1.1.3. Tipología
En administración general podemos definir dos tipos claros:

1.1.3.1. La administración pública.
Fernando Fernández en su libro “Dirección y Organización de Empresas”, pública y privada define: “La administración pública es un sistema que tiene por objeto dirigir y coordinar la actividad del Estado hacia los objetivos que se ha propuesto para beneficio del país”.

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1.1.3.1. La administración privada.
Fernando Fernández define que “La administración o empresa privada es el sistema que tiene por fin dirigir y coordinar la actividad de grupos humanos con otros sistemas mayores, hacia objetivos comunes que creen riquezas asegurando la satisfacción de las necesidades humanas y la obtención de beneficios para la empresa e indirectamente para toda la comunidad”. Es decir que el fin esencial de la empresa privada es lograr un beneficio para asegurar su permanencia y su crecimiento

1.1.4. Procesos
Un proceso es un conjunto de actividades hasta conseguir un objetivo, existen 4 etapas bien definidas en el proceso administrativo:

1.1.4.1. Planeación
En cada uno de estas etapas existen tareas o actividades a considerarse antes de ir a la siguiente etapa, por ejemplo, en la etapa de planeación tenemos:

• Fijar un objetivo
• Analizar situación actual del ejecutor
• Elaborar políticas a seguirse

1.1.4.2. Organización
En la organización es la asignación de los recursos tanto económicos como humanos, diseño de la estructura a aplicarse para obtener el objetivo deseado.

1.1.4.3. Dirección
La misión principal de la dirección es la delegación y distribución de tareas y recursos respectivamente, el comunicar estas tareas o establecer mecanismos de supervisión de uso de los recursos antes mencionados

1.1.4.4. Control
Establecer parámetros de medición de uso de recursos y resultados en base a datos previos, teniendo en cuenta lo siguiente:
Medir-analizar- comprobar.
En donde se deba tomar datos de lo realizado en un periodo de tiempo, analizar los datos de una forma científica y comprobar la valides de los datos.

1.1.5. Metodología de la administración
Para la administración de proyectos se tiene bien definidas tres metodologías que son las más aplicadas:

1.1.5.1. Diagramas de Gantt.
El diagrama de Gantt le debe su nombre al ingeniero norteamericano Henry L Gantt, uno de los pioneros de la administración científica, una de sus contribuciones fue la elaboración de los diagrama de Gantt el mismo que consiste en representar gráficamente cada una de las actividades de acorde a la distribución de tiempo, generando de esta manera un diagrama en X , Y, este instrumento es la representación gráfica del progreso del proyecto, el mismo que sirve como guía para las personas involucradas en el proyecto.

1.1.5.2. CPM (critical path method) método de la ruta crítica
El método de la ruta crítica fue desarrollado en USA, por la firma Dupont, para mediante la aplicación optimizar los tiempos y costos en la ejecución de sus proyectos.

En el caso puntual de nuestro objeto de estudio una obra de construcción, es necesario contar con una herramienta que, a través de la representación gráfica, se pueda incorporar todas las tareas del proyecto; especificando el tipo de relación entre una y otra, así como su duración.

La herramienta precisa es el método CPM, o del camino critico es un conjunto de operaciones sistemáticas que nos permiten el cálculo de tiempos y plazos en la planificación del proyecto en ejecución. Tiene como objetivo principal el determinar cuánto durara el proyecto, donde cada una de las actividades o tareas tienen un tiempo estimado de duración y la duración total del proyecto es la suma de tiempos de las actividades que se las denomina críticas, las otras que no representan critica se las define como holguras.

La importancia de este método en el caso de estudio es determinar la duración más aproximada de las tareas y a través de ese tiempo preestablecido, gestionar los recursos involucrados en la obra.

1.1.5.3. Método de la cadena critica
El Método de la Cadena Crítica es la más reciente de todas las metodologías para la gestión de proyectos, sin embargo, la más aplaudida por sus excelentes resultados en cuanto a la gestión de proyectos. Está especialmente indicado para proyectos complejos por su cualidad de simplificar el seguimiento y control a ejercer. Los aspectos más destacables de esta técnica son:
• Facilita el establecimiento de prioridades y la toma de decisiones.
• Garantiza una efectiva protección de proyecto.
• Su funcionamiento se basa en la detección de las actividades que marcan la duración máxima del proyecto, que pasan a ser consideradas como actividades críticas.

Para lograr la eficiencia se reducen los plazos estimados para la consecución de las actividades, según la planificación inicial y, en su lugar, se establecen amortiguadores de tiempo que se sitúan en puntos estratégicos.

Pueden distinguirse tres tipos de amortiguadores (de proyecto, de alimentación y de recurso), cada uno de los cuales cuenta con una función de protección distinta, siendo todas ellas complementarias y necesarias.

La forma de controlar el desarrollo del proyecto se reduce a monitorizar la velocidad de consumo de los buffers y tomar las acciones necesarias cuando convenga.

1. The second leading cause of death in women is Breast cancer.
2. It is a common myth that breast cancer is diagnosed only in women, men also suffer from breast cancer.
3. Research shows that the women’s first health fear is breast cancer.
4. The number of breast cancer patients are more in developed countries.
5. 70% of breast cancer patients have no family history of breast cancer.
6. After 40 years the chances of breast cancer increase very much.
7. Regular mammogram after the 40s helps to reduce the number of deaths due to breast cancer.
8. Breastfeeding for a year reduces the chances of breast cancer.
9. Obesity is also one of the main factors, obese women have 1.5 times more chances of getting cancer than slim women.
10. On an average 112 women die every day due to breast cancer.
11. Left breast is more prone to breast cancer than the right one.
12. Hormone Replacement Therapy for more than five years increases the chances of breast cancer.
13. About 70% of women diagnosed with breast cancer have no risk factors at all.
14. 5%-10% of breast cancer cases have the mutation in genes BRCA1 and BRCA2.
15. Alcohol consumption increases the chances of breast cancer.
16. The U.S. spends about $1 billion for research on breast cancer.
17. The common risk factors are obesity, diabetes mellitus, breast trauma, late first childbirth, refusal of breastfeeding, smoking, alcohol abuse and even work at night!
18. You can decrease the chances of breast cancer by changing the lifestyle.
19. It is a myth that for breast cancer woman have to undergo a mastectomy. If you have an early diagnosis of breast cancer then lumpectomy is performed.
20. Survival rate after treatment is increased by 75% to 82% in last five years.
21. Self-screening really helps women to detect cancer at the very early stage.
22. If you see any deformation, lump, pain, around the nipple or on any part of breast then it should not be neglected.
23. Since 1990 the rate of breast cancer is increased by 25% in U.K.
24. October is the month of breast cancer awareness.
25. Pink color ribbon symbolizes breast cancer awareness.
26. Regular exercise reduces the chances of breast cancer.
27. Breast cancer is more common in white women then African-Americans.
28. Most of the time cancer starts from the Left upper quadrant of the breast.
29. Approximately every 29 seconds a woman is diagnosed with breast cancer.
30. In every 13 minutes, a woman dies due to breast cancer.
31. When Angelina Jolie was treated for breast cancer, women became more aware of getting screenings for breast cancer.
32. Pain in breast not always means breast cancer, it can be due to hormonal changes.
33. Breast cancer was the first type of cancer described by ancient physicians.
34. More than 1 million cases of breast cancer are diagnosed worldwide every year.
35. 5-10% of patients with breast cancer have genetic factors.
36. Using antipersistent, wearing underwire bras do not cause breast cancer.
37. Genetic predisposition is transmitted both from the maternal and paternal side.
38. The youngest patient with breast cancer was 3 years old. She underwent a procedure of total mastectomy.
39. Three out of four women develop breast cancer over the age of 50.
40. Women of Ashkenazi Jewish heritage have a high risk of having the BRCA mutation.
41. About 400 men die of breast cancer every year in the world.
42. In one of 3,000 cases of breast cancer, this disease was diagnosed in a pregnant or lactating woman.
43. There was a theory that abortion or miscarriage is risk factors for breast cancer, but today’s studies do not confirm such theories.
44. On an average, worldwide survivors of breast cancer are 60% of all cases.
45. Hippocrates also described breast cancer in his era. He called this disease karkinos – crab.
46. It is a myth that small breasts size has a lesser risk for breast cancer development.
47. Breast cancer survivors are probably the highest cancer survivors in the world.
48. Drinking coffee increases the chances of breast cancer is a myth. There is no proven theory about it.
49. Breast cancer survivor has a high risk of osteoporosis.
50. Belgium has the highest cases of breast cancer.

1. Introduction and Organization Chart
Nestle S.A. is being investigated inside this paper and extra particularly how the enterprise’s operational strategies are finished in direction for Nestle to acquire but also sustain aggressive advantage inside the market. As it may be visible from beneath, a complete and well-organized evaluation is furnished emphasizing the company’s four major operational management pillars of operation strategy, process design, capacity planning and total quality management (TQM). It is being tested from the analysis that Nestle S.A. is presently following and imposing numerous competent operation strategies that have certainly contributed to the dominant market role nestle holds towards its competition inside the industry.
1.1. Nestle S.A. – Brief business profile
The selected multinational associate for seeking the report is Nestlé S.A, which is a Swiss multinational food and drink company where it was founded more than 150 years ago. Henri Nestlé was a founder and a German pharmacist, launched his Farine Lactée, a combination of cow’s milk, wheat flour and sugar, saving the life of a neighbour’s child. Nutrition has been the cornerstone of the company ever since 1866. It is the world’s largest food and beverage company, measured by revenues. The business does 98.59% of revenue outside of Switzerland. Growth accelerated and companies were acquired. At present the company operates in 86 countries around the world and employs around 283,000 manpower’s.

1.Explain the concept of rational expectations. How does this view on how expectation is formed differ from the assumption that workers formed expectations of current and future price levels based on past information about prices?
Rational expectations assume that people learn from past mistakes. Implications for economic policy. The impact of expansionary fiscal policy will be different if people change their behavior because they expect the policy to have a certain outcome. For example, if expansionary fiscal policy causes inflation last year, they will factor this into future expectations. Therefore, in the second year, if the government pursue more fiscal stimulus, unemployment may not fall at all, because people immediately adjust their inflation expectations in response to government policy.
The reason why expectation is formed from assumption is differ from formed expectations of current and future price levels based on past information about prices is because of historical data on the variable of interest has been found to be less logically satisfactory than alternative assumptions that have formed the basis of the competing hypothesis of rational expectations. Besides, value of the expectation/ coefficient may differ for various group of economic agents, individual and over time. In addition, expectation may lag actual when there change in trend. Changes in trend of a variable of interest may emanate from the behavior of related variable that affected by broader factors such as recent global financial crisis. Those, expected value not only depend on its own past values but also together with past, present and expected values of others related variable.
2. Compare the effect of expansionary monetary policy between the new Classical and Keynesian on output and employment.

KEYNESIAN
In Keynesian view, it is assuming that money wage is flexible, and labor supply (Ns) is assuming to depend on the expected real wage (W/Pe).

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Expansionary monetary policy such as increase in money supply shift AD curve to the right from (AD to AD1 and AD2). These cause output rise from (Y0 to Y1 to Y2) and rise in employment from (N0 to N1 to N2) as well as price level rise from (P0 to P1 to P2). As employment increase, the unemployment rate will reduce. This induce the increase in money wage from (W0 to W1 to W2)
As increase in Ad cause rise in price level then other variable remain equal, the fasters the growth in Ad cause higher rate in inflation. Keynesian model implies that their trade-off between inflation and unemployment.

As Philip curve explain that the more quickly AD growth, the large rightward shift in AD, and other variable being equal, the faster rate of growth in output and employment. For given labor force, unemployment rate will be lower the as the fasters rate of growth in AD.
Increase in the money supply leads to an increase in employment and output in the short- run, until labor supplier correctly perceives the increase in price level that result from expansionary monetary policy action. Keynesian view that expectation about price are backward-looking so increase in money supply will affect output and employment.
NEW CLASSICAL
In the new classical model, it is assuming that people are behave on rational expectation. Rational expectations imply that the workings of the economy are understood, and that fiscal and monetary policy will be anticipated rendering the policy ineffective. Where there is adequate information, people form beliefs about the economic future that are reasonably accurate. Based on their judgments, people adjust their economic behavior accordingly. As labor market were very competitive, new information is quickly absorbed. These variables expected include level on money supply, (Me), government spending (Ge), tax collection (Te), autonomous investment (Ie) and other possible variables.

Initially, assume aggregate demand (AD), aggregate supply (AS), labor demand (Nd) and labor supply (Ns) with actual and expected variable is zero with output (Y0), employment (N0), money wage (W0) and price level (P0).

When there is expansionary in monetary policy, there will be an increase in money supply and shift the AD to the right from AD(M0) to AD(M1). These changes also cause output rise from Y0 to Y’1 and rise in price level from P0 to P’1. With the rise in price, labor demand (Nd) would shift to the right from Nd(P0) to Nd(P’1). Increase in price also will increase money wage from W0 to W’1. New equilibrium moves from point A to B.

However, because the increase in money supply was anticipated, there would also increase in the expected money supply because of rational expectation. Labor supplier know that the inflationary effect occurs because of the increase in money supply. This instance cause labor supply (Ns) and AS shifting to the left to Ns (Me 1) and AS (Me1).
As decline in AS, it put further upward pressure on the price level and labor demand shift to Nd (P’1). The new equilibrium at point C where output and employment return to their initial level at Y0, N0 respectively with price level permanently higher at P1 and money wage W1.
New Classical believed that anticipated changes in the money supply do not affect real output and employment in the labor market because people assume have perfect information. With these information, people form rational expectation on upcoming events in the future so economic agents will adjust quickly to eliminate shortages and surpluses in the market.

When increase in the money supply is unanticipated due to monetary surprise, increase in money supply shift AD from Ad (M0) to AD(M1). As price level rises to P’1, labor demand also shifts to the right to Nd(P’1). As money supply is unanticipated, it does not affect the labor supplier’s expectation. Price level will take place in current period, so the labor supply does not shift. These cause changes in output and employment which output rise from Y0 to Y1 and employment will also rise from N0 to N1 and money wage rise to W’1. New equilibrium moves from A to B.