1. The word ‘bible’ is a Greek word which means ‘the books’.
2. The Bible was written roughly between 1200 and 100 AD.
3. There are 66 books in Protestants Christians Bible.
4. Ethiopian Orthodox Christians recognize 81 books in the Bible.
5. Greek Orthodox Bible has 75 books in the bible.
6. Most parts of Old Testament was written in Hebrew.
7. The New Testament is written in Greek.
8. The complete Bible has translated in around 670 different languages.
9. Bible is most famous and most published book in the world.
10. The New Testament is translated into 1521 languages.
11. Every year approximately 100 million copies of the Bible are sold.
12. Oldest man in the bible is Methuselah, he lived for 969 years.
13. The Bible has more than a single author, it was written by kings, fisherman, prophets, shepherds, poets, farmers, musicians, doctors and many others.
14. The Bible has different types of documents like poetry, legal documents, songs, letters, eyewitness accounts, people stories, historical documents and advice material.
15. Most Catholics recognize 73 books in the Bible.
16. According to the stories in the bible, Satan killed only 10 people but God killed more than 2,400,000 people.
17. To read the entire Bible, it takes 49 hours, i.e. slightly more than 2 days.
18. Goliath was the tallest man in the Bible; he was 9 and half feet tall.
19. The first English translation of Bible was made in 1382 A.D., by John Wycliffe.
20. The shortest book in the New Testament is 2 John with 13 verses.
21. The longest book in the New Testament is Acts. It has 28 chapters.
22. Women, old people are the most maximum readers of the Bible.
23. The Bible contains around 774,000 words.
24. Noah built the ark to protect family and animals to survive the flood, and he was 600 years old when he made an ark.
25. According to Bible Jesus lived on the earth for forty days after his supernatural resurrection.
26. The longest Chapter in the Bible is Psalm 119.
27. The shortest Chapter in the Bible is Psalm 117.
28. The bible is the most shoplifted book.
29. The longest verse in the Bible is Esther 8:9.
30. There are total 1189 numbers of Chapters in the Bible.
31. There are two men in the Bible who were taken up to heaven by God, without dying. They are Elijah and Enoch,
32. There is a description in Bible that after Crucifixion of Jesus, many saints rose from dead and were seen by people.
33. China is world’s largest producer of Bibles.
34. The words: “Do not be afraid” appear 365 times in the Bible.
35. Total number of Chapters in the Old testament is929.
36. There are 260 Chapters in the New Testament.
37. The word “Christian” appears only 3 times in the Bible.
38. “Mahershalalhashbaz” is the longest word in the Bible.
39. “Amen” is the last word in the Bible.
40. Bible has 100 positive statements about the right hand.
41. There are no original texts of the bible.
42. The Old Testament was written in 1000 of years but New Testament was written in a period of 50-75 years.
43. There are many songs lyrics that are inspired by Bible.
44. As bible is offered for free in hotels and worship places it is the most commonly stolen book in the world.
45. After the death of Bob Marley, he was buried with his guitar, a Bible and stalk of marijuana.
46. There is no phrase in Bible like ‘God never gives you more than you can handle’ but the opposite is said in the bible.
47. Solomon was the wisest man in the Bible.
48. Jehovah’s Witnesses don’t celebrate holidays and birthdays.
49. Swearing on the Bible is forbidden by the Bible.
50. 7, 12 and 40 are the numbers the bible repeatedly repeats.
51. The most highlighted or read Kindle books are The Bible, Steve Jobs’ bio, and the Hunger Games.
52. Having Bibles, watching South Korean movies and distributing pornography in North Korea may be punished with death.
53. Dominican Republic flag has the bible on it.
54. In Bible, there is no physical description of Jesus.
55. In 1631, two London Bible printers accidentally left the word “not” out of the seventh commandment, which then read, “Thou shalt commit adultery.”
56. In the Bible, the number ‘666’ is a sign of the beast.
57. There are plenty of puns, funny names, humorous imagery, sarcasm and irony in Bible.
58. In the bible, there is no mention of three wise men, just three gifts.
59. Bible states that the Earth is free floating in the space.
60. In the Bible, God sends 2 bears to murder 42 children because they had mocked the bald man.
61. The Old Testament has more than 60 passages; Christians believe its prophecies of Jesus.
62. There is mention of unicorns in Bible.
63. In Bible the greatest warrior was Gideon, he defeated 135,000 Midianites with the help of God.
64. According to Bible, Solomon had 700 wives and 300 concubines.
65. There is a description in Bible that earth is round.
66. There are around 2,500 prophecies in Bible.
67. “Jesus wept” is the shortest verse in the bible.
68. There are total 31,173 Verses in the Bible.
69. Most scholars believe that Jesus never viewed himself as creating a new religion per se, just reforming Judaism.
70. Jesus had several sisters and brothers, names of sisters are not named in the Bible.

1.3 -Explain the reasons for following manufacturer’s and organisational instructions when operating equipment
The reasons for following manufacturer’s instructions when using office equipment is so that equipment is used in the correct way. If equipment is used properly it reduces the risk of faults, it will also reduce the risk of safety hazards. Organisational instructions are there to ensure equipment is being used appropriately, and only being used when necessary, following these instructions means there is less likely to be problems with equipment.
1.4 -Describe the types of equipment faults likely to be experienced and the correct way of dealing with these
When working in an office, many equipment problems are technological faults, such as power shortages, server faults, phone line issues etc. When using the phone system, a type of fault can be we are unable to take calls, call keep being cut off, we are unable to hear/ communicate with the caller. The correct way to deal with this problem would be to log a call with IT so that they can fix the problems. There are ways of preventing problems by having regular checks done on the equipment. There could be fault. When there are faults with equipment it is best for us to ensure we have saved and work we have stared so it will not be lost if the system goes down. If we are on the phone we need to make sure the first thing we get is the person’s telephone number, so that if the call is ended then we can call the person back. If there is a problem with the computer stem then we will also have to log a call with IT so that it can be fixed.
Other problems that can occur can be problems with printers and photocopiers. Some of these problems can be deal with straight away and will not need assistance, for example an empty paper tray or paper jams. Other problems may be more complicated and a technician will need to be called in. When fixing problems it is important to use the manufacturer’s instructions, as this will ensure the problem is fixed properly and will stop the risk of causing further faults with the equipment and reduce further faults in the future.
Another fault could be running out of equipment, for example toner in the printer, paper, folders, etc. A way to prevent this problem is to have regular checks on equipment and stock so that new equipment is ordered before it has run out.


Richmond and McCroskey (2009) state that “The importance of communication in human society has been recognized for thousands of years, far longer than we can demonstrate through recorded history”. It is said that people communicate to find help, to inform others, and to share behaviour as a way of keeping the relationship stronger. Human being use the language as communication and interaction towards each other. The interaction divided into two category that is Intra – group and intergroup. But the conflict usually appears in intergroup interaction when one of them didn’t pay any attention to the communication law and regularisation in each other dialect.
Through closely research in Language and culture are the topic that is two inseparable said by Mulyana (2004: 73) states that “language is a cultural representation, or a ‘rough map’ that reflects culture, including world views, beliefs, values, knowledge, and experiences which are practiced by related communities.” From the definition of language and culture above, it can be interpret that language and culture are two closely related items which is language reflects culture and culture includes language.
In language and politeness in the other hand by Spolsky, Holmes (2001: 268) states that “politeness involves taking account of the feeling of others, so being polite means to make others feel comfortable.” Based on linguistic terms, being polite define to speak appropriately based on the relationship between the speaker and the listener. In other words, in speaking towards one another people have to select their words carefully according to the situation in which they are speaking. For example, when someone wants to say something, man or woman will choose a suitable way to say it, since inappropriate phrases choice may be considered rude and impolite way by the listener.
Every culture has different norms including language norms that has been mentioned previously. Concerning with the language norms, every language may have different politeness assumption. In verbal cross cultural communication people have to learn politeness principle in the languages of the other cultures in order to avoid misunderstanding since, as it is stated by Holmes (2001: 279), “the appropriate ways of speaking in different communities are clearly quite distinctive in a range of areas. Being polite involves understanding the social values which govern the way social dimensions such as status, solidarity, and formality are expressed.” This subtitle presents the phenomena of linguistic politeness in different cultures.

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1.1. Background
Energy is fundamental for ensuring sustainable development. because, it is a key input for all economic, social, political and environmental development activities (Byakola et al., 2009; Guta, 2016). Appropriate access to energy supply can directly affect productivity, income, health, as well as can ensure gender equality, education, and access to other linked issues of basic services (Guta, 2016; Pachauri et al., 2012). However, inappropriate energy exploitation can have substantial impacts on natural environment and their goods and services (Inayat, 2011; UNEP, 2017).
More than 3 billion people i.e. about 40% of world population still depends on biomass fuels such as fuel wood, charcoal, agricultural residues, dung and coal for household energy demand (Kanangire et al., 2016; Molnar, 2017; Rehfuess et al., 2006; WHO, 2014). Burning of these traditional fuels wastefully on open fire or traditional stove for household energy use have destructive effects on health, environment and socio economic development (Jagger and Jumbe, 2016; Puzzolo et al., 2013). Due to the adverse effects of biomass burning over four million premature deaths per year, mostly of women and children (Lim et al., 2012; Usmani et al., 2017; WHO, 2006).
Traditional biomass energy serves as main source of energy for most African households primarily for cooking, drying, and space heating (Janssen and Rutz, 2012). Africa has the world’s lowermost per capita energy consumption having 16% of the world’s population i.e. 1.18 billion out of 7.35 billion population, which consumes about 3.3% of global primary energy. Biomass energy have a share of more than 30% of the energy consumed in Africa (UNEP, 2017), And in most sub Saharan African countries accounted for 90- 98% of household energy consumption (Amare, 2015).
Access to reliable and affordable energy supply is vital for sub Saharan Africa development which accounts for 13% of the world’s population. Only in sub-Saharan Africa more than 620 million people live without access to electricity and nearly 730 million people depend on the traditional use of solid biomass for cooking with wasteful stoves. Four out of five people depend on the traditional use of solid biomass, mainly fuel wood and charcoal for cooking (IEA, 2014; UNEP, 2017). Additionally, traditional biomass use has multiple adverse impacts, mostly linked to health. About 600.000 lives are lost each year in sub-Saharan Africa due to exposure to biomass smoke (Lambe et al., 2015; UNEP, 2017). similarly, in east Africa more than 200 million people are without Access to electricity, almost 80% of its population (IEA, 2014).
The energy balance of Ethiopia has been mostly dominated by two types of energy sources i.e. hydropower and biomass. Biomass has a share of 90 percent of the total energy demand. Due to this massive depletion of its biomass resources the country has been facing degradation of its forest resources (Guta, 2012). According to the Central Statistics Agency (CSA) of Ethiopia, almost 98% of rural households used biomass fuels as their main energy sources for cooking. About 84.4% of the households use firewood, around 8.2% cook with dung cakes, 4.7 % crop residue/leaves, 0.1% charcoal and only 2.7 % use others including gas, electricity for cooking (CSA and WB, 2013). Consequently, approximately annually 45,697 deaths in Ethiopia due to exposure into indoor air pollution from biomass burning (Lambe et al., 2015).
Burning sold biomass fuels for cooking emits air pollutants which have significant addition to climate change, and unmanageable wood harvesting leads to deforestation. However, increased fuel efficiency, dissemination of clean and efficient cook stoves can reduce significantly the emissions caused by cooking as well as deforestation via saving fuel wood consumption. existing approaches estimate that clean and efficient stoves can save anywhere from 1-3 tonnes of co2e/stove/year, with 1-2 tonnes being most common (USAID, 2017). “Improved cook-stoves(ICS) can reduce fuel use by 30-60% as compared to the traditional cook-stoves, and proved cleaner, more complete combustion, which can result in fewer greenhouse gas and black carbon emissions” (USAID, 2017). Furthermore, Emission can be reduced through the use of alternative fuels and end- use technologies such as efficient biomass cook stoves for household cooking and heating (Johansson et al., 2002).
As mentioned in the CRGE document of Ethiopia, improved biomass cook stoves have a potential to save fuel wood on average by 50% as compared to the traditional once. Furthermore, introducing efficient stoves has two distinct effects on GHG emissions. First, it reduces forest degradation, by saving around 0.9 t biomass/year per household. Secondly, as the woody biomass saves from cutting, carbon sequestration increases which accounts to 2.1ton/year per household if it is note burned (FDRE, 2011).
Therefore, to address the challenges associated with households cooking energy demand in developing countries promotion and dissemination of more energy efficient improved cook stoves and encouraging to switch to other modern cooking energy alternatives like LPG, gas and electricity are the two main feasible solutions (Urmee, and Gyamfi, 2014). In line with this, the government of Ethiopia have been accompanied many efforts to promote and disseminate improved biomass cook stove technologies in all parts of the country. Even though, yet the adoption of improved biomass cook stove technologies, especially Mirt and Tikikle improved cook-stoves are not still progressive at rural household level in Tigray National regional state . Why the rural households are not adopting or adopting the improved biomass cook stove technologies and their contribution to carbon emission reduction at rural household level is a big question so far not answered with substantial evidence in the study area. Thus, this study is planned with the objective of analyzing determinants of improved biomass cook stove technologies adoption and the contribution to carbon emission reduction at rural household level in in kilte ablalo wereda, eastern zone of Tigray region. Ethiopia.
1.2. Statement of the problem
Ethiopia, energy sector is highly dominated by biomass energy such as firewood, charcoal, crop residues and animal dung (Geissler et al., 2013; Kanangire et al., 2016). Biomass energy has an estimated share of more than 90% of the total domestic demand of Ethiopia (Eshetu, 2014; Kanangire et al., 2016). Furthermore about 95 % of the population uses biomass energy as their main energy sources for cooking and heating (Kanangire et al., 2016). This very high degree of dependence on wood and agricultural residues for household energy use has significant impact on the social, economic and environmental resources (Geissler et al., 2013)
Traditional solid biomass energy use with wasteful cooking stoves adversely affects human and environmental health due to exposure into indoor air pollution(IAP) and contribution to climate change, Annually about four million premature deaths are associate with IAP worldwide (WHO, 2006; Lim et al., 2012). In Ethiopia about 45,697 deaths per year are attributed to IAP associated with the inefficient residential burning of biomass energy resources (Lambe et al., 2015). numerous studies indicated that traditional burning of solid biomass for energy needs make a contribution to climate change through greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to deforestation and forest degradation that results from the overexploitation of fuel wood (Venkataraman et al., 2005).
According to CRGE document of Ethiopia, the forest resources of the country are under risk. The main reasons for deforestation and forest degradation are the growing demand for fuel wood and agricultural land. Unless necessary measure taken to curb these problems around 9 million ha might be deforested b/n 2010-2030. Furthermore, annual fuel wood consumption will rise by 65%. Which turns to forest degradation of more than 22 million tons of woody biomass (FDRE, 2011).
To solve all the above mentioned problem, the government of Ethiopia has make an effort to reduce overexploitation of biomass as energy source and to ensure environmental protection, human health, poverty reduction of households. One way to minimize the pressure on forests, household fuel wood demand, and indoor air pollution as well as to mitigate the climate change is through disseminating improved cook stove technologies as one remedial action (Kanangire et al., 2016). However, even efforts have by the government and non-governmental organizations to promote and disseminate these improved technologies in all parts of the country, adoption rate of improved cook stove in Tigray regional national state remained as low as 34% and 92% of the households use traditional fuel wood in inefficient stoves as their main source of energy which have adverse health and enevironmental impacts (source: TMEA) .
1.3. Objective of the study
1.3.1. General objective
The overall objective of this study is to analyze the determinants of improved biomass cook stove adoption and its contribution for carbon emission at rural household level in kilte-Awulalo woreda , eastern zone of Tigray region.
1.3.2. Specific objectives
1. To determine the major type of energy source and estimate the amount of energy consumption at rural household level in kilte-awulalo woreda, eastern zone of Tigray.
2. To identify the major determinants of improved biomass cook stove technology adoption at rural household level in the study area.
3. To assess level of knowledge and attitude of rural households towards the benefits of improved cook stoves in the study area?
4. To assess the contribution of improved biomass cook stoves to carbon emission in the study area?
1.4. Research questions
1. What are the major types of energy source and the amount of energy consumed at rural household level in the study area?
2. What are the major determinants of improved biomass cook stove technology adoption decision at rural household level in the study area?
3. What are the level of knowledge and attitude of rural households about the benefits of improved biomass cook stoves in the study area?
4. What are the contributions of improved biomass cook-stoves for carbon emission in the study area?
1.5. Significance of the study
The study covers issues mainly related to determinants of improved cook stove adoption and its contribution to carbon emission reduction at rural household level in Kilte-Awulalo Wereda. The findings obtained from this study could be used by policy makers in order to develop and design appropriate policies and strategies that are very help full for rural development. It may help programme planners for developing integrated development plans, programs and projects which have significant contribution for ensuring sustainable energy development for rural households. It also assists for regional bureaus and woreda level rural development offices for making informed decisions to take remedial actions against domestic energy resource, health and environmental related problems. Moreover, this study will also useful for energy researchers, higher educational institutions, stakeholders, donors and individuals working on energy sector development.
Finally, an understanding of the determinant factors for the adoption of new improved biomass cook stove technologies and their contribution to carbon emission at rural households will be important for successful implementation of energy programs and projects. Additionally, the results of the study can fill the existing literature gaps in the topic under discussion specific to the study sites and serve as future reference for researchers and other individuals.
1.6. Scope and limitation of the study
The study will be delimited to kilte ablalo woreda located in eastern zone of Tigray region. However, the findings of the study may be useful and applicable to similar areas in the region or beyond. The study will focus on determinant factors affecting rural household’s adoption of improved biomass cook stove technology such as socio-economic factors, stove characteristic factors, institutional and environmental factors as well as knowledge and attitude will be covered in detail in this stud. The major source of energy, amount of energy consumed at rural household level and perceived benefits of the improved biomass cook stove technology; the contribution to carbon emission reduction also cover. The limitation of the study is one; accurate measurement of fuel wood consumption in rural households may be difficult. Second, there is no developed emission factor for GHG emission inventory in Ethiopia. Therefore, the IPCC default emission factors will be used.
1.7. Organization of the paper
This document is organized into four chapters. The first chapter, introduction, includes background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives, research questions, and significance and scope of the study. The second chapter consists of literature review related to this study. The Third chapter encompasses research methodology, includes study area description, sampling procedure, methods of data collection and data analysis. And the fourth chapter holds up budget and timetable required for this study.