1.1 Identify the different reasons people communicate

Communication is one of the most important aspects of working with others. There are many different reasons people communicate, but mainly it would be;
-Building relationships: When meeting someone for the first time, you automatically use a form of communication to build a relationship with that person. This communication may be your body language or facial expressions, which begins to build the relationship with the other person.
-Maintaining relationships: By continuously building your relationship with others using communication, you maintain a good relationship with them.
-Gaining and sharing information: Communication is used at work in order to gain and share information, with professionals, colleagues, young people and their families.
-Expressing needs and feelings: Communication is used to express our needs and feelings, and allowing others to do so too.
1.2 Explain how communication affects relationships in the work setting

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When working with people on a daily basis it is really important to establish good relationships with them. Working as a Residential Support Worker I communicate with my colleagues, parents, professionals and young people on a daily basis, and it is key that I alter the way I communicate depending on who I’m communicating with.

When communicating with my colleagues I use a friendly approach, in order to build a good relationship with them so that as a team we can best support the young people in our care. When it comes to communicating with the parents, I make sure to be sensitive to their feelings for their child and also come across in a friendly yet professional way, to give them the confidence that their child is being looked after in the best way possible, and to maintain a positive relationship with them so that they can have a positive influence on their child.

With professionals I use a professional approach to share and gain information about the young people I work with, to be able to best support them. And when it comes to the young people, I use a range of communication methods to be able to build trust and a good relationship with them, these include pecs and Makaton.
2.2 Describe the factors to consider when promoting effective communication
The most important factor to consider when promoting effective communication is your audience, as once you have established your audience you can choose which communication would be most suitable. If it’s a child that you’re communicating with, your language would be simpler then if you were communicating with an adult. And if the person you are communicating with has communication difficulties or a hearing impairment you may use Makaton or pecs to support what you’re saying, so that they can understand you. When arranging appointments with professionals you may choose to use email or talk to them over the phone. And when discussing sensitive matters with parents, you may find it best to do this face to face.

3.1 Explain how people from different backgrounds may use and/or interpret communication methods in different ways

Our communication, the words we use and how we use them are all influenced by our culture. Culture is about the way we live, think and relate to others.

Family life has the biggest influence on how people communicate, as families share experiences which enable them to understand each other. Within a family, non-verbal communication such as a look or gesture may convey a message which could only be understood within the family.
It is also the type of family you come from, which will influence the way in which you communicate. As someone brought up in a noisy, busy background will more likely have the confidence to talk to new people or try new ways of communicating, as will people who are confident. Whereas quieter people and those lacking confidence, may appear more withdrawn or reluctant to attempt new ways of communicating.
Past experiences can also have a great effect on your communication. If when you were younger you were praised or criticised for certain forms of communication, it will put a stigma in your brain that you are good or bad at that. For example, if you were criticised for the way in which you read aloud in class as a child, you may feel reluctant to do so as an adult.
The way in which we communicate will be influenced by our background, culture and past experiences. Our knowledge and understanding gives us the confidence, which will form the basis in our chosen form of communication.
3.2 Identify barriers to effective communication

Barriers to effective communication are when people find it hard to pass on or receive information due to various factors. These include but are not limited to;

-Language: when someone speaks a different language it can be very hard to communicate with that person through speech, you would have to use other forms of communication as an aid.

-Sight impairment: when communicating with someone who has a sight impairment you would have to talk more slowly and clearly, as they won’t be able to see your facial expressions, hand motions and eye contact, which would usually aid your speech.
-Hearing impairment: once again you would have to talk more slowly and clearly, and may also use sign language to aid your speech.

-Emotional issues: some people may find it difficult to discuss certain topics due to emotional issues, which may make it difficult if these are regarding their health and might have to be discussed.

Effective communication involves overcoming these barriers and conveying a clear and concise message.

1. Africa is the second largest continent after Asia, and its area is about 22% of the entire land area of Africa.
2. The total area of Africa is around 30 million kilometers square.
3. Africa is second driest continent in the world.
4. Africa is the hottest continent in the world.
5. There are 54 total countries in Africa.
6. Sudan is the largest country in Africa and the smallest country is Seychelles.
7. Africa’s most populated city is Cairo, capital of Egypt.
8. Africa is world’s largest diamond producer, approximately more than 50 %of world production.
9. Africa has the largest hot desert in the world called, Sahara desert.
10. The Sahara desert covers as many as 10 countries of Africa.
11. The richest country in the Africa is Equatorial Guinea
12. At the starting of 20th century almost entire territory of Africa was colonized but Ethiopia and Liberia were independent.
13. During second Congo War, more than 5.4 million people died- second highest causalities after World War II.
14. Between 15th and 19th centuries, around 7-12 millions of Africans were kidnapped and sold to slavery in America.
15. Many countries of Africa are in the list of top 25 poorest and underdeveloped countries in the world.
16. The most people follow Islam or Christianity religion.
17. According to researches the human civilization began in Africa.
18. Nigeria is the fourth largest exporter of oil in the world and the largest oil producer in Africa.
19. Africa has more than 30% of total earth’s mineral resources.
20. The world’s longest river, Nile flows in Africa.
21. The biggest African island is Madagascar.
22. The largest waterfalls, Victoria Falls is in Africa.
23. Africa population is more than 1 billion and is second most populated continent.
24. The total population of Africa is about 16% of total earth’s population.
25. In African countries half of the population has not reached the age of 25 years.
26. There are over 25 million HIV positive people in Africa and more than 17 million people have already died from it.
27. About 90% malaria cases occur in Africa and about 3,000 children die from it every day.
28. Approximately 40% of population of Africa lacks secondary education.
29. The people of continent speak approximately 2000 languages.
30. Arabic is the most spoken language, other languages like English, Swahili, French and Hausa are second most popular languages.
31. Africa has the lowest life expectancy rate, men- 50 years and female- 48 years.
32. There are many rare species of plants and animals found in Africa like, hippos, giraffes and many others.
33. Hydnora africana, insectivorous plant grows only in Africa. The local people consume fruits of this plant.
34. More than 25% of bird species are in Africa.
35. The world’s largest land animal – an African elephant lives in Africa. It can weigh from 6 to 7 tons.
36. Lake Malawi, located in East Africa, contains the largest number of species of fish.
37. The world’s fastest animal, cheetah lives in Africa.
38. Some African tribes hunt hippos and serve it as food.
39. Africa is crossed by equator and Prime Meridian, so it is most centrally located continent in the world.
40. Africa and Europe are separated by only 8.9 miles of ocean.
41. The sand dunes of Sahara Desert can be as high as Eiffel Tower.
42. More than 90% of African soil is not suitable for agriculture.
43. Around 240 million of Africans suffers from malnutrition.
44. The highest mountain in Africa – Kilimanjaro, it is a volcano.
45. Africa’s most deadly animal is hippopotamus.
46. A country of Africa, Tanzania has the highest albinism rates. Albino children are attacked by the witchdoctors and cut their body parts to make tonics that they believe can heal diseases.
47. Africa’s most famous tourist destination is Egypt.
48. Africa’s most popular sports are soccer and cricket.
49. Females of African tribe, Mursi wears plates on their lips.
50. The world oldest university, University of Karaouine is in Morocco.
51. Around 40% of population of Africa is illiterate.
52. There is tribe in Africa called “Kalenjins”; most of the fast runners come from there.
53. Wangari Maathai was the first African woman who was rewarded Noble Prize for peace.
54. Sudan has the highest number of pyramids in the world.
55. Experts say that there are at least 3,000 distinct ethnic groups in Africa.
56. There are more than 1 million Chinese citizens in Africa.
57. South Africa is the second largest fruit export in the world.
58. 40% of African children between the ages of 5 and 14 are forced to work.
59. People have to walk on an average 4 kilometers daily to get water.
60. Everyday around 96 elephants are killed on the continent.

1. Primary Research
1.1. Create data for the required medium in this case for UPS and Off grid
1.1.1. This can be done by one of the three methods :
a. Analyse SAIFI, SAIDI to create a reliability map(if possible).
b. Interview the current UPS industry leaders for extrapolation of market value ( Referring to MCA provided data and confirming the same)
c. Analyse data by giving out forms through mediums and understanding data at consumer level.
1.1.2. Create the IDEAL CONSUMER CRITERIA
a. Correlation from above data.
b. Create market models for the same under various scenarios of growth.
2. Secondary Research
2.1. Create database for the companies performing in market in UPS industry using reports from reputed firms and also form MCA (company balance sheets) reports.
2.2. Extract all possible data for SAIFI/SAIDI indices from DISCOM data. (will be helpful for approximation of reliability)
2.3. Analyse performance of previous attempts at the same type of product.
2.4. Targeted companies for UPS industry:

1. Auschwitz was infamous concentration camp that became the site of the most mass destruction of civilians in the history of mankind.
2. The Camp was located near the Polish city, Auschwitz.
3. The Auschwitz Camp consists of Auschwitz I (the original camp), Auschwitz II–Birkenau (a combination concentration/extermination camp), and Auschwitz III–Monowitz (a labor camp).
4. With these three main camps, there were forty-five other satellite camps.
5. Auschwitz was guarded by about 6,000 SSs.
6. At the entrance to the camp of there was an inscription in German- “Arbeit Macht Frei” which means ‘work sets you free’.
7. The first group of prisoners, consisting of 728 Polish political prisoners, they were Soviet prisoners of war, gypsies and thousands of Jews.
8. In the spring and summer of 1944, three to four trains arrived daily at Auschwitz-Birkenau, bringing in 3 to 3.5 thousand people.
9. The main task of the prisoners of the concentration camp was hard work for the benefit of Nazis.
10. The prisoners who could not work anymore were sent to the gas chambers.
11. 6 days a week prisoners were required to work.
12. The death rate of workers in the first 3-4 months after arrival was about 80%.
13. According to the rules of the camps, the people have to be tested for any infectious diseases and had to take bath.
14. The prisoners were forced to get naked and ordered to take bath and those who seem unfit were sent to the gas chamber.
15. The most destructive invention was gas chamber and crematorium.
16. Children, elder people, and disabled people were directly sent to the gas chambers.
17. The ash from the crematorium was used as fertilizers for the agricultural field.
18. In the camp, more than 1 million Jews, 1000,000 USSR people, and 150,000 Poles were killed.
19. The homosexual people were also sent to the camp.
20. Most Jewish children were killed immediately after their arrival.
21. On September 1944, 12,300 children from Kaunas were sent to gas chambers.
22. In early October 1944, there were 2,510 boys and girls in Auschwitz. On January 10th 1945, there were 611 left.
23. German doctors performed many experiments on the people of camps.
24. People at the camp were injected with deadly infections and studied further.
25. Even the children were injected with a high dose of tranquilizers.
26. Dozens of men and women were exposed to large doses of X-ray irradiation with further removal of the genital organs.
27. First aid was also not provided to the prisoners after irradiation and castration operations, which lead to the death of most of the people.
28. Prisoners were also used to find out optimal ways of treating the serious wound. For that, they were planted by metal fragments, glass pieces, nails, dirt or anything they find.
29. Every tenth concentration camp personnel were women.
30. In the camp, there were only about 7,000 weak and sick prisoners of Auschwitz from more than 20 countries.
31. A number of weak people were so less because they shot the people who are not strong now.
32. More than 1.1 million people died in Auschwitz Concentration Camp and 90% of them were Jews.
33. The number of dead people at Auschwitz is more than the combined death of British and Americans in WWII.
34. Before sending prisoners to the gas chamber their hair was shaved.
35. The hair of dead people was used as the fabric to sew rough working clothes.
36. At the time of Holocaust Jewish boxer, Salamo Arouch was also imprisoned at Auschwitz and he was forced to fight with the other people.
37. The children born in the concentration camp were killed in a brutal way – they were drowned in metal barrels.
38. Josef Mengele was the doctor at camp and was known as ‘Angel of Death’.
39. Mengele performed many experiments on twins and abnormal children.
40. Mengele used to sew two children together or exchanged the organs of the twins and many more.
41. To change the eye color of the children, Mengele injected chemicals in the eyes of them.
42. At Auschwitz, about 60 million Reichsmark, equivalent to £125m today, was generated for the Nazi state by slave labor.
43. Maximilian Kolbe was a priest who volunteered to die for another prisoner who was crying for his family.
44. Anne Frank’s father survived the Auschwitz Concentration Camp.
45. At the time of Holocaust, a Jewish woman exposed around 3000 hiding Jewish people to Gestapo to save her family. Ever after that Nazi sent her family to camp.
46. The meals for prisoners was a slice of bread, 0.5 liters of black coffee and 1 liter of ricotta soup, several grams of sausage and margarine.
47. Most of the people who survived through labor work, at last, died from malnutrition and starvation.
48. In Auschwitz camp, there were special rooms called starvation cells.
49. To punish the people they were thrown into these cells and left inside until they die without eating.
50. There is an experiment conducted on women of the camp, a special solution was injected into the uterus and then it was removed and studied further.
51. Witold Pilecki was Polish army officer; he volunteered to enter the camp to find out about the situation and to gather information.
52. Witold Pilecki managed to escape the camp and that’s how the world knew about the camp.
53. Despite the appalling conditions at the camp, some prisoners continued to struggle for their rights and freedom.
54. People of villages living in the camps used to help the prisoners by providing food.
55. The Polish peasants were evacuated from the vicinity of Auschwitz by replacing them with loyal German settlers from the families of SS servicemen.
56. January 27, 1945, was the day when the prisoners of Auschwitz were liberated.
57. Soviet army liberated the prisoners, more than 7,000 ill and dying prisoners were found.
58. Antoni Dobrowolski was the oldest survivor of Holocaust. He died at the age of 102.
59. Three prisoners managed to escape the camp. They dressed as Nazi officers and stole the car of one of the officer and escaped from the main entrance.
60. In the history of the camp, about 700 attempts were made to escape, 300 of which were successful.