can choose another airline easily because of a lot of airlines in the world. Luxury travellers are willing to pay higher prices in return for excellent services is the main concern. Common travellers are more demanding about the price than services. Since Kris flyer program had been promoted to retain customer loyalty and in addition should add-on services like sky spa, in-flight massage treatments and jacuzzi in the air will be more attractive.
Singapore visitor and tourism arrivals are kept increasing year by year and mostly from China and India. They usually buy air ticket from the travel agency and should change the reward incentive rather than zero-commission policy by SIA to travel agency to make it full capacity (81.1% in 2017/18).

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3. Rivalry in the industry
SIA fleet average age is approximate 7years with diverse plan services, one of the attractive reasons to the customers. The customers always compare in term of provided services and prices and are able to have a gorgeous experience in the airline industry. SIA major transformation plan “bold radical measures” which was developed revenue and more passengers to filling up more seat per aircraft to improve SIA processes efficiently and positive impact on the bottom line, as well as enhancing organisational and operational effectiveness.

4. Threat of new entrants (low)
The aircraft refurbishing solution mainly in the various parts used for cabin and interior are made from different types of lightweight materials to make it luxury quotient of VIP cabins and commercial cabins. On the other hand, decreases the gross weight of aircraft, which result in fuel savings. As the airline enterprise, nowadays deregulation of Low-Cost Carrier (LCC) with lower fares and higher load factors. SIA have the strong impact on the customer with their services compare with various existing airlines.

5. Threat of a substitute products or services (low)
SIA had target especially on medium and long-haul flight luxurious traveller that alleviation and time when travelling with less cost. In same time developed to train talent staffs to emerged as expert staffs, so their offerings are higher among than opponent and do not easily to replacement in the same industry. SIA is focusing substantially on the digital realm, to set up an internal digital-innovation unit to increase its digital capabilities and capacity to reclaim world’s No. 1 spot.
Conclusion
• add extra planes to minimised lease fee and more destinations point
• replace some parts of fuel utilization with the solar energy system to decrease dependence on fuels usage.
• Substitute with Robot instead of Staffs cabin crews to be vibrant innovation culture in airline industry

1.1 Outline current legislation, guidelines, policies and procedures within own UK Home Nation affecting the safeguarding of children and young people:

Current legislation builds upon the Children Act 1989 which was created to highlight and define the specific responsibilities of any organisation or individual that works with children, including but not limited to parents, carers, teachers and local authorities. It places an emphasis on collaboration and cooperation – whereby all parties should work together towards the common aim of ensuring a child’s welfare and safeguarding. The act also serves to ensure that all parties know how to deal with allegations of child abuse and/or neglect. The act restructured some of the processes within the court system, namely those dealing with family matters such as custody hearings etc.

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In 2000, when Victoria Climbie tragically died due to major flaws in how cases and allegations of neglect and abuse were handled – an independent inquiry was convened which highlighted these problems and came to the conclusion that children and vulnerable adults within British society were not being safeguarded. This was termed the Laming Report and resulted in The Child Act (2004) and the green paper (Every Child Matters).

As I have covered in past units, the ECM paper has 5 key aims; these being that every child:

Should be kept safe
Be healthy
Enjoy and achieve
Have economic security
Makes a positive contribution

The 2004 Child Act placed duties on local authorities, namely that each local authority has an appointed lead member for children’s services and a director of children’s services, both of whom are responsible for the safeguarding of children through the services they provide.

Under this act, there are Local Safeguarding Children’s Boards – which replace the old Area Child Protection Committees; the new LSCBs are more advantageous since the act give these boards statutory status which gives them functions of investigation and review under SECTION 14, this means that in the vase of a child’s death in the area they must form an inquiry under the working together to safeguard children (another important piece of legislation). The act also places duties on local authorities and their partners (such as health services, police and the youth justice service) to cooperate in promoting well-being among children and putting in place and maintaining safeguarding and welfare measures.

In line with the ethos illustrated in all of the above legislation, children’s services have a duty to adopt a multi-agency approach to safeguarding children and promote their well-being and welfare.

One tool used to achieve these aims is the common assessment framework (or CAF).
This is used to identify any needs children may have and how these can be provided. It looks at identifying needs early in the child’s life, and implementing the best (i.e most appropriate) plan of support. CAF is used when it is ascertained that the child in question is not (or is anticipated, will not) meet the 5 aims of ECM without an intervention. CAF should not be used in cases (or suspected cases) of abuse or neglect – or if the child is at risk.

Lastly, the vetting and barring scheme came into effect in 2009. This means that anyone working with children, young people or vulnerable adults is required to have their information checked against a database of unsuitable (to work with child, young people and vulnerable adults) persons and if they are not suitable, they are barred from working with children, young people and vulnerable adults.

This is called the disclosure and barring service (DBS) and the above process is called a DBS check; all persons who work with children within a school need to have a DBS check.

1.2 Explain child protection within the wider concept of safeguarding children and young people:

N.B: Where I have use the term “child” or “children”, I am referring to both children and young people.

Child protection is a specific area within the umbrella concept of safeguarding (which is any measures related to promoting the welfare and safety of children).

Anybody working with children needs to be aware of what child protection entails within this wider concept of safeguarding children and young people.

Child protection is the process of the protection of children who have/are suffering from abuse or neglect or are at risk of abuse or neglect.

This also would entail proactively protecting and preventing children and young people from any maltreatment, and to make sure children are allowed to develop in safe, caring and encouraging environments whereby their developmental health can be nurtured, not hindered.

If a parent or carer fails in their duty of care and/or protection, this can result in court proceedings whereby could be taken from the home and put into the care system.

Returning to the wider concept of safeguarding, the EYFS framework for early years providers states that there must be an assigned person to be responsible and take the lead in safeguarding measure. This person would responsible for providing other staff are with the necessary information relating to safeguarding in terms of support, guidance and advice. Additionally, this designated leader would also be required to complete a training course in child protection. They would be the main port-of-call in liasoning with the LSCB and with other statutory children’s service agencies (for example each local authorities has a specialised department which specifically handles matters of child protection).

Other forms of safeguarding in the wider context would include:

Individual staff following and promoting school policies, procedures and legislation relating to child safeguarding in areas such as health & safety, anti-bullying, fire drills, suitable persons etc.
Individual staff being up-to-date with relevant training and information relating to safeguarding.
Individual staff and organisations promoting the welfare of children, encouraging the development and learning of children.
The utilisation of the Common Assessment Framework (CAF) which allows practitioners to identify the needs of individual children and deliver them using the most appropriate method (I have also covered this in learning point 1.1). This system allows for a multi-agency approach to providing necessary support to children, by providing means of adding and accessing information about individual children – parental consent would be acquired before sharing information between agencies in line with the data protection act.

1.3 Analyse how national and local guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding affect day to day work with children and young people:

National and local guidelines, policies and procedures relating to safeguarding would affect the day-to-day work of practitioners, especially in the following areas:

Child protection
Childcare practice
Risk assessments
Advocacy for the child (i.e making sure that children’s views and opinions are listened to, taken on board and represented fairly)
Supporting individuals (especially children and young people) who air concerns relating to areas such as safeguarding or welfare.

Taking each of the above areas in turn, I will analyse day-to-day practices and how they relate to national and local safeguarding guidelines, procedures and policies relating to each.

Childcare Practice:

One important piece of legislation in this area is the child protection act (2002), which places a duty of care on educational institutes and authorities to safeguard children and young people, and to promote their welfare.

This would affect day-to-day work, in that individual practitioners would have to be competent in their understanding and practice of safeguarding policy and procedures.

This would include:

Being vigilant to signs of abuse and knowing how to report any concerns and to whom to report these concerns.
Ensuring that the environment (such as a classroom) is safe for children by being aware of and practicing health and safety policies and procedures.
Undertaking and required training, and to ensure that any relevant qualifications are accurate and kept up-to-date.

Child Protection

All schools should have a section in their safeguarding policy concerning vetting and barring, stating that all employees, pupils and volunteers should be appropriately vetted. This is in line with national legislation such as the children act (2004). This would include checks such as DBS/CRB checks.

This would affect day-to-day work, such as when hiring new employees.
Existing staff such as teachers, would have to have a valid DBS check.

If a staff member did not produce a DBS check, or if it upon a new DBS check (some schools have new DBS checks done on their staff every 3 years) revealed that they were an unsuitable/barred person, they would not be allowed to work with young people or children.

Risk Assessments

National legislation such as The Health and Safety at Work Act (HSW) influences local policies and procedures in education, and part of a school’s safeguarding policy would involve measures such as when and how to conduct a risk assessment.

Risk assessments are a regular part of everyday working in the child education/childcare sector.

The purpose of a risk assessment is to highlight any potential dangers or risk in a activity or environment and to put safe measures in place to reduce risk to an acceptable level.

For example, if there is to be a craft activity making necklaces in a classroom – a teacher would conduct a risk assessment; perhaps looking at risks such as the use of scissors, choking hazards on craft materials (such as beads) – and putting measures in place to reduce risk, such as going through safety reminders with pupils (such as “don’t run with scissors”) and ensuring there is appropriate levels of supervision.

Advocacy for the child (i.e making sure that children’s views and opinions are listened to, taken on board and represented fairly)

The document “The National Standards for the Provision of Children’s Advocacy” (2002), is the set of national standards the government has set out regarding practices of Advocacy for children.

The idea of advocacy is best summed up in the words of Margaret Hodge, Minister for Children who said

“Listening to children and young people lies at the very heart of the Government’s reform programme to improve outcomes for every child. This is especially important for those times when children have a problem, concern or want to make a complaint. Advocacy helps to safeguard children and young people, and protect them from harm and neglect. ”

To this end there are charities in place to support children in exercising their rights to be heard, and for their views to be listened to – especially when they have concerns, problems or need to make a complaint. One such charity is the NYAS (the national youth advocacy service).

This affects day-to-day work as practitioners such as teachers, need to be aware of how to access the service of such charities, so that if a child needs to access such services, they are able to and how a child can request an advocate (i.e. someone to represent them and their views).

Supporting individuals (especially children and young people) who air concerns relating to areas such as safeguarding or welfare.

Schools will have specific policies relating to what to do if a child voices concerns, based upon a myriad of national frameworks, guidance, acts etc. such as ECM, childrens act, UN Convention on The Rights of the Child (technically international but many parts of the government have taken this on board).

This would affect day-to-day practice as staff such as teachers, would have follow safeguarding policies and procedures and in the case of a child voicing concern which would include the following points that individual should follow in this scenario:

Listen and take their concerns seriously
Reassure the child
Not make promises regarding what will happen
Not say that confidentiality will be kept (as it may need to breached in cases of abuse etc.)
Record information following data procedures
Not ask questions or come to own conclusions (just record and report as par procedure)
Seek support and guidance from the relevant person/s (such as the school’s designated safeguarding person – previous known as the child protection officer)

1.4 Explain when and why inquiries and serious case reviews are required and how the sharing of the findings informs practice:

1.5 Explain how the processes used by own work setting or service comply with legislation that covers data protection, information handling and sharing
1.1 Outline current legislation, guidelines, policies and procedures within own UK Home Nation affecting the safeguarding of children and young people:

Current legislation builds upon the Children Act 1989 which was created to highlight and define the specific responsibilities of any organisation or individual that works with children, including but not limited to parents, carers, teachers and local authorities. It places an emphasis on collaboration and cooperation – whereby all parties should work together towards the common aim of ensuring a child’s welfare and safeguarding. The act also serves to ensure that all parties know how to deal with allegations of child abuse and/or neglect. The act restructured some of the processes within the court system, namely those dealing with family matters such as custody hearings etc.

In 2000, when Victoria Climbie tragically died due to major flaws in how cases and allegations of neglect and abuse were handled – an independent inquiry was convened which highlighted these problems and came to the conclusion that children and vulnerable adults within British society were not being safeguarded. This was termed the Laming Report and resulted in The Child Act (2004) and the green paper (Every Child Matters).

As I have covered in past units, the ECM paper has 5 key aims; these being that every child:

Should be kept safe
Be healthy
Enjoy and achieve
Have economic security
Makes a positive contribution

The 2004 Child Act placed duties on local authorities, namely that each local authority has an appointed lead member for children’s services and a director of children’s services, both of whom are responsible for the safeguarding of children through the services they provide.

Under this act, there are Local Safeguarding Children’s Boards – which replace the old Area Child Protection Committees; the new LSCBs are more advantageous since the act give these boards statutory status which gives them functions of investigation and review under SECTION 14, this means that in the vase of a child’s death in the area they must form an inquiry under the working together to safeguard children (another important piece of legislation). The act also places duties on local authorities and their partners (such as health services, police and the youth justice service) to cooperate in promoting well-being among children and putting in place and maintaining safeguarding and welfare measures.

In line with the ethos illustrated in all of the above legislation, children’s services have a duty to adopt a multi-agency approach to safeguarding children and promote their well-being and welfare.

One tool used to achieve these aims is the common assessment framework (or CAF).
This is used to identify any needs children may have and how these can be provided. It looks at identifying needs early in the child’s life, and implementing the best (i.e most appropriate) plan of support. CAF is used when it is ascertained that the child in question is not (or is anticipated, will not) meet the 5 aims of ECM without an intervention. CAF should not be used in cases (or suspected cases) of abuse or neglect – or if the child is at risk.

Lastly, the vetting and barring scheme came into effect in 2009. This means that anyone working with children, young people or vulnerable adults is required to have their information checked against a database of unsuitable (to work with child, young people and vulnerable adults) persons and if they are not suitable, they are barred from working with children, young people and vulnerable adults.

This is called the disclosure and barring service (DBS) and the above process is called a DBS check; all persons who work with children within a school need to have a DBS check.

1.2 Explain child protection within the wider concept of safeguarding children and young people:

N.B: Where I have use the term “child” or “children”, I am referring to both children and young people.

Child protection is a specific area within the umbrella concept of safeguarding (which is any measures related to promoting the welfare and safety of children).

Anybody working with children needs to be aware of what child protection entails within this wider concept of safeguarding children and young people.

Child protection is the process of the protection of children who have/are suffering from abuse or neglect or are at risk of abuse or neglect.

This also would entail proactively protecting and preventing children and young people from any maltreatment, and to make sure children are allowed to develop in safe, caring and encouraging environments whereby their developmental health can be nurtured, not hindered.

If a parent or carer fails in their duty of care and/or protection, this can result in court proceedings whereby could be taken from the home and put into the care system.

Returning to the wider concept of safeguarding, the EYFS framework for early years providers states that there must be an assigned person to be responsible and take the lead in safeguarding measure. This person would responsible for providing other staff are with the necessary information relating to safeguarding in terms of support, guidance and advice. Additionally, this designated leader would also be required to complete a training course in child protection. They would be the main port-of-call in liasoning with the LSCB and with other statutory children’s service agencies (for example each local authorities has a specialised department which specifically handles matters of child protection).

Other forms of safeguarding in the wider context would include:

Individual staff following and promoting school policies, procedures and legislation relating to child safeguarding in areas such as health & safety, anti-bullying, fire drills, suitable persons etc.
Individual staff being up-to-date with relevant training and information relating to safeguarding.
Individual staff and organisations promoting the welfare of children, encouraging the development and learning of children.
The utilisation of the Common Assessment Framework (CAF) which allows practitioners to identify the needs of individual children and deliver them using the most appropriate method (I have also covered this in learning point 1.1). This system allows for a multi-agency approach to providing necessary support to children, by providing means of adding and accessing information about individual children – parental consent would be acquired before sharing information between agencies in line with the data protection act.

1.3 Analyse how national and local guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding affect day to day work with children and young people:

National and local guidelines, policies and procedures relating to safeguarding would affect the day-to-day work of practitioners, especially in the following areas:

Child protection
Childcare practice
Risk assessments
Advocacy for the child (i.e making sure that children’s views and opinions are listened to, taken on board and represented fairly)
Supporting individuals (especially children and young people) who air concerns relating to areas such as safeguarding or welfare.

Taking each of the above areas in turn, I will analyse day-to-day practices and how they relate to national and local safeguarding guidelines, procedures and policies relating to each.

Childcare Practice:

One important piece of legislation in this area is the child protection act (2002), which places a duty of care on educational institutes and authorities to safeguard children and young people, and to promote their welfare.

This would affect day-to-day work, in that individual practitioners would have to be competent in their understanding and practice of safeguarding policy and procedures.

This would include:

Being vigilant to signs of abuse and knowing how to report any concerns and to whom to report these concerns.
Ensuring that the environment (such as a classroom) is safe for children by being aware of and practicing health and safety policies and procedures.
Undertaking and required training, and to ensure that any relevant qualifications are accurate and kept up-to-date.

Child Protection

All schools should have a section in their safeguarding policy concerning vetting and barring, stating that all employees, pupils and volunteers should be appropriately vetted. This is in line with national legislation such as the children act (2004). This would include checks such as DBS/CRB checks.

This would affect day-to-day work, such as when hiring new employees.
Existing staff such as teachers, would have to have a valid DBS check.

If a staff member did not produce a DBS check, or if it upon a new DBS check (some schools have new DBS checks done on their staff every 3 years) revealed that they were an unsuitable/barred person, they would not be allowed to work with young people or children.

Risk Assessments

National legislation such as The Health and Safety at Work Act (HSW) influences local policies and procedures in education, and part of a school’s safeguarding policy would involve measures such as when and how to conduct a risk assessment.

Risk assessments are a regular part of everyday working in the child education/childcare sector.

The purpose of a risk assessment is to highlight any potential dangers or risk in a activity or environment and to put safe measures in place to reduce risk to an acceptable level.

For example, if there is to be a craft activity making necklaces in a classroom – a teacher would conduct a risk assessment; perhaps looking at risks such as the use of scissors, choking hazards on craft materials (such as beads) – and putting measures in place to reduce risk, such as going through safety reminders with pupils (such as “don’t run with scissors”) and ensuring there is appropriate levels of supervision.

Advocacy for the child (i.e making sure that children’s views and opinions are listened to, taken on board and represented fairly)

The document “The National Standards for the Provision of Children’s Advocacy” (2002), is the set of national standards the government has set out regarding practices of Advocacy for children.

The idea of advocacy is best summed up in the words of Margaret Hodge, Minister for Children who said

“Listening to children and young people lies at the very heart of the Government’s reform programme to improve outcomes for every child. This is especially important for those times when children have a problem, concern or want to make a complaint. Advocacy helps to safeguard children and young people, and protect them from harm and neglect. ”

To this end there are charities in place to support children in exercising their rights to be heard, and for their views to be listened to – especially when they have concerns, problems or need to make a complaint. One such charity is the NYAS (the national youth advocacy service).

This affects day-to-day work as practitioners such as teachers, need to be aware of how to access the service of such charities, so that if a child needs to access such services, they are able to and how a child can request an advocate (i.e. someone to represent them and their views).

Supporting individuals (especially children and young people) who air concerns relating to areas such as safeguarding or welfare.

Schools will have specific policies relating to what to do if a child voices concerns, based upon a myriad of national frameworks, guidance, acts etc. such as ECM, childrens act, UN Convention on The Rights of the Child (technically international but many parts of the government have taken this on board).

This would affect day-to-day practice as staff such as teachers, would have follow safeguarding policies and procedures and in the case of a child voicing concern which would include the following points that individual should follow in this scenario:

Listen and take their concerns seriously
Reassure the child
Not make promises regarding what will happen
Not say that confidentiality will be kept (as it may need to breached in cases of abuse etc.)
Record information following data procedures
Not ask questions or come to own conclusions (just record and report as par procedure)
Seek support and guidance from the relevant person/s (such as the school’s designated safeguarding person – previous known as the child protection officer)

1.4 Explain when and why inquiries and serious case reviews are required and how the sharing of the findings informs practice:

1.5 Explain how the processes used by own work setting or service comply with legislation that covers data protection, information handling and sharing